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1.  Inhibitory effects of aromatase inhibitor on estrogen receptor-alpha positive ovarian cancer in mice 
Background
Estrogen causes proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Although hormone therapy with an anti-estrogen agent is an optional therapy for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers, both basic and clinical researches are insufficient. We here examine the efficacy of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) for peritonitis carcinomatosa, the late stage of ovarian cancer.
Methods
Estrogen receptor (ER)α was assayed in four ovarian cancer cell lines by the RT-PCR method. Using ovariectomized nude mice, peritonitis carcinomatosa consisting of OVCAR-3 cells with the strongest ERα expression or DISS cells with weaker ERα expression was prepared. The survival period was compared between the letrozole group (5 mg/kg/day orally; n = 10) and the control group (n = 10). In addition, the degree of angiogenesis and occurrence of apoptosis were compared using tumor tissue from the abdominal cavity. The expression of aromatase and the protein involving in ERα signaling were examined in tumors immunohistochemically.
Results
Survival period in OVCAR-3 tumors was significantly prolonged in the letrozole group, compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas that in DISS tumors was not different between the both groups. The microvessel density in tumors and expression of VEGF decreased significantly in the letrozole group compared to the control group. The incidence of apoptosis did not differ significantly between these groups. No adverse event was observed accompanying the administration of letrozole. The expressions of aromatase, ERα and FOXP1 that is associated with ERα signaling were reduced in tumors by letrozole administration.
Conclusions
Letrozole was effective for ovarian cancers with abundant expression of ERα. Inhibition of angiogenesis and of ascites production appeared to contribute to prolongation of the survival period.
doi:10.1186/1757-2215-7-4
PMCID: PMC3895704  PMID: 24410765
Recurrent ovarian cancer; Letrozole; Estrogen receptor alpha; Aromatase inhibitor; Anti-angiogenesis
2.  Decreased ARID1A expression is correlated with chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer 
Objective
Loss of ARID1A is related to oncogenic transformation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. The present study was conducted in epithelial ovarian cancer of all tissue types to investigate whether an increased or decreased expression level of ARID1A can be a prognostic factor for ovarian cancer or can influence the sensitivity to anticancer drugs.
Methods
The expression level of ARID1A was investigated in 111 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who received initial treatment at the Hirosaki University Hospital between 2006 and 2011. The expression level of ARID1A was immunohistochemically graded using staining scores, which were calculated by multiplying the staining intensity of the nuclei by the stain-positive area.
Results
The level of ARID1A was significantly lower in clear cell adenocarcinoma than in other histologic types. Among the patients with stage III, IV cancer (n=46), the level of ARID1A was significantly lower (p=0.026) in patients who did not achieve complete response (CR; n=12) than in patients who achieved CR (n=34). The level of ARID1A was relatively lower (p=0.07) in patients who relapsed after achieving CR (n=21) than in patients who did not relapse (n=13). When the staining score of 0 was defined as ARID1A-negative and other staining scores were defined as ARID1A-positive, there was significant difference in progression-free survival between ARID1A-negative (n=11) and ARID1A-positive (n=35) patients in stage III, IV disease.
Conclusion
The result suggests that decreased ARID1A expression is correlated with chemoresistance and may be a predictive factor for the risk of relapse of advanced cancer after achieving CR.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2014.25.1.58
PMCID: PMC3893676  PMID: 24459582
ARID1A; Chemoresistance; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Relapse
3.  Redistribution of resistance and sensitivity to platinum during the observation period following treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2013;2(2):212-218.
