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1.  Nutritional Intake of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Clinical Nutrition Research  2013;2(2):81-90.
Adequate intake of nutrients by pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is very important for appropriate weight gain and maintenance of normoglycemia without ketonuria. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional intake of pregnant women with GDM or T2DM who had not been provided with nutritional education regarding blood glucose management. Between June 2008 and May 2010, 125 pregnant women who had been diagnosed with GDM or T2DM and had not received any nutrition education regarding glycemic control and proper diet during pregnancy were interviewed to collect data regarding background characteristics, health-related behaviors, and course of pregnancy and instructed to record their dietary intake using a 24-hour recall method for one day. Using the collected data, the index of nutritional quality, nutrient adequacy ratio, and mean adequacy ratio values of the subjects were calculated. Analysis of the values indicated that the majority of the subjects did not meet recommended intake levels for most micronutrients and consumed an undesirable ratio of macronutrients, specifically a higher percentage of total carbohydrates than the current recommendation level. The GDM and T2DM groups obtained 56.6% and 63.6%, respectively (p = 0.012), of their calories by carbohydrate intake, which exceeded the recommended levels (125.8% in GDM groups, 141.3% in T2DM groups).
PMCID: PMC3728467  PMID: 23908974
Nutrient intake; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
2.  2011 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes in Korea 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(5):431-436.
As in other countries, type 2 diabetes is major health concern in Korea. A dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications has led to an increase in health costs and economic burdens. Early detection of high risk individuals, hidden diabetic patients, and improvement in the quality of care for the disease are the first steps to mitigate the increase in prevalence. The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the '3rd Clinical Practice Guidelines' at the end of 2010. In the guidelines, the committee recommended active screening of high risk individuals for early detection and added the hemoglobin A1c level to the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes based on clinical studies performed in Korea. Furthermore, the committee members emphasized that integrating patient education and self-management is an essential part of care. The drug treatment algorithm based on the degree of hyperglycemia and patient characteristics were also updated.
PMCID: PMC3221016  PMID: 22111032
Clinical practice guideline; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Diagnosis; Treatment
3.  Glucolipotoxicity in Pancreatic β-Cells 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(5):444-450.
The recent epidemic of type 2 diabetes in Asia differs from that reported in other regions of the world in several key areas: it has evolved over a much shorter time, in an earlier stage of life, and in people with lower body mass indices. These phenotypic characteristics of patients strongly suggest that insulin secretory defects may perform a more important function in the development and progression of diabetes. A genetic element clearly underlies β-cell dysfunction and insufficient β-cell mass; however, a number of modifiable factors are also linked to β-cell deterioration, most notably chronic hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Neither glucose nor FFAs alone cause clinically meaningful β-cell toxicity, especially in patients with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. Thus the term "glucolipotoxicity" is perhaps more appropriate in describing the phenomenon. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain glucolipotoxicity-induced β-cell dysfunction and death, but its major factors appear to be depression of key transcription factor gene expression by altered intracellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress. Therefore, stabilization of metabolic changes induced by glucolipotoxicity in β-cells represents a new avenue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC3221018  PMID: 22111034
β-cell dysfunction; Glucolipotoxicity; Glucotoxicity; Lipotoxicity
4.  Adenoviruses Expressing PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA Induces the Transdifferentiation of Porcine Neonatal Pancreas Cell Clusters and Adult Pig Pancreatic Cells into Beta-Cells 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(2):119-129.
A limitation in the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is a special feature of diabetes. The identification of alternative sources for the induction of insulin-producing surrogate beta-cells is a matter of profound importance. PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA overexpression have been shown to influence the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic stem cells. However, few studies have been conducted using adult animal pancreatic stem cells.
Adult pig pancreatic cells were prepared from the non-endocrine fraction of adult pig pancreata. Porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs) were prepared from neonatal pigs aged 1-2 days. The dispersed pancreatic cells were infected with PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA adenoviruses. After infection, these cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of normoglycemic nude mice.
The adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA induced insulin gene expression in NPCCs, but not in adult pig pancreatic cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the number of insulin-positive cells in NPCCs and adult pig pancreatic cells was approximately 2.6- and 1.1-fold greater than those in the green fluorescent protein control group, respectively. At four weeks after transplantation, the relative volume of insulin-positive cells in the grafts increased in the NPCCs, but not in the adult porcine pancreatic cells.
These data indicate that PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA facilitate the beta-cell differentiation of NPCCs, but not adult pig pancreatic cells. Therefore PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA-induced NPCCs can be considered good sources for the induction of pancreatic beta-cells, and may also have some utility in the treatment of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3122894  PMID: 21738894
Ad-BETA2/NeuroD; Ad-MafA; Ad-PDX-1/VP16; Beta-cell; Neonatal pig cell clusters; Pancreatic exocrine cell; Transdifferentiation; Transplantation
5.  β‐cell mass in people with type 2 diabetes 
The early occurrence of β‐cell dysfunction has been broadly recognized as a critical determinant of the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. β‐cell dysfunction might be induced by insufficient β‐cell mass, by a dysfunction of the β‐cells, or both. Whether or not β‐cell dysfunction constitutes a cause of reduced β‐cells or vice‐versa currently remains unclear. The results of some studies have measured the loss of β‐cells in type 2 diabetic patients at between 22 and 63% by planimetric measurements. Because β‐cell hypertrophy has been noted in type 2 diabetic patients, the loss of β‐cell number should prove more profound than what has thus far been reported. Furthermore, β‐cell volumes are reduced even in patients with impaired fasting glucose. Such defects in β‐cell mass are associated with increased apoptosis rather than insufficient replication or neogenesis of β‐cells. With these results, although they still require clarification, the peak β‐cell mass might be determined at quite an early stage of life, and then might decline progressively over time as the result of exposure to harmful environmental influences over one’s lifetime. In this review, we have summarized the relevant studies regarding β‐cell mass in patients with type 2 diabetes, and then presented a review of the various causes of β‐cell loss in adults. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00072.x, 2010)
PMCID: PMC4008010  PMID: 24843456
Diabetes; β‐cell mass; Hypertrophy
6.  Efficacy and safety of vildagliptin/pioglitazone combination therapy in Korean patients with diabetes 
World Journal of Diabetes  2010;1(5):153-160.
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin/pioglitazone combination therapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis in Korean patients, from a 24-wk, randomized, active-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study. Eligible patients were aged between 18 and 80 years, drug naive, and had been diagnosed with T2DM [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): 7.5%-11.0% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG): < 270 mg/dL (< 15 mmol/L)]. Patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive the vildagliptin/pioglitazone combination at 100/30 mg q.d. (high-dose) or 50/15 mg q.d. (low-dose), vildagliptin 100 mg q.d., or pioglitazone 30 mg q.d. monotherapies. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c from baseline to endpoint.
RESULTS: The distribution of baseline demographic and clinical parameters was well balanced between treatment groups. The overall mean age, body mass index, HbA1c, FPG, and duration of disease were 50.8 years, 24.6 kg/m2, 8.6%, 10.1 mmol/L, and 2.2 years, respectively. Adjusted mean changes (± standard error) in HbA1c from baseline (~8.7%) to week 24 endpoint were -2.03% ± 0.16% (high-dose, N = 34), -1.88% ± 0.15% (low-dose, N = 34), -1.31% ± 0.21% (vildagliptin, N = 36), and -1.52% ± 0.16% (pioglitazone, N = 36). The high-dose combination therapy demonstrated greater efficacy than monotherapies [vildagliptin (P = 0.029) and pioglitazone (P = 0.027)]. Percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 7% and ≤ 6.5% was the highest in the high-dose group (76% and 68%) followed by low-dose (58% and 47%), vildagliptin (59% and 37%), and pioglitazone (53% and 28%) groups. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable.
