In the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial, IgG antibody (Ab) binding levels to variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 were an inverse correlate of risk of HIV-1 infection. To determine if V1V2-specific Abs cross-react with V1V2 from different HIV-1 subtypes, if the nature of the V1V2 antigen used to asses cross-reactivity influenced infection risk, and to identify immune assays for upcoming HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials, new V1V2-scaffold antigens were designed and tested. Protein scaffold antigens carrying the V1V2 regions from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D or CRF01_AE were assayed in pilot studies, and six were selected to assess cross-reactive Abs in the plasma from the original RV144 case-control cohort (41 infected vaccinees, 205 frequency-matched uninfected vaccinees, and 40 placebo recipients) using ELISA and a binding Ab multiplex assay. IgG levels to these antigens were assessed as correlates of risk in vaccine recipients using weighted logistic regression models. Levels of Abs reactive with subtype A, B, C and CRF01_AE V1V2-scaffold antigens were all significant inverse correlates of risk (p-values of 0.0008–0.05; estimated odds ratios of 0.53–0.68 per 1 standard deviation increase). Thus, levels of vaccine-induced IgG Abs recognizing V1V2 regions from multiple HIV-1 subtypes, and presented on different scaffolds, constitute inverse correlates of risk for HIV-1 infection in the RV144 vaccine trial. The V1V2 antigens provide a link between RV144 and upcoming HIV-1 vaccine trials, and identify reagents and methods for evaluating V1V2 Abs as possible correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection.
The RV144 HIV-1 trial of the canary pox vector (ALVAC-HIV) plus the gp120 AIDSVAX B/E vaccine demonstrated an estimated efficacy of 31%, that correlated directly with antibodies to HIV-1 envelope variable regions 1 and 2 (V1–V2). Genetic analysis of trial viruses revealed increased vaccine efficacy against viruses matching the vaccine strain at V2 residue 169. Here, we isolated four V2 monoclonal antibodies from RV144 vaccinees that recognize residue 169, neutralize laboratory-adapted HIV-1, and mediate killing of field isolate HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Crystal structures of two of the V2 antibodies demonstrated residue 169 can exist within divergent helical and loop conformations, which contrasted dramatically with the beta strand conformation previously observed with a broadly neutralizing antibody PG9. Thus, RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure appears to target a region that may be both sequence variable and structurally polymorphic. Variation may signal sites of HIV-1 envelope vulnerability, providing vaccine designers with new options.
While researchers have extensively characterized functional connectivity between brain regions, the characterization of functional homogeneity within a region of the brain connectome is in early stages of development. Several functional homogeneity measures were proposed previously, among which regional homogeneity (ReHo) was most widely used as a measure to characterize functional homogeneity of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) signals within a small region (Zang et al., 2004). Despite a burgeoning literature on ReHo in the field of neuroimaging brain disorders, its test–retest (TRT) reliability remains unestablished. Using two sets of public R-fMRI TRT data, we systematically evaluated the ReHo’s TRT reliability and further investigated the various factors influencing its reliability and found: 1) nuisance (head motion, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) correction of R-fMRI time series can significantly improve the TRT reliability of ReHo while additional removal of global brain signal reduces its reliability, 2) spatial smoothing of R-fMRI time series artificially enhances ReHo intensity and influences its reliability, 3) surface-based R-fMRI computation largely improves the TRT reliability of ReHo, 4) a scan duration of 5 min can achieve reliable estimates of ReHo, and 5) fast sampling rates of R-fMRI dramatically increase the reliability of ReHo. Inspired by these findings and seeking a highly reliable approach to exploratory analysis of the human functional connectome, we established an R-fMRI pipeline to conduct ReHo computations in both 3-dimensions (volume) and 2-dimensions (surface).
Connectome; Test–retest; Reliability; Functional homogeneity; Default network
Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers.
Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function.
Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare.
This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region.
Homegardens; Medicinal plants; Naxi; Ethnomedicine; Healers
The exposure of skin keratinocytes to Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473, which is important for the carcinogenic effects of excessive sun exposure. The present study investigated the underlying mechanism of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation by UVB radiation.
