Fibrin pupillary-block glaucoma is a rare complication after cataract surgery. The treatment for this condition is still controversial, since Nd:YAG laser fibrin membranotomy tends to reocclude and laser peripheral iridotomy entails the risk of damaging the corneal endothelium in the presence of corneal edema associated with elevated intraocular pressure.
A 62-year-old man with diabetes mellitus developed acute elevation of intraocular pressure with a shallow anterior chamber five days after uneventful cataract surgery. Initially, slit lamp examination provided only limited information due to severe corneal edema. After resolution of corneal edema with systemic glaucoma therapy, a complete fibrin membrane was observed across the pupil by slit lamp examination. Anterior segment optic coherence tomography clearly revealed a thin fibrin membrane covering the entire pupillary space, a shallow anterior chamber, and a deep posterior chamber. The intraocular lens was not observed by anterior segment optic coherence tomography. In contrast, ultrasound biomicroscopy, which has superior penetration depth, was able to visualize the intraocular lens deep in the posterior chamber. Injection of tissue plasminogen activator into the anterior chamber resulted in complete fibrinolysis and released the pupillary block.
This case suggests that ocular anterior segment imaging modalities, especially ultrasound biomicroscopy, serve as powerful diagnostic tools to identify mechanisms of acute angle closure glaucoma, which is often accompanied by poor intraocular visibility. This is the first reported case of fibrin pupillary-block glaucoma after cataract surgery successfully treated with intracameral tissue plasminogen activator.
Pupillary block glaucoma; Fibrin membrane; Cataract surgery; Anterior segment imaging; Tissue plasminogen activator
Current genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression signature analysis using deep sequencing technologies can drive the discovery of novel cancer pathways regulated by oncogenic and/or tumor suppressive miRNAs. We determined the genome-wide miRNA expression signature in bladder cancer (BC) by deep sequencing technology. A total of ten small RNA libraries were sequenced (five BCs and five samples of histologically normal bladder epithelia (NBE)), and 13,190,619 to 18,559,060 clean small RNA reads were obtained. A total of 933 known miRNAs and 17 new miRNA candidates were detected in this analysis. Among the known miRNAs, a total of 60 miRNAs were significantly downregulated in BC compared with NBE. We also found that several miRNAs, such as miR-1/133a, miR-206/133b, let-7c/miR-99a, miR-143/145 and miR-195/497, were located close together at five distinct loci and constituted clustered miRNAs. Among these clustered miRNAs, we focused on the miR-195/497 cluster because this clustered miRNA had not been analyzed in BC. Transfection of mature miR-195 or miR-497 in two BC cell lines (BOY and T24) significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, suggesting that the miR-195/497 cluster functioned as tumor suppressors in BC. Regarding the genes targeted by the miR-195/497 cluster, the TargetScan algorithm showed that 6,730 genes were putative miR-195/497 targets, and 113 significantly enriched signaling pathways were identified in this analysis. The “Pathways in cancer” category was the most enriched, involving 104 candidate target genes. Gene expression data revealed that 27 of 104 candidate target genes were actually upregulated in BC clinical specimens. Luciferase reporter assays and Western blotting demonstrated that BIRC5 and WNT7A were directly targeted by miR-195/497. In conclusion, aberrant expression of clustered miRNAs was identified by deep sequencing, and downregulation of miR-195/497 contributed to BC progression and metastasis. Tumor suppressive miRNA-mediated cancer pathways provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of BC oncogenesis.
Dalteparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, has anticoagulant and anti-angiogenic activity. This study investigated whether dalteparin reduced coronary artery lesion (CAL) prevalence, and resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD).
This retrospective study comprised two parts. In the first cohort, 126 patients with KD (68 male, 58 female; median age: 22 months, range: 1–67 months) admitted to Nihon University Nerima-Hikarigaoka Hospital from January 2004 to June 2008, received either dalteparin 75 IU/kg/day, IVIG 400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day, or dalteparin 75 IU/kg/day and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day, until clinical improvement. Control data came from the 2005–6 Nationwide KD survey. In the second cohort, 112 patients with KD (59 male, 53 female; median age: 19 months, range: 1–66 months) admitted from June 2010 to February 2012, received either dalteparin 75 IU/kg/day, IVIG 2.0 g/kg over 12 h, and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day, or dalteparin 75 IU/kg/day and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day. Control data came from the 2009–10 Nationwide KD survey. No patients enrolled in the nationwide surveys received dalteparin. All patients at our institution were given dalteparin in their combination therapy.