CONCLUSION: In Korean patients, first-line treatment with high-dose combination therapy improved glycemic control compared to pioglitazone and vildagliptin monotherapies, consistent with results published for the overall study population.
PMCID: PMC3083898  PMID: 21537443
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Vildagliptin; Pioglitazone
7.  Ubiquitous Diabetes Management System via Interactive Communication Based on Information Technologies: Clinical Effects and Perspectives 
Korean Diabetes Journal  2010;34(5):267-273.
New diabetes management systems based on interactive communication have been introduced recently, accompanying rapid advances in information technology; these systems are referred to as "ubiquitous diabetes management systems." In such ubiquitous systems, patients and medical teams can communicate via Internet or telecommunications, with patients uploading their glucose data and personal information, and medical teams sending optimal feedback. Clinical evidence from both long-term and short-term trials has been reported by some researchers. Such systems appear to be effective not only in reducing the levels of HbA1c but also in stabilizing glucose control. However, most notably, evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such a system should be demonstrated before it can be propagated out to the general population in actual clinical practice. To establish a cost-effective model, various types of clinical decision supporting software designed to reduce the labor time of physicians must first be developed. A number of sensors and devices for monitoring patients' data are expected to be available in the near future; thus, methods for automatic interconnections between devices and web charts were also developed. Further investigations to demonstrate the clinical outcomes of such a system should be conducted, hopefully leading to a new paradigm of diabetes management.
PMCID: PMC2972485  PMID: 21076573
Delivery of healthcare; Diabetes mellitus; Internet
9.  Complication Reducing Effect of the Information Technology-Based Diabetes Management System on Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 
We introduced a new information technology-based diabetes management system, called the Internet-based glucose monitoring system (IBGMS), and demonstrated its short-term and long-term favorable effects. However, there has been no report on clinical effects of such a new diabetes management system on the development of diabetic complications so far. This study was used to simulate the complication reducing effect of the IBGMS, given in addition to existing treatments in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Research Design and Methods
The CORE Diabetes Model, a peer-reviewed, published, validated computer simulation model, was used to project long-term clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients receiving the IBGMS in addition to their existing treatment. The model combined standard Markov submodels to simulate the incidence and progression of diabetes-related complications.
The addition of IBGMS was associated with improvements in reducing diabetic complications, mainly microangiopathic complications, including diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic foot ulcer. The IBGMS also delayed the development of all diabetic complications for more than 1 year.
This study demonstrated that the simulated IBGMS, compared to existing treatment, was associated with a reduction of diabetic complications. As a result, it provides valuable evidence for practical application to the public in the world.
PMCID: PMC2769703  PMID: 19885180
diabetic complications; health economics; Internet; simulation
10.  Dapagliflozin Added to Glimepiride in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Sustains Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 48 Weeks: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Diabetes Therapy  2014;5(1):267-283.
Maintenance of drug efficacy and safety over the long term is important to investigate for progressive conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to evaluate whether efficacy of dapagliflozin added to glimepiride observed at 24 weeks was maintained at 48 weeks, and to provide further safety and tolerability data in patients with T2DM.
This 24-week randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial with a 24-week double-blind extension period enrolled adults whose T2DM was inadequately controlled [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.0–10.0%] on sulfonylurea monotherapy. Patients were randomized to placebo (n = 146) or dapagliflozin 2.5 mg (n = 154), 5 mg (n = 145), or 10 mg (n = 151) per day added to open-label glimepiride 4 mg/day.
