Primary prostate sarcomas are a rare type of prostate cancer that account for less than 0.1% of primary prostate malignancies. We analyzed the experience of a single institution with prostate sarcoma over 20 years.
Materials and Methods
In this case series, the medical records of 20 patients with prostate sarcoma were reviewed from June 1990 to December 2013 to identify symptoms at presentation, diagnostic procedures, metastasis presence and development, histologic subtype, French Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer grade, primary tumor grade and size, and treatment sequence, including surgery and preoperative and postoperative therapies. The average follow-up period was 23.6 months (range, 1.4-83.3 months).
The average patient age was 46.3±16.7 years. Most patients presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (55%). The histologic subtype was spindle cell sarcoma in five patients (25%), rhabdomyosarcoma in three patients (15%), synovial sarcoma in three patients (15%), liposarcoma in three patients (15%), stromal sarcoma in three patients (15%), and Ewing sarcoma, nerve sheath tumor, and adenocarcinoma with sarcomatoid component (5% each). For liposarcoma, two patients were alive after complete surgical resection and had a good prognosis. At last follow-up, 15 patients had died of sarcoma. The 2- and 5-year actuarial survival rates for all 20 patients were 53% and 12%, respectively (medial survival, 20 months).
The disease-specific survival rate of prostate sarcoma is poor. However, sarcoma that is detected early shows a better result with proper management including surgical intervention with radio-chemotherapy than with no treatment. Early diagnosis and complete surgical resection offer patients the best curative chance.
Liposarcoma; Prostate; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Sarcoma
Purpose: We aimed to investigate the correlations between the expression of VEGF, PDGF-B, and their receptors (VEGFR2 and PDGFR-β) with pathologic stage or cell type in non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: VEGF, VEGFR2, PDGF-B, and PDGFR-β protein expression were evaluated immunohistochemically in prospectively collected 1,423 tumour samples obtained during radical or partial nephrectomy at a tertiary referral center. Intensity of expression was quantified on a scale of 0 to 3, and was compared among renal cell carcinoma cell types. Results: The study cohort consisted of 1,091 patients, of mean age 54 years, including 968 (88.7%) with clear cell, 82 (7.5%) with papillary, 31 (2.8%) with chromophobe, 4 (0.4%) with unclassified, and 6 (0.5%) with other types of renal cell carcinoma. VEGF expression increased with higher T and N stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade. PDGFR-β expression was highest in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, whereas VEGF and PDGF-B expression were highest in papillary renal cell carcinoma. After adjusting for T stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade using multivariate logistic regression analysis, VEGF (OR = 3.57, P < 0.001), VEGFR2 (OR = 1.82, P = 0.017), and PDGF-B (OR = 2.46, P = 0.019) expression were significantly greater in papillary than in clear cell type. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, PDGF-B, and PDGFR-β in RCC tumour cells is different in various pathologic stage and cell type. Notably, VEGF and PDGF-B expression are higher in papillary than in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Further studies using quantitative measurement of proangiogenic factors in tumour cell are needed.
Carcinoma; renal cell; vascular endothelial growth factor A; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2
Background and Objectives:
Studies of patients with benign pathologic lesions who underwent laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) with preoperative suspicion of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma are lacking. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate the incidence of benign pathologic lesions on laparoscopic RNU for upper urinary tract tumors that are presumed to be urothelial carcinoma. The clinicopathologic characteristics of these lesions were also determined.
Between January 2004 and December 2010, 244 patients underwent laparoscopic RNU for possible upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma at our institute. Seven (2.9%) had benign lesions at the final pathologic examination. The preoperative features of these patients were investigated, including imaging findings, urine cytologic results, and ureteroscopic findings.
The 7 patients comprised 5 men and 2 women. The lesions were located in the ureter in 5 patients and in the renal pelvis in 2. All patients underwent preoperative voided urine cytology and cystoscopy. Two patients underwent preoperative ureteroscopy. In 1 patient, definite pathologic lesions were not identified in the surgical specimen. Urinary tract tuberculosis was diagnosed in 1 patient, inflammatory pseudotumor in 2, and fibroepithelial polyps in 1. In 2 patients, stones were detected (stone with atypical papillary urothelial hyperplasia and polypoid ureteritis with ureter stone, respectively) after laparoscopic RNU.