The standard postoperative chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination therapy including platinum and taxanes. The aim this study was to investigate the degree of platinum sensitivity in patients with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) and the histological tumor type. The medical records of 405 patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer, including 107 patients who relapsed after attaining a clinical complete response with first-line treatment, were retrospectively reviewed. The degree of platinum sensitivity was assessed by comparing the progression-free survival (PFS) following the second-line treatment. In patients with serous/endometrioid adenocarcinoma who were treated with platinum following relapse, there were significant differences in the PFS between the following groups of patients: those who relapsed within 6 months and those who relapsed between 6 and 12 months; those who relapsed between 6 and 12 months and those who relapsed between 12 and 18 months; and those who relapsed between 12 and 18 months and those who relapsed after 18 months. By contrast, in patients with clear cell/mucinous adenocarcinoma who were treated with platinum following a relapse, there were no significant differences in the PFS between patients who relapsed within 6 months and those who relapsed between 6 and 12 months, while there were significant differences in the PFS between those who relapsed between 6 and 12 months and those who relapsed after 12 months. With regard to the patients who relapsed after 12 months, the PFS of those with clear cell/mucinous adenocarcinoma was significantly shorter compared with the PFS of those with serous/endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we considered it justified to classify patients with clear cell/mucinous adenocarcinoma who relapsed within 12 months as platinum-resistant and those who relapsed after 12 months as platinum-sensitive.
doi:10.3892/mco.2013.223
PMCID: PMC3917783  PMID: 24649335
relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer; platinum sensitivity; treatment-free interval; progression-free interval; histological type
4.  A Case of Small Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina 
Rare Tumors  2013;5(4):e58.
Primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina is quite rare, and a standard treatment has not been established yet. Herein, we report a case of an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a vaginal tumor without continuity with the uterine cervix. Histopathological diagnosis indicated alveolar solid growth of nuclear chromatin-rich atypical cells with a high N/C ratio and a partially recognized rosette-like structure, suggesting a differentiated neuroendocrine system. Chromogranin A and synaptophysin were positive. Stage I vaginal small cell carcinoma localized to the vagina was diagnosed. The tumor disappeared by radiation monotherapy with external beam irradiation and endocavitary irradiation. The patient remains alive without any disease 1 year and 8 months after the treatment, suggesting the efficacy of radiotherapy in small cell carcinoma of the vagina.
doi:10.4081/rt.2013.e58
PMCID: PMC3882930  PMID: 24416492
small cell carcinoma of the vagina; radiotherapy
5.  Loss of ARID1A expression is an early molecular event in tumor progression from ovarian endometriotic cyst to clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma 
OBJECTIVES
ARID1A is a recently identified tumor suppressor participating in chromatin remodeling. Somatic inactivating mutations of ARID1A and loss of its expression occur most frequently in ovarian clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas and uterine endometrioid carcinomas. Since endometriosis is thought to be a precursor of most ovarian clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas, we undertook an analysis of ARID1A expression of these tumors arising within an endometriotic cyst (endometrioma).
MATERIALS/METHODS
Our immunohistochemical study set consisted of 47 endometriotic cysts containing clear cell carcinoma in 24 cases, well-differentiated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma in 20 and mixed clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma in 3.
RESULTS
ARID1A loss was observed in 31 (66%) of 47 carcinomas and therefore these cases were informative for determining the temporal sequence of loss of ARID1A expression in tumor progression. In 16 of the 47 cases, ARID1A immunoreactivity was retained in both the endometriotic cyst and the carcinoma and thus these cases were not informative. All of the 31 informative cases showed loss of ARID1A immunoreactivity in the carcinoma and in the endometriotic cyst epithelium in direct continuity with the carcinoma but not in the cyst epithelium that was not adjacent to the tumor.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings in this study provide cogent evidence that loss of ARID1A function as shown by loss of expression, presumably due to mutations, is an early molecular event, occurring before malignant transformation, in the development of the majority of ovarian clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas arising in endometriomas.
doi:10.1097/IGC.0b013e31826b5dcc
PMCID: PMC3460070  PMID: 22976498
6.  Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and hormone therapy 
The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer is not clear. Data on the efficacy and safety of antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors in recurrent ovarian cancer have been accumulated through phase II clinical studies. Most of these studies were conducted in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, and although complete response rates were not high, reported adverse events were low. If administered to patients who are positive for estrogen receptors, hormone therapy may become a viable option for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.
doi:10.12998/wjcc.v1.i6.187
PMCID: PMC3845958  PMID: 24303498
Recurrent ovarian cancer; Hormone therapy; Letrozole; Anastrozole; Tamoxifen; Fulvestrant
7.  Comparison of the outcome between cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients with adjuvant radiotherapy following radical surgery: SGSG/TGCU Intergroup Surveillance 
Molecular and Clinical Oncology  2013;1(4):780-784.
The efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) for adenocarcinoma (AC) is controversial, although patients with AC of the uterine cervix are treated in a similar manner to those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant RT for patients with AC compared to those with SCC following radical hysterectomy. A total of 820 patients with stage IB-IIB cervical cancer, who underwent type III radical hysterectomy between 1997 and 2003, were retrospectively examined; the sample included 280 patients with AC and 540 with SCC. A total of 139 patients with AC and 327 with SCC underwent adjuvant treatment. The histological type did not affect the outcome for patients with stage I disease; however, stage II patients with AC exhibited a significantly worse 5-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with SCC. Patients with SCC exhibited significantly higher lymph node involvement compared to those with AC in stage IB1; however, there were no differences between stages IB2 and II. Among patients with lymph node involvement, patients with AC exhibited a significantly worse 5-year survival rate compared to those with SCC (46.4 vs. 72.3%, respectively; P=0.0005). Among patients receiving adjuvant RT, those with AC recurred more frequently compared to those with SCC, particularly in the pelvic cavity, including the vaginal stump and/or pelvis (24.6 vs. 10.5%, respectively; P= 0.0022). By contrast, the histological type did not affect the incidence of recurrence in paraaortic lymph nodes and/or distant recurrence. In conclusion, RT may not suffice as an adjuvant treatment for patients with cervical AC following radical hysterectomy.
doi:10.3892/mco.2013.112
PMCID: PMC3916196  PMID: 24649246
adenocarcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; uterine cervix; radiotherapy
8.  Presentation of two patients with malignant granulosa cell tumors, with a review of the literature 
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary account for 2 to 5 of ovarian malignancies. We present two patients with malignant ovarian adult GCT. In one patient, a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was effective after initial surgery for malignant GCT. In the other, an aromatase inhibitor was effective for recurrent malignant GCT. We also review the literature for further management of this tumor. Because GCT of the ovary is rare, it will be necessary to elucidate the clinical phenotype and establish treatment protocols by accumulating and analyzing more patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-185
PMCID: PMC3490972  PMID: 22963202
Ovarian malignant granulosa cell tumor; BEP combination therapy; Aromatase inhibitor
9.  Malignant Ovarian Tumors with Induced Expression of Carbonyl Reductase Show Spontaneous Regression 
Background
The present study investigated tumor proliferation in a tumor model using murine ovarian cancer cells with increased carbonyl reductase (CR) expression.
Methods
CR cDNA was transfected into murine T-Ag-MOSE ovarian cancer cells by lipofection. CR-transfected cells (CR induction group) or empty vector-treated cells (control group) were injected into the backs of 8-week-old nude mice at a concentration of 0.5 × 106 per 0.2 mL. Subsequent tumor proliferation in both groups was observed for 5 weeks.
Results
The control group showed an increase in tumor volume during the 5 weeks of observation. However, tumor volume in the CR induction group increased up to the second week but then decreased continuously until the fifth week of observation. The tumor growth curves for the two groups showed a significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Histological and biochemical experiments were performed using tumor tissues isolated in the third week. Necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were noted for tumors in the CR induction group. Also, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased in the CR induction group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Milk fat globule EGF factor 8, an “eat-me” signal for phagocytes such as macrophages, was expressed extensively in the tumor cytoplasm and interstitial cells of the CR induction group, and engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages was observed. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in tumors was notably decreased in the CR induction group compared with the control group.
Conclusion
Increased necrosis due to engulfing of apoptotic cells by phagocytes attracted by increased milk fat globule EGF factor 8 was considered to be the mechanism of spontaneous tumor regression in the CR induction group.
doi:10.4137/CMO.S9005
PMCID: PMC3290113  PMID: 22408375
apoptosis; carbonyl reductase; ovarian tumor; phagocytosis

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