In total, 519 patients (87.1%) completed the study. At 48 weeks, HbA1c adjusted mean changes from baseline for the placebo versus dapagliflozin 2.5/5/10-mg groups were −0.04% versus −0.41%, −0.56% and −0.73%, respectively. There were no meaningful differences in HbA1c changes from baseline from 24 to 48 weeks, indicating that glycemic efficacy was maintained. Improvements in fasting plasma glucose and post-challenge plasma glucose were also observed with dapagliflozin over 48 weeks. Dapagliflozin 2.5/5/10 mg produced sustained reductions in weight (−1.36/−1.54/−2.41 kg) versus placebo (−0.77 kg). Adjusted mean reductions from baseline in systolic blood pressure were also greater than placebo for all dapagliflozin doses. In the placebo versus dapagliflozin groups, serious adverse events were 8.9% versus 8.6–11.0%, hypoglycemic events were 6.8% versus 9.7–11.3%, and events suggestive of genital infection were 1.4% versus 5.2–8.6%.
Dapagliflozin added to glimepiride improved glycemic control and body weight, with short-term findings maintained during the study’s extension period. Therapy was generally well tolerated over 48 weeks; hypoglycemic events and events suggestive of genital infection were reported more often in patients receiving dapagliflozin.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13300-014-0072-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4065289  PMID: 24920277
Dapagliflozin; Glimepiride; Glycemic control; Sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; Sulfonylureas; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
11.  Efficacy of the Smartphone-Based Glucose Management Application Stratified by User Satisfaction 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(3):204-210.
We aimed to assess the efficacy of the smartphone-based health application for glucose control and patient satisfaction with the mobile network system used for glucose self-monitoring.
Thirty-five patients were provided with a smartphone device, and self-measured blood glucose data were automatically transferred to the medical staff through the smartphone application over the course of 12 weeks. The smartphone user group was divided into two subgroups (more satisfied group vs. less satisfied group) based on the results of questionnaire surveys regarding satisfaction, comfort, convenience, and functionality, as well as their willingness to use the smartphone application in the future. The control group was set up via a review of electronic medical records by group matching in terms of age, sex, doctor in charge, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c).
Both the smartphone group and the control group showed a tendency towards a decrease in the HbA1c level after 3 months (7.7%±0.7% to 7.5%±0.7%, P=0.077). In the more satisfied group (n=27), the HbA1c level decreased from 7.7%±0.8% to 7.3%±0.6% (P=0.001), whereas in the less satisfied group (n=8), the HbA1c result increased from 7.7%±0.4% to 8.1%±0.5% (P=0.062), showing values much worse than that of the no-smartphone control group (from 7.7%±0.5% to 7.7%±0.7%, P=0.093).
In addition to medical feedback, device and network-related patient satisfaction play a crucial role in blood glucose management. Therefore, for the smartphone app-based blood glucose monitoring to be effective, it is essential to provide the patient with a well-functioning high quality tool capable of increasing patient satisfaction and willingness to use.
PMCID: PMC4083027  PMID: 25003074
Delivery of health care; Diabetes mellitus; Information technology; Smartphone; Ubiquitous
12.  Presence of Macroalbuminuria Predicts Severe Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(5):1283-1289.
We investigated the factors that might influence the development of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.
From January 2000 to December 2002, patients with type 2 diabetes aged 25–75 years without chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were consecutively recruited (n = 1,217) and followed-up in January 2011 and May 2012. Severe hypoglycemia (SH) was defined as an event requiring the assistance of another person to actively administer glucose, hospitalization, or medical care in an emergency department. We used Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to test the association between SH episodes and potential explanatory variables.
After a median 10.4 years of follow-up, 111 (12.6%) patients experienced 140 episodes of SH, and the incidence was 1.55 per 100 patient-years. Mean age and duration of diabetes were 55.3 ± 9.8 and 9.8 ± 6.5 years, respectively. The incidence of SH events was higher in older patients (P < 0.001), in those with a longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), in those who used insulin (P < 0.001) and sulfonylurea (P = 0.003), and in those who had macroalbuminuria (P < 0.001) at baseline. Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that SH was associated with longer duration of diabetes and the presence of macroalbuminuria (normoalbuminuria versus macroalbuminuria: hazard ratio, 2.52; 95% CI 1.31–4.84; P = 0.006).