Benign pathologic lesions were detected in 7 patients (2.9%) who had undergone laparoscopic RNU for upper urinary tract tumors that were presumed to be urothelial carcinoma. The description of these false-positive cases will help improve the preoperative counseling of these patients.
Benign; Nephroureterectomy; Upper urinary tract; Urothelial carcinoma
Cell therapies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential in many research and clinical settings. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSCs have been studied previously and the paracrine effects elicited by their production of various growth factors and cytokines were recognized as being crucial. However, the molecular controls that govern these paracrine effects remain poorly understood. To elucidate the molecular regulators of this process, we performed a global knockdown of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) by inhibiting DGCR8, a key protein in miRNA biogenesis. Global disruption of miRNA biogenesis in hADSCs caused dramatic changes in the expression of subsets of growth factors and cytokines. By performing an extensive bioinformatic analysis, we were able to associate numerous putative miRNAs with these genes. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that miRNAs are essential for the production of growth factors and cytokines in hADSCs. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 469-474]
Cytokines; DGCR8; Growth factors; Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell; MicroRNA
To compare the outcomes of nephron-sparing options (e.g., partial nephrectomy [PN]) and low-surgical-morbidity options (e.g., radical nephrectomy [RN]) in elderly patients with limited life expectancy.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent RN (n=82) or PN (n=53) for clinical T1 stage renal masses between January 2000 and December 2012. Clinicopathologic data were thoroughly analyzed and compared between the RN and PN groups. The modification of diet in renal disease equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration. Overall survival and cardiac events were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling.
Over a median follow-up period of 59.72 months, 17 patients (20.7%) in the RN group and 3 patients (5.7%) in the PN group died. Chronic kidney disease (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed more frequently in RN patients than in PN patients (75.6% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate did not differ significantly between the RN and PN groups (90.7% vs. 93.8%; p=0.158). According to the multivariate analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index score was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.679, p=0.037). Type of nephrectomy was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 2.447; p=0.167) or cardiac events (HR, 1.147; p=0.718).
Although chronic kidney disease was lower after PN, overall survival and cardiac events were similar regardless of type of nephrectomy.
Aged; Cardiovascular diseases; Kidney; Mortality; Nephrectomy
The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience using radical cystectomy to treat patients with bladder cancer and to describe the associations between pathologic features and clinical outcomes. All 701 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer were evaluated. The patient population consisted of 623 men and 78 women. The overall 5 and 10 yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 61.8% and 57.7%, respectively, and the 5 and 10 yr cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 70.8% and 65.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that factors significantly predictive of RFS and CSS included extravesical extension (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007). The 5 and 10 yr RFS rates for patients with lymph node metastasis were 25.6% and 20.8%, respectively, and the 5 and 10 yr CSS rates were 38.6% and 30.9%, respectively. Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved RFS (P = 0.002) and CSS (P = 0.001) in patients with lymph node metastasis. Radical cystectomy provides good survival results in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Pathologic features significantly associated with prognosis include extravesical extension, node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with advanced stage disease.
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Cystectomy; Prognosis
The objective was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of prostate cancer patients affected by other primary malignancies.
Materials and Methods
From 1990 to 2008, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,317 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. We assessed the effect of other primary malignancies on clinicopathological features, biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS).
Of 1,317 patients, at least one additional other primary malignancy was detected in 187 patients (14.2%). A comparison of patient groups according to the presence or absence of other primary malignancies showed no significant differences in preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations, pathological Gleason scores, or pathological staging. Prostate cancer patients with other primary malignancies were older than patients without other primary malignancies (p<0.001). No significant differences in 5-year BCR-free survival (80.2% compared with 77.7%; p=0.656) or CSS (98.9% compared with 98.5%; p=0.733) were found between these groups, respectively. Five-year OS was significantly lower in prostate cancer patients with than in those without other primary malignancies (89.3% compared with 95.4%; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that other primary malignancies diagnosed after RP for prostate cancer were independent predictors of OS (hazard ratio, 4.10; p<0.001) but not of BCR-free survival or CSS. Conversely, other primary malignancies diagnosed before RP for prostate cancer did not independently predict BCR-free survival, OS, or CSS.
Prostate cancer prognosis after RP is not dependent on the presence or absence of other primary malignancies. However, other primary malignancies diagnosed after RP for prostate cancer negatively affect OS.
