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1.  Activated protein C modulates the proinflammatory activity of dendritic cells 
Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial activity of activated protein C in allergic diseases including bronchial asthma and rhinitis. However, the exact mechanism of action of activated protein C in allergies is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that pharmacological doses of activated protein C can modulate allergic inflammation by inhibiting dendritic cells.
Materials and methods
Dendritic cells were prepared using murine bone marrow progenitor cells and human peripheral monocytes. Bronchial asthma was induced in mice that received intratracheal instillation of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells.
Activated protein C significantly increased the differentiation of tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the secretion of type I interferons, but it significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in myeloid dendritic cells. Activated protein C also inhibited maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Activated protein C-treated dendritic cells were less effective when differentiating naïve CD4 T-cells from Th1 or Th2 cells, and the cellular effect of activated protein C was mediated by its receptors. Mice that received adoptive transfer of activated protein C-treated ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells had significantly less airway hyperresponsiveness, significantly decreased lung concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and less plasma concentration of immunoglobulin E when compared to control mice.
These results suggest that dendritic cells mediate the immunosuppressive effect of activated protein C during allergic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC4428377  PMID: 26005353
allergy; dendritic cells; coagulation; protein C pathway
2.  Adaptive Changes in Membrane Lipids of Barophilic Bacteria in Response to Changes in Growth Pressure 
The lipid compositions of barophilic bacterial strains which contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA [22:6n-3]) were examined, and the adaptive changes of these compositions were analyzed in response to growth pressure. In the facultatively barophilic strain 16C1, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were major components which had the same fatty acid chains. However, in PE, monounsaturated fatty acids such as hexadecenoic acid were major components, and DHA accounted for only 3.7% of the total fatty acids, while in PG, DHA accounted for 29.6% of the total fatty acids. In response to an increase in growth pressure in strain 16C1, the amounts of saturated fatty acids in PE were reduced, and these decreases were mainly balanced by an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, including DHA. In PG, the decrease in saturated fatty acids was mainly balanced by an increase in DHA. Similar adaptive changes in fatty acid composition were observed in response to growth pressure in obligately barophilic strain 2D2. Furthermore, these adaptive changes in response were also observed in response to low temperature in strain 16C1. These results confirm that the general shift from saturated to unsaturated fatty acids including DHA is one of the adaptive changes in response to increases in pressure and suggest that DHA may play a role in maintaining the proper fluidity of membrane lipids under high pressure.
PMCID: PMC106069  PMID: 16349499
3.  New Method for Isolating Barophiles from Intestinal Contents of Deep-Sea Fishes Retrieved from the Abyssal Zone 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1994;60(11):4210-4212.
We devised a new method (the dorayaki method) using marine agar under in situ pressures to isolate barophilic bacteria from the intestinal contents of three deep-sea fishes (two Coryphaenoides yaquinae samples and one Ilyophis sp. sample) retrieved from depths of 4,700 to 6,100 m in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. All 10 strains isolated from one sample (C. yaquinae) were obligately barophilic. One of the 10 strains did not grow at atmospheric pressure and 103.4 MPa but did grow well between 20.7 and 82.7 MPa, with optimal growth at 41.4 MPa. This method is useful for isolating psychrophilic and barophilic deep-sea bacteria.
PMCID: PMC201965  PMID: 16349450

Results 1-3 (3)