The development of SH was independently associated with duration of diabetes and presence of macroalbuminuria, even with normal renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3631817  PMID: 23248198
13.  Predicting the Development of Diabetes Using the Product of Triglycerides and Glucose: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e90430.
To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) might be a valuable marker for predicting future diabetes.
A total of 5,354 nondiabetic subjects who had completed their follow-up visit for evaluating diabetes status were selected from a large cohort of middle-aged Koreans in the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort study. The risk of diabetes was assessed according to the baseline TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × FPG (mg/dL)/2]. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years.
During the follow-up period, 420 subjects (7.8%) developed diabetes. The baseline values of the TyG index were significantly higher in these subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects (8.9±0.6 vs. 8.6±0.6; P<0.0001) and the incidence of diabetes increased in proportion to TyG index quartiles. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level, a family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, education level and serum insulin level, the risk of diabetes onset was more than fourfold higher in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of the TyG index (relative risk, 4.095; 95% CI, 2.701–6.207). The predictive power of the TyG index was better than the triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.
The TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of developing diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3938726  PMID: 24587359
14.  Statin Discontinuation after Achieving a Target Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Study 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(1):64-73.
This study investigated the rate of relapse of dyslipidemia and the factors which could predict relapse following a short-term statin discontinuation after achieving a target low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Ninety-nine subjects on rosuvastatin treatment and whose LDL-C level was lower than 100 mg/dL were randomly assigned to discontinue or maintain statin treatment at a 2:1 ratio. The subjects were followed-up after 10 weeks. A relapse of dyslipidemia was defined as a reascent of LDL-C level to greater than 100 mg/dL.
The statin discontinuation group had a significant rate of relapse compared to the maintenance group (79% vs. 3%, respectively). Pretreatment and baseline lipid levels, their ratios, and hemoglobin A1c level were significantly different between the relapse and nonrelapse groups. The pretreatment and baseline lipid profiles and their ratios were independently associated with relapse. The pretreatment LDL-C level was the most useful parameter for predicting a relapse, with a cutoff of 123 mg/dL. During the follow-up period, no CVD event was noted.
The relapse rate of dyslipidemia was high when statins were discontinued in type 2 diabetic patients without CVD. Statin discontinuation should be considered carefully based on the pretreatment lipid profiles of patients.
PMCID: PMC3950197  PMID: 24627830
Cardiovascular diseases; Cholesterol, LDL; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Dyslipidemia; Statin
15.  Pattern of Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia according to Type of Diabetes: A Predator Stress Model 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(6):475-483.
We aimed to quantify stress-induced hyperglycemia and differentiate the glucose response between normal animals and those with diabetes. We also examined the pattern in glucose fluctuation induced by stress according to type of diabetes.
To load psychological stress on animal models, we used a predator stress model by exposing rats to a cat for 60 minutes and measured glucose level from the beginning to the end of the test to monitor glucose fluctuation. We induced type 1 diabetes model (T1D) for ten Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin and used five Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats as obese type 2 diabetes model (OT2D) and 10 Goto-Kakizaki rats as nonobese type 2 diabetes model (NOT2D). We performed the stress loading test in both the normal and diabetic states and compared patterns of glucose fluctuation among the three models. We classified the pattern of glucose fluctuation into A, B, and C types according to speed of change in glucose level.
Increase in glucose, total amount of hyperglycemic exposure, time of stress-induced hyperglycemia, and speed of glucose increase were significantly increased in all models compared to the normal state. While the early increase in glucose after exposure to stress was higher in T1D and NOT2D, it was slower in OT2D. The rate of speed of the decrease in glucose level was highest in NOT2D and lowest in OT2D.
The diabetic state was more vulnerable to stress compared to the normal state in all models, and the pattern of glucose fluctuation differed among the three types of diabetes. The study provides basic evidence for stress-induced hyperglycemia patterns and characteristics used for the management of diabetes patients.
PMCID: PMC3881332  PMID: 24404519
Diabetes; Glucose fluctuation; Models, animal; Predator stress model; Stress; Type of diabetes
16.  Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells from Neonatal Porcine Liver-Derived Cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79076.