A comparison of the first cohort with controls in the nationwide survey showed that the prevalence of initial administration of IVIG was 80.2% versus 86.0%; the rate of additional IVIG administration was 7.1% versus 14.0% (p = 0.03); CAL prevalence in the acute period was 4.8% versus 11.9% (p < 0.01); and the prevalence of cardiovascular sequelae was 0% versus 3.8% (p < 0.05). A comparison of the second cohort with controls in the nationwide survey showed that the rate of initial administration of IVIG was 92.9% versus 89.5%; the rate of additional IVIG administration was 8.9% versus 17.1% (p = 0.02); the prevalence of resistance to IVIG was 3.6% versus 14.9% (p < 0.001); and CAL prevalence in the acute period was 2.7% versus 8.6% (p = 0.03).
This study found that adjunctive dalteparin was associated with a lower prevalence of IVIG resistance and CAL in young children with KD.
Kawasaki disease; Low-molecular-weight heparin; Dalteparin; Coronary artery disease; Angiogenesis; IVIG
Although angiotensin II (Ang II) binds to Ang II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors, AT1 and AT2 receptors have antagonistic actions with regard to cell signaling. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this antagonism are not well understood. We examined AT1 and AT2 receptor-induced signal cross-talk in the cytoplasm and the importance of the hetero-dimerization of AT1 receptor with AT2 receptor on the cell surface. AT1 and AT2 receptors showed antagonistic effects toward inositol phosphate production. AT1 receptors mainly formed homo-dimers, rather than hetero-dimers with AT2 receptor, on the cell surface as determined by immunoprecipitation, and subsequently induced cell signals. AT2 receptor mainly formed homo-dimers, rather than hetero-dimers with AT1 receptor, on the cell surface. The expression levels of homo-dimerized AT1 receptor or AT2 receptor on the cell surface did not change after treatment with Ang II, the AT1 receptor antagonist telmisartan or the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. Finally, AT1 and AT2 receptor-induced signals antagonized phospholipase C-β3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, Ang II-induced AT1 receptor signals may be mainly blocked by AT2 receptor signals through their negative cross-talk in the cytoplasm rather than by the hetero-dimerization of both receptors on the cell surface. The proper balance of the expression levels of AT1 and AT2 receptors might be critical for the antagonistic action between these receptors.
Angiotensin II receptors; Signal cross-talk; Dimerization; Inositol phosphate production; Phospholipase C
Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) induce multiple pharmacological beneficial effects, but not all ARBs have the same effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions are not certain. In this study, irbesartan and losartan were examined because of their different molecular structures (irbesartan has a cyclopentyl group whereas losartan has a chloride group). We analyzed the binding affinity and production of inositol phosphate (IP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and adiponectin. Compared with losartan, irbesartan showed a significantly higher binding affinity and slower dissociation rate from the AT1 receptor and a significantly higher degree of inverse agonism and insurmountability toward IP production. These effects of irbesartan were not seen with the AT1-Y113A mutant receptor. On the basis of the molecular modeling of the ARBs–AT1 receptor complex and a mutagenesis study, the phenyl group at Tyr113 in the AT1 receptor and the cyclopentyl group of irbesartan may form a hydrophobic interaction that is stronger than the losartan–AT1 receptor interaction. Interestingly, irbesartan inhibited MCP-1 production more strongly than losartan. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation that was independent of the AT1 receptor in the human coronary endothelial cells. In addition, irbesartan, but not losartan, induced significant adiponectin production that was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and this effect was not mediated by the AT1 receptor. In conclusion, irbesartan induced greater beneficial effects than losartan due to small differences between their molecular structures, and these differential effects were both dependent on and independent of the AT1 receptor.
angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker; molecular structure; inverse agonism; insurmountability; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Angiotensin II (Ang II) binds to Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and evokes cell signaling, and subsequently stimulates vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, which eventually lead to cardiovascular disease. Since most AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have molecular (differential) effects, we evaluated the specific features of candesartan and compared the abilities of candesartan and other ARBs (olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) to bind to and activate AT1 receptors using a cell-based wash-out assay. Each ARB blocked Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and inositol phosphate production to different degrees after wash-out. In addition, a small difference in the molecular structure, i.e. a carboxyl group, between candesartan and candesartan-7H was associated with a difference in the degree of this blocking effect. In addition, interaction between Gln257 in the AT1 receptor and the carboxyl group of candesartan may be partially associated with the effect of candesartan after wash-out. Although our findings regarding the molecular effects of ARB are based on basic research, these findings may lead to an exciting new area in the clinical application of ARBs.
