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1.  Cimetidine modulates the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells from colorectal cancer patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;86(8):1257-1261.
Cimetidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, has been reported to improve survival in gastrointestinal cancer patients. These effects have largely been attributed to the enhancing effects of cimetidine on the host's antitumour cell-mediated immune response, such as inhibition of suppressor T lymphocyte activity, stimulation of natural killer cell activity and increase of interleukin-2 production from helper T lymphocytes. We conducted an in vitro study on the effects of cimetidine on differentiation and antigen presenting capacity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells from advanced colorectal cancer patients and normal controls. As a result, an investigation of expression of surface molecules associated with dendritic cells by flow cytometric analyses showed that cimetidine had no enhancing effect on differentiation of dendritic cells from cancer patients and normal controls. An investigation of [3H]thymidine incorporation by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions revealed that cimetidine increased the antigen presenting capacity of dendritic cells from both materials. Moreover, a higher antigen presenting capacity was observed in advanced cancer patients compared to normal controls. These effects might be mediated via specific action of cimetidine and not via H2 receptors because famotidine did not show similar effects. Our results suggest that cimetidine may enhance the host's antitumour cell-mediated immunity by improving the suppressed dendritic cells function of advanced cancer patients.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1257–1261. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600233 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600233
PMCID: PMC2375332  PMID: 11953882
dendritic cell; H2 receptor antagonist; cimetidine; colorectal cancer
2.  Photochemically induced colonic ischaemic lesions: a new model of ischaemic colitis in rats 
Gut  1997;41(3):354-357.
Background—Recent clinical studies suggest that ischaemic colitis is caused by a microcirculatory disturbance that involves thrombosis of the colon. 
Aim—To establish a new model of photochemically induced ischaemic colitis in rats. 
Methods—Thirty male Wistar rats were anaesthetised with amobarbital, the femoral veins were cannulated and laparotomies were performed. The serosal surface of the proximal colon was irradiated by using a krypton laser (wavelength 568 nm, 20 mW) for four minutes. An intravenous infusion of a photosensitising dye, rose bengal (20 mg/kg body weight), was administered over 90 seconds, beginning at the start of irradiation. Rats were killed immediately (n=4), 12 hours (n=2), 24 hours (n=10), three days (n=4), seven days (n=4), 14 days (n=2), or 28 days (n=2) after irradiation. Two control rats received laser irradiation without dye infusion. Specimens of the irradiated sites were examined by using histopathology. 
Results—Localised ulcers of the colon were present in rats killed at 12 hours, 24 hours, three days, and seven days after irradiation. Microscopy findings were consistent with the features of human ischaemic colitis. Reproducible ulcerative lesions were produced by photothrombosis of microvessels in the colon. 
Conclusion—This model may be useful for further investigation of the pathophysiology of ischaemic colitis. 


Keywords: ischaemic colitis; photothrombosis; rose bengal
PMCID: PMC1891495  PMID: 9378391
3.  Distribution of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Bacteria Present in Intestines of Deep-Sea Fish and Shallow-Sea Poikilothermic Animals 
The lipid and fatty acid compositions in nine obligate and facultative barophilic bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of seven deep-sea fish were determined. Phospholipid compositions were simple, with phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol predominating in all strains. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which has not been reported in procaryotes except for deep-sea bacteria, was found to be present in eight strains at a level of 8.1 to 21.5% of total fatty acids. In the other strain, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) was present at a level of 31.5% of total fatty acids. Other fatty acids observed in all strains were typical of marine gram-negative bacteria. Subcultures from pouches prepared from intestinal contents of five deep-sea fish by the most-probable-number (MPN) method were analyzed for fatty acids, and all subcultures contained DHA and/or EPA. Accordingly, viable cell counts of bacteria containing DHA and EPA were estimated at a maximum of 1.3 x 10(sup8) and 2.4 x 10(sup8) cells per ml, respectively, and accounted for 14 and 30%, respectively, of the total cell counts in the intestinal contents of the deep-sea fish. In the case of 10 shallow-sea poikilothermic animals having bacterial populations of 1.1 x 10(sup6) to 1.9 x 10(sup9) CFU per ml in intestinal contents, no DHA was found in the 112 isolates examined, while production of EPA was found in 40 isolates from cold- and temperate-sea samples. These results suggest that DHA and EPA are involved in some adaptations of bacteria to low temperature and high pressure.