Surrogate β-cells derived from stem cells are needed to cure type 1 diabetes, and neonatal liver cells may be an attractive alternative to stem cells for the generation of β-cells. In this study, we attempted to generate insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells using adenoviruses carrying three genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor1 (PDX1)/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and v-maf musculo aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are all known to play critical roles in pancreatic development. Isolated neonatal porcine liver-derived cells were sequentially transduced with triple adenoviruses and grown in induction medium containing a high concentration of glucose, epidermal growth factors, nicotinamide and a low concentration of serum following the induction of aggregation for further maturation. We noted that the cells displayed a number of molecular characteristics of pancreatic β-cells, including expressing several transcription factors necessary for β-cell development and function. In addition, these cells synthesized and physiologically secreted insulin. Transplanting these differentiated cells into streptozotocin-induced immunodeficient diabetic mice led to the reversal of hyperglycemia, and more than 18% of the cells in the grafts expressed insulin at 6 weeks after transplantation. These data suggested that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells under the culture conditions presented in this report and indicated that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells (NPLCs) might be useful as a potential source of cells for β-cell replacement therapy in efforts to cure type I diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3829837  PMID: 24260156
17.  Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, and its clinical interpretations and usefulness 
Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity with insulin resistance as the source of pathogenesis. Although several different combinations of criteria have been used to define metabolic syndrome, a recently published consensus recommends the use of ethnic‐specific criteria, including waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity, triglyceride and high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as indicators of dyslipidemia, and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. The definition of dysglycemia, and whether central obesity and insulin resistance are essential components remain controversial. Regardless of the definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in Western and Asian countries, particularly in developing areas undergoing rapid socioenvironmental changes. Numerous clinical trials have shown that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and all‐cause mortality. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might be useful as a practical tool to predict these two major metabolic disorders. Comprehensive management of risk factors is very important to the improvement of personal and public health. However, recent studies have focused on the role metabolic syndrome plays as a risk factor for CVD; its importance in the prediction of incident diabetes is frequently overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the known evidence supporting metabolic syndrome as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Additionally, we suggest how metabolic syndrome might be useful in clinical practice, especially for the prediction of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4020225  PMID: 24843675
Metabolic syndrome; Risk factor; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
18.  Predictive Clinical Parameters and Glycemic Efficacy of Vildagliptin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(1):72-80.
The aims of this study are to investigate the glycemic efficacy and predictive parameters of vildagliptin therapy in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes.
In this retrospective study, we retrieved data for subjects who were on twice-daily 50 mg vildagliptin for at least 6 months, and classified the subjects into five treatment groups. In three of the groups, we added vildagliptin to their existing medication regimen; in the other two groups, we replaced one of their existing medications with vildagliptin. We then analyzed the changes in glucose parameters and clinical characteristics.
Ultimately, 327 subjects were analyzed in this study. Vildagliptin significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels over 6 months. The changes in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c) at month 6 were -2.24% (P=0.000), -0.77% (P=0.000), -0.80% (P=0.001), -0.61% (P=0.000), and -0.34% (P=0.025) for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, with significance. We also found significant decrements in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (P<0.05). Of the variables, initial HbA1c levels (P=0.032) and history of sulfonylurea use (P=0.026) were independently associated with responsiveness to vildagliptin treatment.
Vildagliptin was effective when it was used in subjects with poor glycemic control. It controlled fasting plasma glucose levels as well as sulfonylurea treatment in Korean type 2 diabetic subjects.
PMCID: PMC3579155  PMID: 23439802
Diabetes mellitus; Dipeptidyl peptidase 4; Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; Vildagliptin
20.  Chronic Resveratrol Treatment Protects Pancreatic Islets against Oxidative Stress in db/db Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50412.