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker; carboxyl group; cell-based wash-out assay; extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation; inositol phosphate production; effects
Pain from vertebral or femoral neck fractures is a particularly important problem in clinical orthopaedics. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, and there are recent reports on an association between bone pain and TRPV1. However, an increase in TRPV1 activity has not been reported following femoral fracture.
Materials and Methods
We applied a neurotracer [Fluoro-gold (FG)] onto femur to detect dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) innervating the cortex of the femur in 30 Sprague Dawley rats. Seven days after application, a closed mid-diaphyseal fracture of the femur was performed. FG labeled TRPV1-immunoreactive (ir) DRGs innervating the femur were examined in nonfractured controls, and 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after fracture. We evaluated bone healing of the femur and compared the ratio of TRPV1-ir DRG neurons innervating the femur at the time points.
Four weeks after fracture, complete bone union was observed. There was no significant difference in the ratio of FG labeled DRG neurons to total DRG neurons at each time point. The percentages of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRGs innervating the femur at 3 days and 1 week after fracture were significantly higher than those in control, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after fracture (p<0.05).
Fracture induced an increase of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRGs innervating the fractured femur within 3 days, and decreased during bone healing over 4 weeks. These findings show that TRPV1 may play a role in sensory sensation of bone fracture pain.
Fracture; pain; transient receptor potential vanilloid 1; femur; rat
A cold sensation (hie) is common in Japanese women and is an important treatment target in Kampo medicine. Physicians diagnose patients as having hiesho (cold disorder) when hie disturbs their daily activity. However, differences between hie and hiesho in men and women are not well described. Hie can be of three types depending on body part where patients feel hie. We aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with hie and hiesho by analyzing data from new patients seen at the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We collected information about patients' subjective symptoms and their severity using visual analogue scales. Of 4,016 new patients, 2,344 complained about hie and 524 of those were diagnosed with hiesho. Hie was most common in legs/feet and combined with hands or lower back, rather than the whole body. Almost 30% of patients with hie felt upper body heat symptoms like hot flushes. Cold sensation was stronger in hiesho than non-hiesho patients. Patients with hie had more complaints. Men with hiesho had the same distribution of hie and had symptoms similar to women. The results of our study may increase awareness of hiesho and help doctors treat hie and other symptoms.
Intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) kinetics are involved in cardiac diseases including ischemia, heart failure, and hypertrophy. Because [Na+]i plays a crucial role in modulating the electrical and contractile activity in the heart, quantifying [Na+]i is of great interest. Using fluorescent microscopy with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI) is the most commonly used method for measuring [Na+]i. However, one limitation associated with this technique is that the test cannot simultaneously evaluate the effects of several types or various concentrations of compounds on [Na+]i. Moreover, there are few reports on the long-term effects of compounds on [Na+]i in cultured cells, although rapid changes in [Na+]i during a period of seconds or several minutes have been widely discussed.
We established a novel technique for quantifying [Na+]i in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes attached to a 96-well plate using a microplate reader in combination with SBFI and probenecid. We showed that probenecid is indispensable for the accurate measurement because it prevents dye leakage from the cells. We further confirmed the reliability of this system by quantifying the effects of ouabain, which is known to transiently alter [Na+]i. To illustrate the utility of the new method, we also examined the chronic effects of aldosterone on [Na+]i in cultured cardiomyocytes.
Our technique can rapidly measure [Na+]i with accuracy and sensitivity comparable to the traditional microscopy based method. The results demonstrated that this 96-well plate based measurement has merits, especially for screening test of compounds regulating [Na+]i, and is useful to elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of altered [Na+]i handling in cardiomyocytes.
Intracellular sodium; Cardiomyocyte; SBFI; Probenecid; Microplate reader
Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.
This study aimed to investigate the benefits of administering perioperative high-dose prednisolone in conjunction with thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis.
We retrospectively reviewed data from patients with Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Clinical Class I to IIIB who had undergone an extended thymectomy between 1992 and 2009. Perioperative high-dose prednisolone was administered at starting doses of 10 to 20 mg and escalated up to 100 mg on alternate days. The treatment group comprised 70 patients receiving perioperative high-dose prednisolone, whereas the control group included 61 patients not treated with preoperative steroids. The two groups were compared with respect to baseline clinical characteristics, incidence of postoperative complications, and follow-up disease status.