PMCID: PMC1389193  PMID: 16535638
4.  Comparison of Pressure Resistances of Spores of Six Bacillus Strains with Their Heat Resistances 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1996;62(10):3897-3900.
The pressure resistances of the spores of six Bacillus strains were examined at 5 to 10(deg)C and were compared with their heat resistances. The pressure treatments (at 981 MPa for 40 min and at 588 MPa for 120 min) did not inactivate the spores of B. stearothermophilus IAM12043, B. subtilis IAM12118, and B. licheniformis IAM13417. However, these spores had large differences in heat resistance. The spores of B. megaterium IAM1166 were 9.3 times more pressure resistant but 246 times less heat resistant than those of B. stearothermophilus IAM11001. The spores of B. coagulans IAM1194 were activated by the pressure treatments. There was no correlation between these pressure and heat resistances.
PMCID: PMC1388968  PMID: 16535430
5.  Population Sizes and Growth Pressure Responses of Intestinal Microfloras of Deep-Sea Fish Retrieved from the Abyssal Zone 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1995;61(12):4480-4483.
The intestinal floras of seven deep-sea fish retrieved at depths of from 3,200 to 5,900 m were examined for population sizes and growth responses to pressure. Large populations of culturable bacteria, ranging from 1.1 x 10(sup6) to 3.6 x 10(sup8) cells per ml of contents, were detected when samples were incubated at conditions characteristic of those of the deep sea. Culturable cell counts at in situ pressures were greater than those at atmospheric pressure in all samples. Most of the strains isolated by the spread-plating method at atmospheric pressure later proved barophilic. Barophilic bacteria were the predominant inhabitants of the abyssal fish intestines.
PMCID: PMC1388664  PMID: 16535199
6.  Identification of spirochetes isolated from wild rodents in Japan as Borrelia japonica. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(5):1392-1394.
Spirochetes isolated from three species of wild mice, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Eothenomys smithi, which were caught on Honshu, Japan, were characterized on the bases of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and DNA homology values. All the isolates reacted with MAb O1441b, which is specific for Borrelia japonica, but not with MAb P62, which is specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii. The DNA relatedness of four representatives isolates to strain HO14, a type strain of B. japonica, was 83 to 88%. From these findings, the spirochetes were identified as B. japonica.
PMCID: PMC228176  PMID: 7615765
7.  Coexpression of glucose transporters and glucokinase in Xenopus oocytes indicates that both glucose transport and phosphorylation determine glucose utilization. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;94(4):1373-1382.
A Xenopus oocyte expression system was used to examine how glucose transporters (GLUT 2 and GLUT 3) and glucokinase (GK) activity affect glucose utilization. Uninjected oocytes and low rates of both glucose transport and phosphorylation; expression of GLUT 2 or GLUT 3 increased glucose phosphorylation approximately 20-fold by a low Km, endogenous hexokinase at glucose concentrations < or = 1 mM, but not at higher glucose concentrations. Coexpression of functional GK isoforms with GLUT 2 or 3 increased glucose utilization approximately an additional two- to threefold primarily at the physiologic glucose concentrations of 5-20 mM. The Km for glucose of both the hepatic and beta cell isoforms of GK, determined in situ, was approximately 5-10 mM when coexpressed with either GLUT 2 or GLUT 3. The increase in glucose utilization by coexpression of GLUT 3 and GK was dependent upon glucose phosphorylation since two missense GK mutations linked with maturity-onset diabetes, 182: Val-->Met and 228:Thr-->Met, did not increase glucose utilization despite accumulation of both a similar amount of immunoreactive GK protein and glucose inside the cell. Coexpression of a mutant GK and a normal GK isoform did not interfere with the function of the normal GK enzyme. Since the coexpression of GK and a glucose transporter in oocytes resembles conditions in the hepatocyte and pancreatic beta cell, these results indicate that increases in glucose utilization at glucose concentrations > 1 mM depend upon both a functional glucose transporter and GK.
Images
PMCID: PMC295259  PMID: 7929812
8.  Double-Antibody Radioimmunoassay for Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 
Applied Microbiology  1975;30(4):525-529.
A sensitive double-antibody radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 is described. The assay procedure employs anti-rabbit gamma globulin, prepared in goats, to precipitate the antigen-antibody complex of enterotoxin C2 and anti-enterotoxin C2. The test is sensitive to 100 pg of enterotoxin.
PMCID: PMC187224  PMID: 1081374

Results 1-8 (8)