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1.  Hepatic Metastases of Gastric Adenocarcinoma Showing Metabolic Remission on FDG-PET Despite an Increase in Size on CT 
We report a gastric adenocarcinoma patient with liver metastases. The metastases showed progression on computed tomography (CT), but this was not true progression in terms of metabolic activity according to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Discordance between size criteria and metabolic criteria has been reported in liver gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hepatomas, and renal cell carcinomas after dramatic responses with targeted therapies such as imatinib, sorafenib, and sunitinib (1-6). However, this discordance has been rarely reported in liver metastases of gastric adenocarcinoma when treated with conventional chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2731211  PMID: 19707508
Hepatic metastasis; Stomach neoplasms; Metabolic remission; Positron-emission tomography
2.  Sudden hearing loss due to internal auditory canal metastasis of Her2-positive gastric cancer: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(1):394-396.
Internal auditory canal (IAC) metastasis due to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from gastric cancer (GC) has rarely been reported. Early manifestation of symptoms, such as hearing loss, vertigo and facial paralysis, in cases of IAC metastasis due to LMC may facilitate the early detection of brain metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report IAC metastasis due to LMC in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-positive GC. This study reports a case of an Her2-positive GC patient with LMC including IAC metastasis, who presented with acute sensorineural hearing loss, ipsilateral facial paralysis and vertigo during trastuzumab containing chemotherapy. The current study also discusses the early diagnosis and management of this complicated condition, demonstrating that clinical suspicion is key for a prompt diagnosis and proper management of LMC including IAC metastasis in Her2-positive GC.
PMCID: PMC4063633  PMID: 24959283
stomach neoplasm; Her2/neu receptor; leptomeningeal carcinomatosis; hearing loss
3.  Retrospective Clinical Trial of Fusidic Acid versus Petrolatum in the Postprocedure Care of Clean Dermatologic Procedures 
Annals of Dermatology  2015;27(1):15-20.
Clean dermatologic procedures create wounds with a low risk of infection (usually up to 5%). Whether the use of topical antibiotics is advocated, with regard to its efficacy and safety issues such as antibiotic resistance and sensitizing potential, is controversial. Fusidic acid, a topical antibiotic against gram-positive bacteria, is a rare sensitizer and commonly used in postprocedure care in Korea.
This is a retrospective study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety between fusidic acid and petrolatum for the postprocedure care of clean dermatologic procedures.
Patients were treated with either fusidic acid or petrolatum ointment, applied on the wound created during clean dermatologic procedures such as biopsy of the punch, incisional, excisional, and shave types. The efficacy, adverse events, and subjective level of satisfaction were retrieved from medical records.
A total of 414 patients with a total of 429 wounds were enrolled. The overall rate of adverse events was 0.9%, and the rates of adverse events in the fusidic acid group and the petrolatum group were 1.4% and 0.5%, respectively (p=0.370). There was no wound discharge, pain, tenderness, swelling, induration, or dehiscence in both groups. The patients' self-assessment of the wound was not significantly different between the two treatment groups.
Our findings support the hypothesis that the routine prophylactic use of topical antibiotics is not indicated for clean dermatologic procedures. We recommend the use of petrolatum in the postoperative care of clean dermatologic procedures because of its equivalent efficacy and superior safety profiles.
PMCID: PMC4323597  PMID: 25673926
Dermatologic surgical procedures; Fusidic acid; Infection; Petrolatum; Wound healing
4.  Validation of Edmonton Symptom Assessment System in Korean Cancer Patients 
Journal of pain and symptom management  2013;46(6):10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.01.012.
The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a brief, widely adopted multidimensional questionnaire to evaluate patient-reported symptoms.
To develop a Korean version of the ESAS (K-ESAS) and to perform a psychometric analysis in Korean patients with advanced cancer.
We tested the K-ESAS in two pilot studies with 15 patients each. We assessed internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity in 163 Korean patients, who completed the K-ESAS along with the Korean versions of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (K-MDASI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (K-HADS) twice. Thirty-eight patients completed the questionnaires again seven days later to assess responsiveness.
K-ESAS scores had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.88, indicating that no questions had undue influence on the score. Pearson correlation coefficients for K-ESAS symptom scores between baseline and after 2–4 hours ranged from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.79) to 0.87 (95% CI 0.82, 0.90), indicating strong test-retest reliability. For concurrent validity, Pearson correlation coefficients between K-ESAS symptom scores and corresponding K-MDASI symptom scores ranged from 0.70 (95% CI 0.62, 0.77) to 0.83 (95% CI 0.77, 0.87), indicating good concurrent validity. For the K-HADS, concurrent validity was good for anxiety (r = 0.73, 95% CI 0.65, 0.79) but moderate for depression (r = 0.4, 95% CI 0.26, 0.52). For responsiveness, changes in K-ESAS scores after seven days were moderately correlated with changes in K-MDASI scores but weakly correlated with changes in K-HADS scores.