We found that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) were both required for UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation in keratinocytes. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity via its inhibitor NU7026, a dominant-negative kinase-dead mutation, RNA interference (RNAi) or gene depletion led to the attenuation of UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, siRNA silencing or gene depletion of SIN1, a key component of mTORC2, abolished Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation by UVB. Significantly, we discovered that DNA-PKcs was associated with SIN1 in cytosol upon UVB radiation, and this complexation appeared required for Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, this DNA-PKcs-SIN1 complexation by UVB was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and was disrupted by an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) or by EGFR depletion. UVB-induced complexation between DNA-PKcs and mTORC2 components was also abolished by NU7026 and DNA-PKcs mutation. Finally, we found that both DNA-PKcs and SIN1 were associated with apoptosis resistance of UVB radiation, and inhibition of them by NU7026 or genetic depletion significantly enhanced UVB-induced cell death and apoptosis.
Taken together, these results strongly suggest that DNA-PKcs-mTORC2 association is required for UVB-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and cell survival, and might be important for tumor cell transformation.
UV irradiation; Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation; DNA-PKcs; SIN1; Skin care
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have ability to base pair with their target mRNAs to induce their degradation in plants. miR394a/b are conserved small RNAs and its target gene LCR (LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) encodes an F-box protein (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) but whether miR394a/b and its target gene LCR are involved in regulation of plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses is unknown.
Mature miR394 and precursor miR394a/b are shown to be slightly induced by ABA. By contrast, LCR expression is depressed by ABA. Analysis of LCR and its promoter (pLCR::GUS) revealed that LCR is expressed at all development stages. MIR394a/b over-expression (35S::MIR394a/b) and lcr (LCR loss of function) mutant plants are hypersensitive to salt stress, but LCR over-expressing (35S::m5LCR) plants display the salt-tolerant phenotype. Both 35S::MIR394a/b and lcr plants are highly tolerant to severe drought stress compared with wild-type, but 35S::m5LCR plants are susceptible to water deficiency. Over-expression of MIR394a/b led to ABA hypersensitivity and ABA-associated phenotypes, whereas 35S::m5LCR plants show ABA resistance phenotypes. Moreover, 35S::MIR394a/b plants accumulated higher levels of ABA-induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals than wild-type and 35S::m5LCR plants. Expressions of ABA- and stress-responsive genes, ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, ABF3, and ABF4 are up-regulated in MIR394a/b over-expressing plants but down-regulated in 35S::m5LCR plants. Over-expression of MIR394a in abi4-1 or abi5-1 background resulted in loss of ABA-sensitivity in 35S::MIR394a plants.
The silencing of LCR mRNA by miR394 is essential to maintain a certain phenotype favorable for the adaptive response to abiotic stresses. The contrasting phenotypes of salt and drought responses may be mediated by a functional balance between miR394 and LCR. If the balance is perturbed in case of the abiotic stress, an identical phenotype related to the stress response occurs, resulting in either ABA sensitive or insensitive response. Thus, miR394-regulated LCR abundance may allow plants to fine-tune their responses to ABA and abiotic stress.
miR394; LCR; Abscisic acid; Salinity; Drought; Arabidopsis
Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica), sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans), and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d) in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.
Pancreatic fibrosis, a prominent histopathological feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is essentially a dynamic process that leads to irreversible scarring of parenchymal tissues of the pancreas. Though the exact mechanisms of its initiation and development are poorly understood, recent studies suggested that the activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) plays a critical role in eliciting such active course of fibrogenesis. Anthraquinone compounds possess anti-inflammatory bioactivities whereas its natural derivative rhein has been shown to effectively reduce tissue edema and free-radical production in rat models of inflammatory conditions. Apart from its anti-inflammatory properties, rhein actually exerts strong anti-fibrotic effects in our current in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. In the mouse model of cerulein-induced CP, prolonged administration of rhein at 50 mg/kg/day significantly decreased immunoreactivities of the principal fibrotic activators alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on pancreatic sections implicating the activation of PSCs, which is the central tread to fibrogenesis, was attenuated. Consequently, the overwhelmed deposition of extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin 1 (FN1) and type I collagen (COL I-α1) in exocrine parenchyma was found accordingly reduced. In addition, the expression levels of sonic hedgehog (SHH), which plays important roles in molecular modulation of various fibrotic processes, and its immediate effector GLI1 in pancreatic tissues were positively correlated to the degree of cerulein-induced fibrosis. Such up-regulation of SHH signaling was restrained in rhein-treated CP mice. In cultured PSCs, we demonstrated that the expression levels of TGF-β-stimulated fibrogenic markers including α-SMA, FN1 and COL I-α1 as well as SHH were all notably suppressed by the application of rhein at 10 μM. The present study firstly reported that rhein attenuates PSC activation and suppresses SHH/GLI1 signaling in pancreatic fibrosis. With strong anti-fibrotic effects provided, rhein can be a potential remedy for fibrotic and/or PSC-related pathologies in the pancreas.