Resveratrol (RSV) has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions which may contribute to its cardiovascular protective effects. We examined whether RSV has any beneficial effects on pancreatic islets in db/db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The db/db and db/dm mice (non-diabetic control) were treated with (db-RSV) or without RSV (db-control) (20 mg/kg daily) for 12 weeks. After performing an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test, mice were sacrificed, the pancreas was weighed, pancreatic β-cell mass was quantified by point count method, and the amount of islet fibrosis was determined. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, was determined in 24 h urine and pancreatic islets. RSV treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance at 2 hrs in db/db mice (P = 0.036), but not in db/dm mice (P = 0.623). This was associated with a significant increase in both pancreas weight (P = 0.011) and β-cell mass (P = 0.016). Islet fibrosis was much less in RSV-treated mice (P = 0.048). RSV treatment also decreased urinary 8-OHdG levels (P = 0.03) and the percentage of islet nuclei that were positive for 8-OHdG immunostaining (P = 0.019). We conclude that RSV treatment improves glucose tolerance, attenuates β-cell loss, and reduces oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest that RSV may have a therapeutic implication in the prevention and management of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3511555  PMID: 23226280
21.  Effects of a 6-Month Exenatide Therapy on HbA1c and Weight in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(5):364-370.
While many studies have shown the good efficacy and safety of exenatide in patients with diabetes, limited information is available about exenatide in clinical practice in Korean populations. Therefore, this retrospective cohort study was designed to analyze the effects of exenatide on blood glucose level and body weight in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We reviewed the records of the patients with diabetes who visited Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and for whom exenatide was prescribed from June 2009 to October 2011. After excluding subjects based on their race/ethnicity, medical history, whether or not they changed more than 2 kinds of oral hypoglycemic agents with exenatide treatment, loss to follow-up, or whether they stopped exenatide therapy within 6 months, a total of 52 subjects were included in the final analysis.
The mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and weight remarkably decreased from 8.5±1.7% to 6.7±1.0% (P<0.001) and from 82.3±15.8 kg to 78.6±16.3 kg (P<0.001), respectively. The multiple regression analysis indicated that the reduction in HbA1c level was significantly associated with a shorter duration of diabetes, a higher baseline HbA1c level, and greater weight reduction, whereas weight loss had no significant correlation with other factors. No severe adverse events were observed.
These results suggest that a 6-month exenatide injection therapy significantly improved patients' HbA1c levels and body weights without causing serious adverse effects in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3486983  PMID: 23130321
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Exenatide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Treatment outcome
22.  Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Is Associated With Increased Arterial Stiffness Without Changes in Carotid Intima–Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(6):1403-1405.
This study was conducted to investigate the association of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with both arterial stiffness and intima–media thickness (IMT).
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 731 subjects with type 2 diabetes. DPN was diagnosed on the basis of neuropathic symptoms, insensitivity to a 10-g monofilament, abnormal pin-prick sensation, and abnormal current perception threshold. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), and IMT was assessed by B-mode ultrasonography.
Patients with DPN had higher CAVI than those without DPN in multivariate-adjusted models, whereas no differences in IMT were observed between patients with and without DPN after adjustment for age and sex. In the multivariate analysis, CAVI was a significant determinant of DPN (odds ratio 1.36 [95% CI 1.13–1.65], P = 0.001).
DPN is significantly associated with arterial stiffness without carotid intimal changes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3114324  PMID: 21515840
23.  Relationship between Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Koreans 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(6):636-643.