Neoplasms; Prognosis; Prostate; Recurrence
In radical prostatectomy (RP) procedures, sparing the neurovascular bundles adjacent to the posterolateral aspect of the prostatic fascia has often been suggested as a possible risk factor for positive surgical margins. Here we aimed to quantify the probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) at the posterolateral side of the prostate to aid in nerve-sparing decision making.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated 472 patients who underwent RP between July 2007 and January 2012. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. We analyzed 944 side-specific prostate lobes with preoperative variables. To quantify the risk of side-specific posterolateral ECE after RP, we developed a risk-stratification scoring system through logistic regression analysis.
Overall, 20.6% of 944 prostate lobes had ECE. In the multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason score ≥7, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI were independent predictive factors of posterolateral ECE. On internal and external validation to calculate the predicted risk, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed good calibration (p=0.396).
PSA, biopsy Gleason score, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI are independent predictors of posterolateral ECE. The scoring system derived from this study will provide objective parameters for use when deciding if the neurovascular bundle can be safely spared.
Magnetic resonance imaging; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms
To compare the complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) with those of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) performed by a single surgeon for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
The postoperative complications of 341 patients who underwent RRP and 524 patients who underwent RALP for prostate cancer at the Asan Medical Center between July 2007 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system.
RALP was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (mean, 7.9 days vs. 10.1 days, p<0.001) and duration of urethral catheterization (6.2 days vs. 7.5 days, p<0.001) than RRP. Major complications (Clavien grade III-IV) were less common in the RALP group than in the RRP group (3.4% vs. 7.6%, p=0.006). There were no significant differences in medical complications between procedures. Considering surgical complications, urinary retention (7.0% vs. 2.7%, p=0.002) and wound repair (4.1% vs. 0.2%, p<0.001) were more common after RRP than after RALP. Extravasation of contrast medium during cystography was more common in the RRP group than in the RALP group (10.0% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001).
RALP is associated with a lower complication rate than RRP.
Complications; Prostate; Prostate neoplasms; Prostatectomy
There are concerns whether megestrol acetate (MA) stimulates the growth of prostate cancer in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We evaluated the effect of cumulative doses of MA on the disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with CRPC who were receiving Docetaxel-based chemotherapy. From July 2003 through June 2009, we identified 109 consecutive patients with CRPC and who had received docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Of these patients, 68 (62.4%) have not received MA, whereas 21 patients (19.3%) and 20 patients (18.3%) had received low dose MA (total ≤ 18,400 mg) and high dose MA (total > 18,400 mg), respectively. We assessed the effect of several variables on DSS. None of the clinicopathological variables differed among the three groups. When comparing DSS using Kaplan-Meier analysis, there was no statistically significant survival differences among the three groups (P = 0.546). Using multivariate Cox proportional analyses with backward elimination, the number of docetaxel cycles was only significant factor predicting DSS (HR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.318-0.923, P = 0.016). Cumulative doses of MA as adjuvant treatment for patients with CRPC and who are receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy, did not affect their DSS. Therefore, MA can be safely administered in cachexic patients with CRPC.
Cachexia; Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Docetaxel; Megestrol Acetate; Survival
To develop a nomogram using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-derived information for predicting high grade (HG) prostate cancer (PCa) on initial biopsy.
Data were collected on 1,048 men with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels 4.0 to 9.9 ng/mL who underwent an initial prostate biopsy. Two logistic regression-based nomograms were constructed to predict the detection of PCa. Nomogram-1 incorporated age, digital rectal examination, PSA and percent free PSA data, whereas nomogram-2 incorporated those factors plus TRUS-derived information (i.e., prostate volume and the presence of hypoechoic lesions). The prediction of any PCa and HGPCa (Gleason score≥7) were determined. Twenty percent of the data were randomly reserved for study validation, and the predictive accuracies of the two nomograms were directly compared.
Of the 1,048 men who underwent biopsy, 216 (20.6%) were found to have any PCa, and 97 (9.3%) were found to have HGPCa. All six risk factors were found to be independent predictors for both any PCa and HGPCa. The area under curve (AUC) for nomogram-2 was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.81) for predicting any PCa, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.88) for predicting HGPCa. These AUCs were greater than those for nomogram-1 (0.72 [95% CI, 0.68 to 0.76 for any PCa; P<0.001], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.72 to 0.83 for HGPCa; P<0.001]). Removing the TRUS-derived information from nomogram-2 resulted in an incremental AUC decrease of 0.052 for any PCa and 0.063 for HGPCa.