Trichoderma reesei YC-108, a strain isolated by a kind of newly invented plate was found to over produce cellulase and it was then used as a cellulase producer. To get the maximum amount of cellulase, the combination of the medium ingredients, which has a profound influence on metabolic pathway was optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum composition was found to be 24.63 g/L wheat bran, 30.78 g/L avicel, and 19.16 g/L soya-bean cake powder. By using the optimized medium, the filter paper activity (FPA) increased nearly five times to 15.82 IU/mL in a 30 L stirred fermenter, carboxymethyl cellulase activity (CMCase) was increased from 83.02 to 628.05 IU/mL and the CMCase/FPA ratio was nearly doubled compared with the parent strain at initial medium.
Trichoderma reesei YC-108; Cellulase; RSM; Optimization
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway plays a key role in inflammation. However, the regulatory roles of PI3K/Akt in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, on SAP rats through exposure to sodium taurocholate (STC) after 3 h and 6 h. The SAP group was found to have a significant increase in pancreas Akt expression, along with the activation of serum amylase, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and pancreas histological aggravation. The administration of wortmannin in SAP rats reduced Akt expression, attenuated the level of serum amylase and inflammation factor, and alleviated the damage of pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, the administration of wortmannin led to an obvious reduction in NF-κB and p38MAPK expression in SAP rats. These findings showed that the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin decreases inflammatory cytokines in SAP rats and suggests its regulatory mechanisms may occur through the suppression on NF-κB and p38MAPK activity.
Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field.
Micro brushes; Carbon nanotube arrays; Chemical vapor deposition
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the results of screening of newborn hearing and the incidence of deafness-susceptibility genes. One thousand newborn babies in the Handan Center Hospital (Handan, China) underwent screening of hearing and deafness-susceptibility genes. The first screening test was carried out using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Babies with hearing loss who failed to pass the initial screening were scheduled for rescreening at 42 days after birth. Cord blood was used for the screening of deafness-susceptibility genes, namely the GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MTRNR1) genes. Among the 1,000 neonates that underwent the first hearing screening, 25 exhibited left-sided hearing loss, 21 exhibited right-sided hearing loss and 15 cases had binaural hearing loss. After rescreening 42 days later, only one of the initial 61 cases exhibited hearing loss under OAE testing. The neonatal deafness gene tests showed two cases with 1555A>G mutation and two cases with 1494C>T mutation of the MTRNR1 gene. In the SLC26A4 gene screening, four cases exhibited the heterozygous IVS7-2A>G mutation and one case exhibited heterozygous 1226G>A mutation. In the GJB2 gene screening, two cases exhibited the homozygous 427C>T mutation and 10 exhibited the heterozygous 235delC mutation. The genetic screening revealed 21 newborns with mutations in the three deafness-susceptibility genes. The overall carrier rate was 2.1% (21/1,000). The association of hearing and gene screening may be the promising screening strategy for the diagnosis of hearing loss.
newborn; hearing screening; gene screening; MassARRAY platform; mitochondrial 12S rRNA; GJB2 gene; SLC26A4 gene
The Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like (CDKAL1) gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism has been suggested to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the individual studies results are still controversial. To explore the association of CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism with T2DM, a meta-analysis involving 62,567 subjects from 21 separate studies was conducted. In the whole population, a significant association was found between CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism and T2DM under allelic (OR: 1.180, 95% CI: 1.130–1.230, P = 1.60 × 10−14), recessive (OR: 1.510, 95% CI: 1.380–1.660, P = 8.41 × 10−18), dominant (OR: 1.175, 95% CI: 1.109–1.246, P = 6.30 × 10−8), homozygous (OR: 1.400, 95% CI: 1.282–1.530, P = 8.02 × 10−14), and heterozygous genetic models (OR: 1.101, 95% CI: 1.040–1.166, P = 0.001). CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM. The person with G allele of CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism might be predisposed to T2DM.