There is controversy regarding definition of vitamin D inadequacy. We analyzed threshold 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) below which intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) increases, and examined age- and sex-specific changes of 25(OH)D and iPTH, and association of 25(OH)D and iPTH with bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. Anthropometric parameters, serum 25(OH)D and iPTH, lumbar spine and femur BMD by dual-energy radiography absorptiometry (DXA) were measured in 441 men and 598 postmenopausal women. iPTH increased below serum 25(OH) of 36.7 ng/mL in men, but failed to reach plateau in women. Femur neck BMD above and below threshold differed when threshold 25(OH)D concentrations were set at 15-27.5 ng/mL in men, and 12.5-20 ng/mL in postmenopausal women. Vitamin D-inadequate individuals older than 75 yr had higher iPTH than those aged ≤ 65 yr. In winter, age-associated iPTH increase in women was steeper than in summer. In conclusion, vitamin D inadequacy threshold cannot be estimated based on iPTH alone, and but other factors concerning bone health should also be considered. Older people seemingly need higher 25(OH)D levels to offset age-associated hyperparathyroidism. Elderly vitamin D-inadequate women in the winter are most vulnerable to age-associated hyperparathyroidism.
PMCID: PMC3369450  PMID: 22690095
Vitamin D; Intact Parathyroid Hormone; Bone Density; Age; Sex
24.  Deregulation of CREB Signaling Pathway Induced by Chronic Hyperglycemia Downregulates NeuroD Transcription 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34860.
CREB mediates the transcriptional effects of glucose and incretin hormones in insulin-target cells and insulin-producing β-cells. Although the inhibition of CREB activity is known to decrease the β-cell mass, it is still unknown what factors inversely alter the CREB signaling pathway in β-cells. Here, we show that β-cell dysfunctions occurring in chronic hyperglycemia are not caused by simple inhibition of CREB activity but rather by the persistent activation of CREB due to decreases in protein phophatase PP2A. When freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets were chronically exposed to 25 mM (high) glucose, the PP2A activity was reduced with a concomitant increase in active pCREB. Brief challenges with 15 mM glucose or 30 µM forskolin after 2 hour fasting further increased the level of pCREB and consequently induced the persistent expression of ICER. The excessively produced ICER was sufficient to repress the transcription of NeuroD, insulin, and SUR1 genes. In contrast, when islets were grown in 5 mM (low) glucose, CREB was transiently activated in response to glucose or forskolin stimuli. Thus, ICER expression was transient and insufficient to repress those target genes. Importantly, overexpression of PP2A reversed the adverse effects of chronic hyperglycemia and successfully restored the transient activation of CREB and ICER. Conversely, depletion of PP2A with siRNA was sufficient to disrupt the negative feedback regulation of CREB and induce hyperglycemic phenotypes even under low glucose conditions. Our findings suggest that the failure of the negative feedback regulation of CREB is the primary cause for β-cell dysfunctions under conditions of pathogenic hyperglycemia, and PP2A can be a novel target for future therapies aiming to protect β-cells mass in the late transitional phase of non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (NIDDM).
PMCID: PMC3318007  PMID: 22509362
25.  Perception of Clinicians and Diabetic Patients on the Importance of Postprandial Glucose Control and Diabetes Education Status: A Cross Sectional Survey 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(2):120-127.
Recent studies have shown the importance of postprandial glucose (PPG) in the development of diabetes complications. This study was conducted in order to survey the perceptions of clinicians and diabetic patients with respect to PPG management and the current status of diabetes education.
This was a cross-sectional study involving face-to-face interviews and an open questionnaire survey conducted in Korea. A total of 300 patients and 130 clinicians completed questionnaires, which included current education status, self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), criteria of diagnosis and management, and perceptions relating to PPG management.
While there was a significantly higher perceived need for diabetes education, the sufficiency of the current education was considered to be severely lacking. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), PPG, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were all important considerations for clinicians when making a diagnosis of diabetes, although PPG was considered less important than FPG or HbA1c in the treatment of diabetes. Most clinicians and patients were aware of the importance of PPG, but actual education on the importance of PPG was not actively being delivered.
Our study showed that the current status of diabetes education is insufficient to meet the needs of the Korean population. A considerable gap was found to exist between awareness and what was actually taught in the current education program in regard to the importance of PPG. These results suggest that clinicians need to be more active in patient education, especially in regard to the importance of PPG.
PMCID: PMC3335893  PMID: 22540048
Diabetes education; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Perception; Postprandial glucose

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