The nomogram using TRUS-derived information had a high predictive accuracy for HGPCa on initial prostate biopsy.
Prostatic neoplasms; Biopsy; Nomograms; Ultrasonography
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate (>50% PSA decline in pretreatment PSA following chemotherapy) carries a significant survival advantage in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We compared PSA response rates in first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy after failure of previous chemotherapy according to chemotherapeutic agents.
We retrospectively evaluated the oncological outcomes and PSA response rates of 384 patients with CRPC, who were treated with chemotherapy and had histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate with failure after androgen ablation therapy between 1991 and 2012, at Asan Medical Center.
In 384 eligible patients, the median age was 67.5 years. The median pretreatment PSA and initial Gleason scores at baseline were 92.4 ng/mL (range, 2.0 to 6,370 ng/mL) and 9 (range, 6 to 10), respectively. The time from first diagnosis of prostate cancer to CRPC was 23 months (range, 1 to 164 months). As first-line chemotherapy, 245 patients (63.8%) received estramustine, 91 (23.7%) received docetaxel, and 39 (10.2%) received mitoxantrone. The PSA response rates were 39.6%, 51.6%, and 46.2%, respectively. Of 169 patients with second-line chemotherapy, estramustine was 15 (8.9%), docetaxel was 84 (49.7%), and mitoxantrone was 52 (30.8%). PSA response rates were 57.1%, 52%, and 28.0%, respectively. Of 81 patients with third-line chemotherapy, estramustine was 18 (22.2%), docetaxel was 16 (19.8%), and mitoxantrone was 28 (34.6%). The PSA response rates were 41.2%, 53.8%, and 11.1%, respectively. Declines in serum PSA levels of at least 50% occurred more frequently after treatment with docetaxel than with other chemo-agents regardless of second-and third-line chemotherapy. Even in third-line chemothrapy, docetaxel maintained the PSA response rate, whereas the PSA response rate of other agents, including mitoxantrone, decreased in patients in whom prior therapy failed.
Docetacel was the most effective chemotherapeutic agent in second- and third-line trials of chemotherapy in Korean CRPC patients. Although docetaxel is not used as first-line chemotherapy, and new agents are not available for therapy in CRPC patients, we can consider docetaxel a second- or third-line chemotherapy in CRPC.
Castration refractory prostate cancer; Chemotherapy; Prostate-specific antigen
There are limited data on the role of limited pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in patients with prostate cancer in Korea. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our clinical experience with limited PLND and the difference in its yield between open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer patients in Korea.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 601 consecutive patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and bilateral limited PLND by either RRP (n=247) or RALP (n=354) in Asan Medical Center. All patients were divided into three groups according to the D'Amico's risk stratification method. Clinicopathologic data, including the yield of lymph nodes, were thoroughly reviewed and compared among the three risk groups or between the RRP and RALP subjects.
The mean patient age was 64.9 years and the mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen was 9.8 ng/ml. The median number of removed lymph nodes per patient was 5 (range, 0 to 20). The numbers of patients of each risk group were 167, 199, and 238, and the numbers of patients with tumor-positive lymph nodes were 1 (0.6%), 4 (2.0%), and 17 (7.1%) in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the high-risk group, the lymph node-positive ratio was higher in RRP (14.9%) than in RALP subjects (2.4%).
We speculate that limited PLND may help in prostate cancer staging in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer groups. RRP is a more effective surgical modality for PLND than is RALP, especially in high-risk prostate cancer groups.
Lymph node excision; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms
To investigate whether tumor aggressiveness in patients with prostate cancer has changed in Korea since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.
Materials and Methods
The data from 2,508 patients with pathologically confirmed prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy at Asan Medical Center between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. The patients were divided into four 3-year time series, and the changes between the groups in terms of serum PSA levels, pathological Gleason score (GS), and pathological stage were assessed. The change in GS over time in organ-confined disease and in patients whose PSA was below 10 ng/ml was also analyzed.
