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1.  Predictors of Patient Satisfaction with Tertiary Hospitals in Korea 
Nursing Research and Practice  2015;2015:749754.
This study examined the general and system-related predictors of outpatient satisfaction with tertiary health care institutions in Korea. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was employed. The subjects were 1,194 outpatients recruited from 29 outpatient clinics of a university medical center in Korea. Measurements included 5 outpatient service domains (i.e., doctor service, nurse service, technician service, convenience, and physical environment of facility) and patient satisfaction. Of the five domains, nurse service was the domain with the highest mean score (M = 4.21) and convenience was the domain with the lowest mean score (M = 3.77). The most significant predictor of patient satisfaction was the constructs of convenience (β = 0.21). The results of this study suggest that the concept of patient satisfaction with health care institutions in modern hospitals reflects an integrative process that includes not only the concerned health care personnel but also improved convenience such as user-friendly reservation system and comfortable waiting areas.
PMCID: PMC4334866  PMID: 25722886
2.  Proteomic analysis of pancreas in miniature pigs according to developmental stages using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry 
Laboratory Animal Research  2014;30(1):1-7.
Organ transplantation is limited by the shortage of human organs. Many studies have sought to overcome this hurdle by using animal organs. Porcine organs, especially from miniature pigs, have been used for organ xenotransplantation rather than nonhuman primates. While the molecular profiling for transplantation is well known in humans and rodents, the situation for pigs is almost completely unknown. The present study examined protein regulation of the developing stages of the pancreatic proteome (4 day-old miniature neonate, 19 day-old miniature piglet, and 14 month-old miniature adult pigs) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen different expressed spots were observed and nine were identified. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of pancreas of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the pancreas, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantation.
PMCID: PMC3973805  PMID: 24707298
Human organ; pancreas; miniature pig; proteome; 2-DE MALDI-TOF
3.  Proteomic analysis of liver in miniature pigs according to developmental stages using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry 
Laboratory Animal Research  2013;29(3):162-167.
Due to the shortage of human organ donors for transplant, various studies of xenotransplantation, or the use of animal organs instead of human organs, have been carried out. The organs of porcine are thought to be safer and of a more suitable size for xenotransplantationthan those of nonhuman primates. Understanding the levels of expression of proteins, and their post-translational regulation, would be very practical between different species and among developing stages, though the molecular profiling for xenotransplantation has been rarely studied for porcine, while that of human and rodent is well known. Here, in this present study, we report protein regulation of the developing stages of liver (4-day old neonate, 19-day old piglet and 14-month old adult miniature pigs) using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF. From images of the three different stages, a total of 8 spotswhich were differently regulated were identified, and 5 spots were identified with MALDI-TOF MS. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of livers of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the liver, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantaion.
PMCID: PMC3791350  PMID: 24106511
Liver; MALDI-TOF; miniature pig; proteome; 2-DE; xenotransplantation
4.  Generation and Characterization of Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Transgenic Pigs 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46646.
Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.
PMCID: PMC3465346  PMID: 23071605
5.  Validity and Reliability of the Index of Self-Regulation Scale for Physical Activity in Older Korean Americans 
Nursing Research and Practice  2011;2011:329534.
The Korean version of the index of self-regulation (KISR) is a nine-item scale designed to measure individuals' level of self-regulation for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the KISR, including reliability and validity, in a group of older Korean Americans. The KISR was administered to a sample of older Korean Americans at a baseline interview (Time 1) and 12 week followup (Time 2). The internal consistency of the KISR was high at both time points, with Cronbach's alphas of .94 and .95, respectively. The test-retest reliability was moderate-to-high at .68. There was evidence of construct validity of the KISR based on its moderate to high significant correlations with theoretically relevant variables, including motivational appraisal and self-efficacy for physical activity. A principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation resulted in two factors, explaining 89% of the variance. The KISR is a reliable and valid measure to assess the level of self-regulation for physical activity behavior in older Korean Americans.
PMCID: PMC3169926  PMID: 21994821
6.  The Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Reflux Esophagitis in Koreans and Its Possible Relation to Metabolic Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(2):197-202.