Prednisolone-treated patients presented with more advanced disease compared to controls (Class IIB or greater, 42 [60.0%] versus 7 [11.3%], respectively; P < 0.001). Mean preoperative%FVC was lower and FEV1.0% was higher in treated patients than in controls (%FVC: 92.4 ± 2.3% versus 99.5 ± 2.4%, respectively; P = 0.037, FEV1.0%: 85.2 ± 1.3% versus 81.4 ± 0.9%, respectively; P = 0.017). The groups were similar in other variables including presence of thymoma, and operative procedure. In the treatment group, disease status was significantly improved only by the induction of high-dose prednisolone before the surgery (P < 0.001), and these patients discontinued anti-cholinesterase therapy more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). Moreover, the treatment group demonstrated markedly lower rates of postoperative crisis (12.2% versus 2.9%, respectively; P = 0.045). The incidence of infection, wound dehiscence, and diabetes mellitus were comparable between groups. Survival analysis demonstrated higher rates of treated patients with improved disease status at three and five years (92% and 96%, respectively) compared to controls (57% and 76%, respectively; P < 0.001). Likewise, significantly greater proportions of treated patients achieved complete stable remission or pharmacologic remission at three, five, and ten years (23%, 42%, and 72%, respectively) compared to controls (10%, 20%, and 44%, respectively; P = 0.002).
Perioperative high-dose prednisolone therapy is a safe, promising strategy for managing patients with myasthenia gravis and may reduce the incidence of postoperative crisis while improving disease status.
Myasthenia gravis; MG crisis; Prednisolone; Thymectomy
Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom.
marine oleaginous diatom; Fistulifera sp. JPCC DA0580; eicosapentaenoic acid; polyunsatulated fatty acid; desaturase
[Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial
validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical
Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects] The subjects were 278 novice physical therapy trainees and 119
tutors from 21 medical facilities. [Methods] The trainees self-evaluated their clinical
competences and the tutors evaluated trainee competences using the CEPT. Overall trainee
autonomy was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) for self-evaluation and the
trainees were also evaluated by their tutors. The content validity of the CEPT was
examined by asking if the CEPT could evaluate the competence of novice physical therapists
on a four-point scale. [Results] Cronbach’s alpha of the CEPT was 0.96 for the trainees
and 0.97 for the tutors. The correlation coefficient between the total score of the CEPT
and whole competence by VAS was 0.83 for the trainees and 0.87 for the tutors. Factor
analysis identified two factors, “the specialty of the physical therapist” and “the
essential competence of a health professional”. Ninety percent or more of the trainees and
the tutors answered that the CEPT could sufficiently evaluate the competence of novice
physical therapists. [Conclusion] The CEPT is a reliable and valid scale for clinical
competence evaluation of novice physical therapists.
Clinical competence; Reliability; Validity
Kampo medicine or traditional Japanese medicine has been used under Japan's National Health Insurance scheme for 46 years. Recent research has shown that more than 80% of physicians use Kampo in daily practice. However, the use of Kampo from the patient perspective has received scant attention. To assess the current use of Kampo drugs in the National Health Insurance Program, we analysed a total of 67,113,579 health care claim records, which had been collected by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 2009. We found that Kampo drugs were prescribed for 1.34% of all patients. Among these, 92.2% simultaneously received biomedical drugs. Shakuyakukanzoto was the most frequently prescribed Kampo drug. The usage of frequently prescribed Kampo drugs differed between the youth and the elderly, males and females, and inpatients and outpatients. Kampo medicine has been employed in a wide variety of conditions, but the prescription rate was highest for disorders associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium (4.08%). Although the adoption of Kampo medicine by physicians is large in a variety of diseases, the prescription rate of Kampo drugs is very limited.
Synechococcus sp. strain NKBG15041c was isolated as a fast-growing marine cyanobacterium. Genetic transformation techniques using this strain have been well established for metabolic engineering. Here we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, consisting of 44 contigs containing a total of 3,180,043 bp and 3,224 putative protein-coding genes.
Reduced graphene oxide-azobenzene (RGO-AZO) hybrids were prepared via covalent functionalization for long-term solar thermal storage. Thermal barrier (ΔEa) of cis to tran reversion and thermal storage (ΔH) were improved by molecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) through ortho- or para-substitution of AZO. Intramolecular H-bonds thermally stabilized cis-ortho-AZO on RGO with a long-term half-life of 5400 h (ΔEa = 1.2 eV), which was much longer than that of RGO-para-AZO (116 h). RGO-para-AZO with one intermolecular H-bond showed a high density of thermal storage up to 269.8 kJ kg−1 compared with RGO-ortho-AZO (149.6 kJ kg−1) with multiple intra- and intermolecular H-bonds of AZO according to relaxed stable structures. Thermal storage in experiment was the same order magnitude to theoretical data based on ΔH calculated by density functional theory and packing density. Photoactive RGO-AZO hybrid can be developed for high-performance solar thermal storage by optimizing molecular H-bonds.