Objective(s): Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. This study investigated the expression and clinical significance of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in human breast cancer and its relationship with the clinical outcome of breast cancer.
Materials and Methods
: ATF3 expressions were detected in 114 primary breast cancer tissues and 114 adjacent normal tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Categorical variables were statistically compared by chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Survival curves were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons of survival rates were tested using a Log-rank test.
: IHC analysis showed that the positive expression of ATF3 protein was detected in breast cancer tissue with a positive ratio of 76.3%, and the positive ATF3 expression in adjacent normal breast tissue was 13.2%, which is lower than that in breast cancer tissue samples (P<0.01). Furthermore, ATF3 expression showed significant correlation with TNM stage, invasion, lymph node metastasis and number of metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.038, P=0.029, P=0.026, and P=0.039 respectively), and did not correlate with patients’ age and tumor size (P>0.05). A significant difference in overall survival rate was found between the patients with positive expression of ATF3 protein and those with negative expression (P=0.041).
: Increased ATF3 expression participate in the tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer, and ATF3 may be useful as a new prognostic indicator for breast cancer patients.
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3); Breast cancer; Clinical significance; Immunohistochemistry; Prognostic indicator
This study aimed to explore the assessment value of virtual touch quantization (VTQ) for the clinicopathological typing of renal fibrosis. The quantitative detection of 76 patients with nephropathy was performed using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI). The extent of the renal fibrosis in each patient was confirmed using ultrasound-guided biopsy pathology. The VTQ values were compared with the degree of renal fibrosis in order to analyze the correlation between them. Patients were divided pathologically into four groups, as follows: non-fibrosis (n=14), mild fibrosis (n=40), moderate fibrosis (n=21) and severe fibrosis (n=1). Compared with the non-fibrosis group, the VTQ values of the mild and moderate fibrosis groups were significantly increased (P<0.01); however, there was no significant difference between the VTQ values of the mild and moderate fibrosis groups (P>0.05). According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a VTQ value of renal parenchyma of >1.67 m/sec was determined to be an indicator of renal fibrosis, with a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. VTQ technology may be significant in the assessment of the extent of renal fibrosis.
ultrasonograph; kidney; fibrosis; acoustic radiation force impulse imaging
To evaluate the effects of the multiple burr hole (MBH) revascularization on ischemic type adult Moyamoya disease (MMD) by computed tomography perfusion (CTP).
Eighty-six ischemic MMD patients received CTP 1 week before and 3 weeks after MBH operation. Fifty-seven patients received it again at 6 month and underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and mRS follow-up. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and relative values of ischemic symptomatic hemispheres were measured. Differences in pre- and post-surgery perfusion CT values were assessed.
There were significant differences of CBF, TTP, and relative time to peak (rTTP) in ischemic hemisphere between 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery, and no significant difference in relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), CBV, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), MTT, relative mean transit time (rMTT). According to whether there was symptom improvement or not on 3 weeks after MBH, the rTTP value was not statistically significant in the patients whose symptoms were not improved at all on 3 weeks after operation. Six-month follow-up showed that CBF, rCBF, and rCBV values were significantly higher than those before operation. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT, and rTTP values were significantly lower than those before operation.
CTP is a sensitive method to obtain functional imaging of cerebral microcirculation, which can be a noninvasive assessment of the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and cerebral perfusion changes in MMD before and after surgery. CBF and TTP map, especially the relative values of TTP, seems to have the capability of being quite sensitive to the presence of altered brain perfusion at early time after indirect revascularization.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00234-013-1291-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Moyamoya disease; CT perfusion; Multiple burr hole surgery; Ischemic
AIM: To evaluate the application value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for imaging determination of metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer and to explore reasonable diagnostic criteria.
METHODS: Sixty patients with gastric cancer underwent 64 MSCT scans before operation. Gastric cancer samples and perigastric lymph nodes were obtained after operation, formalin fixation and haematoxylin-eosin staining. The metastatic conditions of gastric cancer and perigastric lymph nodes were determined under a light microscope. A total of 605 lymph nodes were grouped and assessed according to distribution, size, shape and degree of lymph node enhancement. Then, the findings were compared with the postoperative pathological results.