The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is increasing in Korea. To estimate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of reflux esophagitis in healthy subjects, we retrospectively examined the medical records of healthy subjects undergoing a routine check-up from October 2004 to September 2005. A total of 6,082 (3,590 men, mean age 44±10 yr) subjects were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis in healthy subjects was 10.5%. According to the univariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-4.30), smoking history (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.60-2.28), body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.37-3.33), total cholesterol >250 mg/dL (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.05-2.14), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.08-2.14), triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.61-2.30), high blood pressure (BP) (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.20-1.76), and fasting glucose ≥110 mg/dL (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13-1.86) were significantly associated with reflux esophagitis (all p<0.05). However, age, alcohol drinking and Helicobacter pylori infection were not associated with reflux esophagitis. In conclusiosn, significant relationships of reflux esophagitis with obesity, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high triglyceride, high BP, and elevated fasting glucose suggested that reflux esophagitis might represent the disease spectrum of the metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2672116  PMID: 19399258
Esophagitis, Peptic; Endoscopy; Metabolic Syndrome
7.  Emerging Need for Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(2):218-222.
Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is recommended for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), but this has been deemed unnecessary in Korea since the immunity against HAV was almost universal in adults. However, this practice has never been reevaluated with respect to the changing incidence of adult acute hepatitis A. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 278 patients with acute hepatitis A diagnosed from January 1995 to November 2005 and prospectively tested 419 consecutive CLD patients from July to December 2005 for the presence of IgG anti-HAV. The number of patients with acute hepatitis A has markedly increased recently, and the proportion of adult patients older than 30 yr has been growing from 15.2% during 1995-1999, to 28.4% during 2000-2005 (p=0.019). Among 419 CLD patients, the seroprevalences of IgG anti-HAV were 23.1% for those between 26 and 30 yr, 64% between 31 and 35 yr, and 85.0% between 36 and 40 yr. These data demonstrate that immunity against HAV is no more universal in adult and substantial proportion of adult CLD patients are now at risk of HAV infection in Korea. Therefore, further study on seeking proper strategy of active immunization against HAV is warranted in these populations.
PMCID: PMC2693585  PMID: 17449927
Hepatitis A; Vaccination; Liver Disease; Immunity
8.  Corynebacterium glutamicum Utilizes both Transsulfuration and Direct Sulfhydrylation Pathways for Methionine Biosynthesis 
Journal of Bacteriology  2002;184(5):1277-1286.
A direct sulfhydrylation pathway for methionine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum was found. The pathway was catalyzed by metY encoding O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The gene metY, located immediately upstream of metA, was found to encode a protein of 437 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 46,751 Da. In accordance with DNA and protein sequence data, the introduction of metY into C. glutamicum resulted in the accumulation of a 47-kDa protein in the cells and a 30-fold increase in O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase activity, showing the efficient expression of the cloned gene. Although disruption of the metB gene, which encodes cystathionine γ-synthase catalyzing the transsulfuration pathway of methionine biosynthesis, or the metY gene was not enough to lead to methionine auxotrophy, an additional mutation in the metY or the metB gene resulted in methionine auxotrophy. The growth pattern of the metY mutant strain was identical to that of the metB mutant strain, suggesting that both methionine biosynthetic pathways function equally well. In addition, an Escherichia coli metB mutant could be complemented by transformation of the strain with a DNA fragment carrying corynebacterial metY and metA genes. These data clearly show that C. glutamicum utilizes both transsulfuration and direct sulfhydrylation pathways for methionine biosynthesis. Although metY and metA are in close proximity to one another, separated by 143 bp on the chromosome, deletion analysis suggests that they are expressed independently. As with metA, methionine could also repress the expression of metY. The repression was also observed with metB, but the degree of repression was more severe with metY, which shows almost complete repression at 0.5 mM methionine in minimal medium. The data suggest a physiologically distinctive role of the direct sulfhydrylation pathway in C. glutamicum.
PMCID: PMC134843  PMID: 11844756

Results 1-8 (8)