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author:("Yu, xiaoming")
1.  Multilevel and Spatial–Time Trend Analyses of the Prevalence of Hypertension in a Large Urban City in the USA 
We aimed to test two hypotheses that (1) there were significant variations in the prevalence of hypertension (HBP) across neighborhoods in the city of Philadelphia and (2) these variations were significantly explained by the variations in the neighborhood physical and socioeconomic environment (PSE). We used data from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Surveys in 2002–2004 (study period 1, n = 8,567), and in 2008–2010 (period 2, n = 8,747). An index of neighborhood PSE was constructed using multiple specific measures. The associations of HBP with PSE at the neighborhood level and other risk factors at the individual level were examined using multilevel regression analysis. The results show that age-adjusted prevalence of HBP increased from 30.33 to 33.04 % from study periods 1 to 2 (p < 0.001). An estimate of 44 and 53 % of the variations in the prevalence of HBP could be explained by the variations in neighborhood PSE in study periods 1 and 2, respectively. In conclusion, prevalence of HBP significantly increased from 2002–2004 to 2008–2010. Individuals living in neighborhoods with disadvantaged PSE have significantly higher risk of the prevalence of HBP.
doi:10.1007/s11524-013-9815-x
PMCID: PMC3853175  PMID: 23897041
Hypertension; Neighborhood environment; Urban health; Multilevel models
2.  Effect of green tea consumption on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6251.
The studies investigating the effects of green tea on blood pressure (BP) have generated inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the effects of green tea on BP control. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March 2014) were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of green tea on BP. Pooled effect of green tea consumption on BP was evaluated using fixed-effects or random-effects model. Thirteen trials comprising a total of 1,367 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The overall outcome of the meta-analysis suggested that green tea consumption significantly decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) level by −1.98 mmHg (95% CI: −2.94, −1.01 mmHg; P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, green tea also showed a significant lowering effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in treatment group (−1.92 mmHg; 95% CI: −3.17, −0.68 mmHg; P = 0.002). Subgroup analyses further suggested that the positive effect of green tea polyphenols on BP was only showed in studies using a low-dose green tea polyphenol, with the long-term intervention duration or ruling out the confounding effects of caffeine. The meta-analysis suggested that green tea consumption had a favorable effect on decrease of BP.
doi:10.1038/srep06251
PMCID: PMC4150247  PMID: 25176280
3.  Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(1):248-254.
The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 μgmL−1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 μgmL−1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 μgmL−1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822014005000036
PMCID: PMC4059306  PMID: 24948941
Trichoderma brevicompactum; garlic; endophytic fungus; Trichodermin; antifungal activity
4.  Real-Time Tracking by Double Templates Matching Based on Timed Motion History Image with HSV Feature 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:793769.
It is a challenge to represent the target appearance model for moving object tracking under complex environment. This study presents a novel method with appearance model described by double templates based on timed motion history image with HSV color histogram feature (tMHI-HSV). The main components include offline template and online template initialization, tMHI-HSV-based candidate patches feature histograms calculation, double templates matching (DTM) for object location, and templates updating. Firstly, we initialize the target object region and calculate its HSV color histogram feature as offline template and online template. Secondly, the tMHI-HSV is used to segment the motion region and calculate these candidate object patches' color histograms to represent their appearance models. Finally, we utilize the DTM method to trace the target and update the offline template and online template real-timely. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently handle the scale variation and pose change of the rigid and nonrigid objects, even in illumination change and occlusion visual environment.
doi:10.1155/2014/793769
PMCID: PMC3921993  PMID: 24592185
5.  Selective Anti-Proliferation of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells by Anthocyanins Identified by High-Throughput Screening 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81586.
Overexpressed Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drives the biology of 20% breast cancer and is a prediction of a poor prognosis for patients. HER2-targeted therapies significantly improve outcomes for HER2-positive patients. Traditional Chinese herbs/medicines have been used to treat breast cancer patients including HER2-positive patients in Asia for decades. Although the traditional medicines demonstrate efficacy in clinics for HER2-positive patients, the mechanism is largely unknown. In this article, we screened a 10,000 natural product library in 6 different cell lines representing breast cancer, and assessed the ability of each drug to cause cytotoxicity through a high-throughput screening approach. We have identified eight natural compounds that selectively inhibit the proliferation of HER2-positive cells. Two of the hit compounds, peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside, are both extracts from black rice. They inhibit the phospho-HER2 and phospho-AKT and were confirmed to induce HER2-psotive breast cancer cells apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside treatments significantly reduced the tumor size and volume in vivo compared to the control group. There is no significant difference of antitumorgenic effects between peonidin-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3-glucoside treatments.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081586
PMCID: PMC3849376  PMID: 24312561
6.  Black rice anthocyanidins prevent retinal photochemical damage via involvement of the AP-1/NF-κB/Caspase-1 pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(3):345-353.
The effects of black rice anthocyanidins (BRACs) on retinal damage induced by photochemical stress are not well known. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-93M for 1 week, after which 80 rats were randomly divided into two groups and treated with (n = 40) or without BRACs (n = 40) for 15 days, respectively. After treatment, both groups were exposed to fluorescent light (3,000 ± 200 lux; 25℃), and the protective effect of dietary BRACs were evaluated afterwards. Our results showed that dietary BRACs effectively prevented retinal photochemical damage and inhibited the retinal cells apoptosis induced by fluorescent light (p < 0.05). Moreover, dietary BRACs inhibited expression of AP-1 (c-fos/c-jun subunits), up-regulated NF-κB (p65) expression and phosphorylation of IκB-α, and decreased Caspase-1 expression (p < 0.05). These results suggest that BRACs improve retinal damage produced by photochemical stress in rats via AP-1/NF-κB/Caspase-1 apoptotic mechanisms.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2013.14.3.345
PMCID: PMC3788161  PMID: 23820171
apoptosis; black rice anthocyanidins; Caspase-1; photochemical damage; retina
7.  Purification and crystallization of Cor a 9, a major hazelnut allergen 
The major hazelnut allergen Cor a 9 was purified from the natural source and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source.
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is one of the food sources that induce allergic reaction in a subpopulation of people with food allergy. The 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut has been identified as one of the major hazelnut allergens and named Cor a 9. In this study, Cor a 9 was extracted from hazelnut kernels using a high-salt solution and was purified by desalting out and FPLC to a highly purified state. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and a structure solution has been obtained by molecular-replacement calculations. Further refinement of the structure is currently in progress.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108039894
PMCID: PMC2628846  PMID: 19153454
hazelnuts; 11S seed-storage proteins; food allergies; tree-nut allergens

Results 1-7 (7)