The mean PSA levels dropped significantly over the 12-year period (p<0.001). The frequency of organ-confined disease increased (55.7% vs. 64.7% vs. 62.9% vs. 63.5%, p=0.043). The frequency of patients with a GS of 8 or more decreased (38.9% vs. 25.7% vs. 18.2% vs. 19.7%) and the frequency of patients with a GS of 6 or less increased (15.0% vs. 18.9% vs. 26.7% vs. 18.2%, p=0.003). However, the vast majority (more than 70%) of all cases had a high GS (7 or greater) at all time points. The GS distribution did not change over time in patients whose PSA levels were below 10 ng/ml or in those who had organ-confined disease.
In 2000 to 2011, the preoperative PSA, pathological stage, and pathological GS dropped. However, the majority of the prostate cancers in Korean men were poorly differentiated, even when the patients had organ-confined disease or their PSA levels were less than 10 ng/ml.
Korea; Neoplasm grading; Prostatic neoplasms
To assess the validity of the 2009 TNM classification for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compare its ability to predict survival relative to the 2002 classification.
Materials and Methods
We identified 1,691 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for unilateral, sporadic RCC between 1989 and 2007. Cancer-specific survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and was compared among groups by the log-rank test. Associations of the 2002 and 2009 TNM classifications with death from RCC were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. The predictive abilities of the two classifications were compared by using Harrell's concordance (c) index.
There were 234 deaths from RCC a mean of 38 months after nephrectomy. According to the 2002 primary tumor classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 97.6% in T1a, 92.0% in T1b, 83.3% in T2, 61.9% in T3a, 51.1% in T3b, 40.0% in T3c, and 33.6% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). According to the 2009 classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 83.2% in T2a, 83.8% in T2b, 62.6% in T3a, 41.1% in T3b, 50.0% in T3c, and 26.1% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). The c index for the 2002 primary tumor classification was 0.810 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.906 in the multivariate analysis. The c index for the 2009 primary tumor classification was 0.808 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.904 in the multivariate analysis.
Our data suggest that the predictive ability the 2009 TNM classification is not superior to that of the 2002 classification.
Kidney neoplasms; Mortality; Neoplasm staging; Prognosis; Renal cell carcinoma
We compared the efficacy of radical cystectomy (RC) and non-RC treatment [transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) only, partial cystectomy, or TURB followed by radiotherapy] in octogenarians with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
Materials and Methods
A total of 177 patients aged 80 years or more underwent TURB at our institute, and 41 patients had MIBC according to the histologic examination. Fourteen patients with lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded, and 27 patients were ultimately included. Patients were stratified by treatment modality (RC vs. non-RC), Charlson Comorbidity Index (low CCI vs. high CCI), and clinical tumor stage (organ-confined disease vs. extravesical disease). The effects of several variables on cancer-specific and overall survival were assessed.
Of the 27 patients, 11 (41%) underwent RC and 16 (59%) underwent non-RC treatment. Patients in the RC group were younger and more likely to have low CCI scores. There were no significant differences in overall or cancer-specific survival in the RC and non-RC groups. Patients with clinically organ-confined disease had better survival outcomes than did those with extravesical disease. Stratification of patients by CCI indicated that overall survival was better in patients with low CCI scores (p=0.013), although cancer-specific survival was similar in the two CCI groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that clinical tumor stage and CCI were independently associated with overall survival.
RC in octogenarians with MIBC does not improve overall survival compared with other treatment modalities. However, clinically organ-confined disease and low CCI score were associated with better overall survival.
Aged; Comorbidity; Cystectomy; Urinary bladder neoplasms
High-risk localized prostate cancer traditionally includes patients with clinical T3 disease but also includes those with apparently localized disease but with adverse prognostic factors such as a Gleason score of 8 to 10, prostate-specific antigen of more than 20 ng/ml, or extensive disease on biopsy. In the past, these patients were treated primarily with radiation therapy due to concerns that surgery was not likely to be curative and was associated with a high incidence of side-effects. In addition, the lack of randomized trials comparing curative treatments for high-risk prostate cancer makes treatment decisions in this patient population difficult. Several retrospective series have reported the long-term efficacy of radical prostatectomy monotherapy in a high-risk population, showing that the 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was more than 80% and the 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was about 50%. In addition, comparisons of different treatment options by means of nonrandomized trials have shown improved outcomes with surgery compared with radiation therapy or observation. Thus, there is renewed interest in radical prostatectomy as the primary treatment for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Here, we reviewed the outcomes of radical prostatectomy, with or without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies, in high-risk patients and what is known about the choice and timing of adjuvant therapies.
Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Risk assessment