The K-ESAS is a valid and reliable tool for measuring multidimensional symptoms in Korean cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3851583  PMID: 23628516
advanced cancer; Edmonton Symptom Assessment System; ESAS; Korea
5.  Pleural Metastasis as Initial Presentation of Occult Gastric Cardia Cancer: A Possible Role of PET-CT in Diagnosis 
We report on a case of malignant pleural effusion as initial metastatic presentation of occult gastric cardia cancer in a young woman. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasized to pleura as an initial presentation. Location of cardia and signet ring cell histology may contribute to the manifestation. Utilization of positron emission tomography-computed tomography was helpful for proper diagnosis. For patients with such distinct clinical presentations, it would be appropriate to consider gastric cancer as one of the possible primary sites.
PMCID: PMC4206069  PMID: 25036578
Pleura; Cardia; Signet ring cell carcinoma; Positron-emission tomography; Computed tomography
7.  Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in gastric cancer patients without acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 3 cases report and literature review 
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has rarely been reported in solid tumor patients. It is a well-known complication in immunosuppressed states including acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hematologic malignancy. PCP has been reported in solid tumor patients who received long-term steroid treatment due to brain or spinal cord metastases. We found 3 gastric cancer patients with PCP, who received only dexamethasone as an antiemetic during chemotherapy. The duration and cumulative dose of dexamethasone used in each patient was 384 mg/48 days, 588 mg/69 days, and 360 mg/42 days, respectively. These cases highlight that the PCP in gastric cancer patients can successfully be managed through clinical suspicion and prompt treatment. The cumulative dose and duration of dexamethasone used in these cases can be basic data for risk of PCP development in gastric cancer patients during chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3392316  PMID: 22792534
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; Gastric cancer; Chemotherapy
8.  Congenital and Multiple Hobnail Hemangiomas 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(4):539-543.
Hobnail hemangioma (targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma) is a vascular tumor affecting the limbs or trunk. Characteristically, the lesion has a "targetoid" clinical feature and dilated vascular spaces lined by hobnail endothelial cells at histologic examination. The age of onset is widely variable, form 5~67 years, typically occurring in young or middle-aged persons. It is usually apparent as a small solitary lesion. However, multiple lesions are identified sometimes. Herein, we report two cases of hobnail hemangioma in 7-year-old and 15-year-old males. Of note, the former case had a congenital lesion and the latter, multiple acquired lesions, which are both rare atypical presentations of the disease.
PMCID: PMC3229956  PMID: 22148030
Congenital; Hemangioma; Multiple
9.  Slow, but complete, resolution of mitomycin-induced refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura after rituximab treatment 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a critical complication of treatment with mitomycin C. We retrospectively describe the case of a patient with progressive renal cell carcinoma and mitomycin-induced TTP refractory to plasma exchange and glucocorticoids; we describe the clinical course, successful management of TTP with rituximab, and follow-up of this case. Mitomycin-induced TTP resolved completely by a total of 4 infusions of rituximab 375 mg/m2 on a weekly basis, and it took up to 12 months to obtain a platelet count of >100,000/µL. Rituximab is indicated for the treatment of mitomycin-induced TTP refractory to plasma exchange and glucocorticoids, and it could improve the patient's quality of life despite the presence of underlying malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3065627  PMID: 21461304
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Rituximab; Mitomycin; Plasma exchange
10.  The Efficacy of the Coaxial Technique Using a 6-Fr Introducer Sheath in Stent Placement for Treating the Obstructions Proximal to the Descending Colon 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(1):107-112.
We wanted to evaluate the efficacy of stent placement using the coaxial technique with a stiff, long introducer sheath in patients with technical failure using an angiographic catheter for the obstructions proximal to the descending colon.
Materials and Methods
Self-expandable metallic stent placement was attempted under fluoroscopy-guidance in 77 consecutive patients who had malignant colorectal obstruction. Stent placement was performed using an angiographic catheter and a guide wire. If the angiographic catheter could not be advanced over the guide wire into the obstructive lesions proximal to the descending colon, then a 6-Fr introducer sheath was used. The technical success rate, the clinical success rate and the complications were analyzed.
