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author:("Yoo, myeon Mi")
1.  Characterization of Cases of Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI) Presenting at an Emergency Room: Molecular and Clinical Features Differentiate Community-Onset Hospital-Associated and Community-Associated CDI in a Tertiary Care Hospital▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(6):2161-2165.
Definition of community-onset, hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CO-HA-CDI) is difficult in patients presenting with diarrhea at hospitals or outpatient clinics, especially 4 to 12 weeks after the last discharge. We performed C. difficile stool culture for 272 diarrheic patients visiting the emergency room (ER) between January 2006 and June 2010. C. difficile was isolated from 36 cases (13.2%), and isolation rates increased year by year, from 10.1% in 2008 to 12.4% in 2009 and 16.7% in 2010. Among 32 toxin-positive isolates, 13 (40.6%) and 19 (59.4%) were associated with CO-HA-CDI and community-acquired CDI (CA-CDI), respectively, if cases with CDI diagnosed within 12 weeks after discharge were considered hospital associated. The majority (70%) of CO-HA-CDI cases occurred within 2 weeks after hospital discharge, although the interval from discharge to onset of symptoms was as long as 10 weeks. We found via tcdA and tcdB and repetitive sequence PCR analysis, that toxin A-positive/toxin B-positive isolates were the most prevalent in both CO-HA-CDI (53.8%) and CA-CDI (94.7%) cases. Toxin A-negative/toxin B-positive isolates were also still highly associated with HA-CDI cases but were also observed in CA-CDI cases. Younger age, fewer underlying diseases, lack of prior antibiotic use, and genetic diversity of isolates in repetitive sequence PCR were the main characteristics in CA-CDI cases visiting the ER.
PMCID: PMC3122747  PMID: 21471341
3.  Chemokine Lkn-1/CCL15 enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 release from human macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2008;2(2):134-137.
Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic inflammatory disease, and chemokines play an important role in both initiation and progression of atherosclerosis development. Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1/CCL15), a new member of the human CC chemokine family, is a potent chemoattractant for leukocytes. Our previous study has demonstrated that Lkn-1/CCL15 plays a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis, however, little is currently known whether Lkn-1/CCL15 is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis by altering the vulnerability of plaque rupture. In the present study, we examined whether Lkn-1/CCL15 modulates MMP-9 release, which is a prevalent form expressed by activated macrophages and foam cells. Human THP-1 monocytic cells and/or human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) were treated with phorbol myristate acetate to induce their differentiation into macrophages. Foam cells were prepared by the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with human oxidized LDL. The macrophages and foam cells were treated with Lkn-1/CCL15, and the levels of MMP-9 release were measured by Gelatin Zymography. Lkn-1/CCL15 significantly enhanced the levels of MMP-9 protein secretion from THP-1 monocytic cells-derived macrophages, human PBMC-derived macrophages, as well as macrophage-derived foam cell in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that the action of Lkn-1/CCL15 on macrophages and foam cells to release MMP-9 may contribute to plaque destabilization in the progression of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC2815325  PMID: 20126378
Chemokine; Lkn-1/CCL15; MMP-9; foam cell; atherosclerosis
4.  Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Health Care Workers in Korea 
We studied the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc and the vaccination histories among health care workers (HCWs) at a large suburban referral hospital in Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the immune status of HCWs against hepatitis B virus and we also wanted to prepare a practical guideline to protect HCWs from occupational exposure. During December, 2003, 571 HCWs (56 physicians, 289 nurses, 113 technicians and 113 aid-nurses) aged between 21 and 74 yr were included in the surveillance. The positive rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs were 2.4% (14/571) and 76.9% (439/571), respectively. The positive rate of anti-HBs was lower in the physician group, and this was associated with the male gender and older age. Of the 439 anti-HBs positive cases, 320 cases (73.1%) were anti-HBc negative and this was significantly associated with a past history of HBV vaccination. The distribution of the anti-HBs levels was not associated with age (except for HCWs in their sixties), gender or occupation. Our study revealed that the seroprevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs in HCWs in Korea were not different from those of the general population. Based on this surveillance, we can make reasonable decisions in case of occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus.
PMCID: PMC2733980  PMID: 16479066
Hepatitis B surface Antigens; Anti-HBs; Anti-HBc; Occupational Exposure; Health Personnel; Korea

Results 1-4 (4)