A Schistosoma mansoni G-protein coupled receptor (SmGPCR) was previously cloned and shown to be activated by the biogenic amine, histamine. Here we report a first investigation of the receptor’s subunit organization, tissue distribution and expression levels in different stages of the parasite. A polyclonal antibody was produced in rabbits against the recombinant third intracellular loop (il3) of SmGPCR. Western blot studies of the native receptor and recombinant protein expressed in HEK293 cells showed that SmGPCR exists both as a monomer (65 kDa) and an apparent dimer of ≈130 kDa These species were verified by immunoprecipitation of SmGPCR from S. mansoni extracts, using antibody that was covalently attached to agarose beads. Further investigation determined that the SmGPCR dimer was resistant to treatment with various detergents, 4 M urea and 0.1 M DTT but could be made to dissociate at acidic pH, suggesting the dimer is non-covalent in nature. Confocal immunofluorescence studies revealed significant SmGPCR immunoreactivity in sporocysts, schistosomula and adult worms but not miracidia. SmGPCR was found to be most widely expressed in the schistosomula, particularly the tegument, the subtegumental musculature and the acetabulum. In the adult stage we detected SmGPCR immunofluorescence mainly in the tubercles of male worms and, to a lesser extent, the body wall musculature. Localization in sporocysts was mainly confined to the tegument and cells within parenchymal matrices. A realtime quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis revealed that SmGPCR is upregulated at the mRNA level in the parasitic stages compared to the free-living miracidium and cercariae, and it is particularly elevated during early sporocyst and schistosomula development. The results identify SmGPCR as an important parasite receptor with potential functions in muscle and the tegument of S. mansoni.
Schistosoma mansoni; Histamine; G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR); Neurotransmitter; Platyhelminth; Biogenic amines; Real-time qPCR; Confocal microscopy
The repetition of experience is often necessary to establish long-lasting memory. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this repetition-dependent consolidation of memory remain unclear. We previously observed in organotypic slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus that repeated inductions of long-term potentiation (LTP) led to a slowly developing long-lasting synaptic enhancement coupled with synaptogenesis. We also reported that repeated inductions of long-term depression (LTD) produced a long-lasting synaptic suppression coupled with synapse elimination. We proposed these phenomena as useful in vitro models for analyzing repetition-dependent consolidation. Here, we hypothesized that the enhancement and suppression are mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling pathway and the proBDNF-p75NTR pathway, respectively. When we masked the respective pathways, reversals of the enhancement and suppression resulted. These results suggest the alternative activation of the p75NTR pathway by BDNF under TrkB-masking conditions and of the TrkB pathway by proBDNF under p75NTR-masking conditions, thus supporting the aforementioned hypothesis.
While the molecular structures of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) are very similar, they are also slightly different. Although each ARB has been shown to exhibit a unique mode of binding to AT1 receptor, different positions of the AT1 receptor have been analyzed and computational modeling has been performed using different crystal structures for the receptor as a template and different kinds of software. Therefore, we systematically analyzed the critical positions of the AT1 receptor, Tyr113, Tyr184, Lys199, His256 and Gln257 using a mutagenesis study, and subsequently performed computational modeling of the binding of ARBs to AT1 receptor using CXCR4 receptor as a new template and a single version of software. The interactions between Tyr113 in the AT1 receptor and the hydroxyl group of olmesartan, between Lys199 and carboxyl or tetrazole groups, and between His256 or Gln257 and the tetrazole group were studied. The common structure, a tetrazole group, of most ARBs similarly bind to Lys199, His256 and Gln257 of AT1 receptor. Lys199 in the AT1 receptor binds to the carboxyl group of EXP3174, candesartan and azilsartan, whereas oxygen in the amidecarbonyl group of valsartan may bind to Lys199. The benzimidazole portion of telmisartan may bind to a lipophilic pocket that includes Tyr113. On the other hand, the n-butyl group of irbesartan may bind to Tyr113. In conclusion, we confirmed that the slightly different structures of ARBs may be critical for binding to AT1 receptor and for the formation of unique modes of binding.