Successful stent placement was achieved in 75 of 77 patients (97%). The angiographic catheter failed to advance into the obstructive lesions of 11 patients (M:F = 7:4; mean age, 65.5 years) whose lesions were at the level of the splenic flexure or transverse colon. Therefore, the coaxial technique was implemented in all these 11 patients using a 6-Fr stiff introducer sheath and then the stent placement was successful. There were no complications related to the use of a stiff introducer sheath. Clinical success, which was defined as relief of clinical obstructive bowel symptoms, was obtained within 24 hours in all of patients.
The coaxial technique using a stiff introducer sheath can increase the technical success of fluoroscopy-guided, self-expandable metallic stent placement in patients with colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.
PMCID: PMC3017874  PMID: 21228946
Colon; Stent; Intervention; Fluoroscopy
11.  In Vitro inhibitory activity of Alpinia katsumadai extracts against influenza virus infection and hemagglutination 
Virology Journal  2010;7:307.
Alpinia katsumadai (AK) extracts and fractions were tested for in vitro antiviral activities against influenza virus type A, specially human A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and avian A/Chicken/Korea/MS96/96 (H9N2), by means of time-of-addition experiments; pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment, and post treatment.
In pre-treatment assay, the AK extracts and AK fractions did not show significant antiviral activity. During the simultaneous treatment assay, one AK extract and five AK fractions designated as AK-1 to AK-3, AK-5, AK-10, and AK-11 showed complete inhibition of virus infectivity against A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Chicken/Korea/MS96/96 (H9N2). The 50% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC50) of these one AK extracts and five AK fractions with exception of the AK-9 were from 0.8 ± 1.4 to 16.4 ± 4.5 μg/mL against A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The two AK extracts and three AK fractions had EC50 values ranging from <0.39 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 3.6 μg/mL against A/Chicken/Korea/MS96/96 (H9N2). By the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the two AK extracts and five AK fractions completely inhibited viral adsorption onto chicken RBCs at less than 100 μg/mL against both A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and A/Chicken/Korea/MS96/96 (H9N2). Interestingly, only AK-3 was found with inhibition for both viral attachment and viral replication after showing extended antiviral activity during the post treatment assay and quantitative real-time PCR.
These results suggest that AK extracts and fractions had strong anti-influenza virus activity that can inhibit viral attachment and/or viral replication, and may be used as viral prophylaxis.
PMCID: PMC2989970  PMID: 21062499
12.  Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Helicobacter Pylori Infected Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection appears to subvert the human iron regulatory mechanism and thus upregulates hepcidin, resulting in unexplained iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated serum prohepcidin levels before and after eradication of H. pylori in IDA patients to assess whether it plays a role in IDA related to H. pylori infection.
Subjects diagnosed with unexplained IDA underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy to confirm H. pylori infection and to exclude gastrointestinal bleeding. Blood was sampled before treatment to eradicate H. pylori and again 1 month later. Serum prohepcidin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.
Serum prohepcidin levels decreased significantly after oral iron replacement combined with H. pylori eradication (p = 0.011). The reduction ratio of serum prohepcidin levels after the treatment did not differ among the combined oral iron replacement and H. pylori eradication groups, the H. pylori eradication only group, and the iron replacement only group (p = 0.894).
Serum prohepcidin levels decrease after both H. pylori eradication and oral iron administration, with improvement in IDA. Serum concentration of prohepcidin is related to the anemia status, rather than to the current status of H. pylori infection, in IDA patients.
PMCID: PMC2880694  PMID: 20526394
Prohepcidin; Anemia, iron-deficiency; Helicobacter pylori
13.  Serum Pro-hepcidin Could Reflect Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):348-352.
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum pro-hepcidin concentration and the anemia profiles of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate the pro-hepcidin could reflect the disease activity of RA. RA disease activities were measured using Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), tender/swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anemia profiles such as hemoglobin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and transferrin levels were measured. Serum concentration of pro-hepcidin, the prohormone of hepcidin, was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean concentration of serum pro-hepcidin was 237.6±67.9 ng/mL in 40 RA patients. The pro-hepcidin concentration was correlated with rheumatoid factor, CRP, ESR, and DAS28. There was a significant correlation between pro-hepcidin with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The pro-hepcidin concentration was significantly higher in the patients with active RA (DAS28>5.1) than those with inactive to moderate RA (DAS28≤5.1). However, the pro-hepcidin concentration did not correlate with the anemia profiles except hemoglobin level. There was no difference of pro-hepcidin concentration between the patients with anemia of chronic disease and those without. In conclusion, serum concentration of pro-hepcidin reflects the disease activity, regardless of the anemia states in RA patients, thus it may be another potential marker for disease activity of RA.
PMCID: PMC2826733  PMID: 20191031
Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Anemia; Hepcidin; Prohepcidin

Results 1-13 (13)