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1.  Comparative Effects of Verapamil, Nicardipine, and Nitroglycerin on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury 
The aim of this experiment was to establish whether verapamil, nicardipine, and nitroglycerin have (1) infarct size-limiting effects and (2) antiarrhythmic effects in in vivo rabbit hearts during ischemia/reperfusion. Rabbits received regional ischemia by 30 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 hours of reperfusion under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia. The animals were randomly assigned to the following 4 treatment groups: a control group, a verapamil group, a nicardipine group, and a nitroglycerin group. A continuous infusion of verapamil, nicardipine, or nitroglycerin was initiated 5 min prior to ischemia. Infarct size/area at risk decreased in verapamil, and nitroglycerin. The incidence of ischemia-induced arrhythmia decreased in nicardipine, verapamil and nitroglycerin. The incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias decreased in verapamil and nitroglycerin. From the present experimental results, verapamil and nitroglycerin rather than nicardipine did afford significant protection to the heart subjected to ischemia and reperfusion in a rabbit model.
PMCID: PMC3049342  PMID: 21403860
2.  Application of Gum Elastic Bougie to Nasal Intubation 
Anesthesia Progress  2010;57(3):112-113.
Gum elastic bougie (GEB), a useful device for difficult airway management, has seldom been used for nasotracheal intubation. Among 632 patients undergoing dental procedures or oral surgery, GEB was used successfully in 16 patients in whom conventional nasal intubation had failed because of anatomical problems or maldirection of the tip of the tracheal tube. We recommend that GEB should be applied from the first attempt for nasal intubation in patients with difficult airways.
PMCID: PMC3315278  PMID: 20843227
Gum elastic bougie; Nasal intubation; Difficult intubation

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