Resveratrol has been reported to improve metabolic function in metabolically-abnormal rodents and humans, but has not been studied in non-obese people with normal glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic effects of 12 weeks of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg/day) in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance. Although resveratrol supplementation increased plasma resveratrol concentration, it did not change body composition, resting metabolic rate, plasma lipids, or inflammatory markers. A two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure, in conjunction with stable isotopically-labeled tracer infusions, demonstrated that resveratrol did not increase liver, skeletal muscle, or adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Consistent with the absence of in vivo metabolic effects, resveratrol did not affect its putative molecular targets, including AMPK, Sirt1, Nampt, and Pgc-1α, in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol supplementation does not have beneficial metabolic effects in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance.
In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.
Primary cell culture; in vitro; cell line; Mollusca; Biomphalaria glabrata Say 1818 Bge cell line
The primary function of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the storage of vitamin A. However, they are also responsible for liver fibrosis and are therapeutic targets for treatment of liver cirrhosis. Among the many molecular markers that define quiescent or activated states of HSCs, the characteristics of type III intermediate filaments are of particular interest. Whereas vimentin and desmin are upregulated in activated HSCs, glial fibrillary acidic protein is downregulated in activated HSCs. The functional differences between vimentin and desmin are poorly understood. By time-course quantifications of several molecular markers for HSC activation, we observed that the expression of vimentin preceded that of desmin during the transdifferentiation of HSCs. The immunoreactivity of vimentin in transdifferentiated HSCs was more intense in perinuclear regions compared to that of desmin. We propose that the delayed expression of desmin following the expression of vimentin and the peripheral localization of desmin compared to vimentin are both related to the more extended phenotype of transdifferentiating HSCs observed in vitro.
hepatic stellate cell; intermediate filament; vimentin; desmin; myofibroblast
Our recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures indicated that microRNA-29a (miR-29a) was significantly downregulated in several types of human cancers, suggesting that miR-29a may be a putative tumor-suppressive miRNA in human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-29a in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to identify novel miR-29a-regulated cancer pathways and target genes involved in cervical SCC oncogenesis and metastasis. Restoration of miR-29a in cervical cancer cell lines (CaSKi, HeLa, ME180 and Yumoto) revealed that this miRNA significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. Gene expression data and in silico analysis demonstrated that heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47), a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors and a molecular chaperone involved in the maturation of collagen molecules, was a potential target of miR-29a regulation. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-29a directly regulated HSP47. Moreover, silencing of the HSP47 gene significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in cancer cells and the expression of HSP47 was upregulated in cancer tissues and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), as demonstrated by immunostaining. Downregulation of miR-29a was a frequent event in cervical SCC and miR-29a acted as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting HSP47. Recognition of tumor-suppressive miRNA-regulated molecular targets provides new insights into the potential mechanisms of cervical SCC oncogenesis and metastasis and suggests novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of this disease.
miR-29a; tumor suppressor; cervical cancer; HSP47; migration; invasion
Polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene were previously associated with high or extreme myopia in Caucasian and Chinese populations. In the present study, we investigated whether IGF1 polymorphisms are associated with high myopia in a Japanese population.
A total of 446 Japanese patients with high myopia (≤−9.00 diopters) and 481 Japanese healthy controls (+1.50 diopters to −1.50 diopters) were recruited. We genotyped seven tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF1 and assessed allelic and haplotypic diversity in cases and controls.
There were no statistically significant differences in the allele frequencies of IGF1 SNPs and genotypes between cases and controls (P>0.05). However, the A allele of rs5742629 and the G allele of rs12423791 were associated with a moderately increased risk of high myopia (odds ratio [OR] =1.20 and OR =1.21, respectively) with borderline statistical significance (P=0.0502, corrected P (Pc) =0.21 and P=0.064, Pc=0.29, respectively). The haplotype consisting of the A allele of rs5742629 and the G allele of rs12423791 was marginally associated with the risk of high myopia (P=0.041; OR =1.21); this association was not significant after correction (Pc=0.19).
We found that the IGF1 SNPs are not significantly associated with high myopia in our Japanese population. Our results are in contrast to a previous study in which extreme myopia cases had significantly higher frequencies of the G allele of rs5742629 and the C allele of rs12423791 than controls. Therefore, the IGF1 SNPs may not be important factors for susceptibility to high myopia in all populations. Further genetic studies are needed to elucidate the possible contributions of the IGF1 region to the development of high myopia.
high myopia; IGF1; association study; polymorphism