RESULTS: Among 605 lymph nodes, 358 were confirmed as metastatic, accounting for 59.2%. A total of 535 lymph nodes were detected in original axis images combined with multiplanar reconstruction images of MSCT. The metastatic lymph nodes had specific signs in computed tomography. This study showed that the long diameter of lymph nodes ≥ 8 mm indicated metastasis; the sensitivity and specificity were 79.6% and 78.8%, respectively. The difference of the mean value of lymph node enhancement density ≥ 80 Hu indicated metastasis; the sensitivity and specificity were 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively. The ratio of short diameter to long diameter of lymph nodes ≥ 0.7 indicated metastasis; the sensitivity and specificity were 85.6% and 71.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: MSCT is a non-invasive and reliable method for preoperative examination of gastric cancer. Sensitivity and specificity for prediction of lymph node metastasis are high.
X-ray computer; Gastric cancer; Metastatic lymph nodes
Nanoparticles (NPs) were widely used in drugs/probes delivery for improved disease diagnosis and/or treatment. Targeted delivery to cancer cells is a highly attractive application of NPs. However, few studies have been performed on the targeting mechanisms of these ligand-modified delivery systems. Additional studies are needed to understand the transport of nanoparticles in the cancer site, the interactions between nanoparticles and cancer cells, the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles within the cancer cells and the subcellular destiny and potential toxicity. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) peptide can specifically bind IL-13Rα2, a receptor that is highly expressed on glioma cells but is expressed at low levels on other normal cells. It was shown that the nanoparticels modification with the IL-13 peptide could improve glioma treatment by selectively increasing cellular uptake, facilitating cell internalization, altering the uptake pathway and increasing glioma localization.
To observe effects of trabeculectomy with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in controlling postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with medically uncontrolled glaucoma.
This study included adult patients with requiring bilateral glaucoma surgery. Each patient underwent trabeculectomy (Non-AMT group) in one eye and with AMT (AMT group) in the other eye according to randomized principle. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP)<21mmHg without any anti-glaucoma medications at 24 months follow-up. The two groups were compared in terms of IOP, complications and success rate.
Thirty-four eyes of 17 patients were investigated in this study. There was no statistically signifcant difference in pre-operative IOP between the two groups. The mean IOP was lower in AMT group compared with Non-AMT group on follow up months 12, 18, and 24.Postoperative complications were more frequent in Non-AMT group (35.3%, 6/17) compared with AMT group (5.9%, 1/17). The success rate of surgery was 88.2% (15/17) in Non-AMT group and 100% (17/17) in AMT group.
Trabeculectomy with AMT is an effective procedure to reduce IOP and complications, thereby improving surgical success rates.
trabeculectomy; amniotic membrane transplantation; glaucoma
To better understand the limits of antigenic reactivity and epitope accessibility of the V3 domain of primary HIV-1 isolates, we evaluated three human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and selected guinea pig vaccine sera for neutralization against reference panels of subtype B and C pseudoviruses derived from early stage infections. The mAbs and vaccine sera potently neutralized several prototype viruses, but displayed substantially less neutralization of most reference strains. In the presence of soluble CD4 (sCD4), the breadth of V3-mediated neutralization was increased; up to 80% and 77% of the subtype B and C viruses respectively were sensitive to V3-mediated neutralization. Unlike sCD4, the reaction of CD4-binding site mAbs b12 and F105 with native virus did not lead to full exposure of the V3 domain. These findings confirm that V3 antibodies recognize most primary viral strains, but that the epitope often has limited accessibility in the context of native envelope spike.
The outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein contains the epitope for broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the CD4-binding site, many of which are able to neutralize over 90% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. While the outer domain is conformationally more stable than other portions of the HIV-1 envelope, efforts to express the outer domain as an immunogen for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been successful, potentially because natural outer domain variants do not bind strongly to antibodies such as VRC01. In this study, we optimized the antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env outer domain to generate OD4.2.2, from the KER2018 strain of clade A HIV-1, enabling it to bind antibodies such as VRC01 with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 in complex with VRC-PG04 was solved at 3.0-Å resolution and compared to known crystal structures including (i) the structure of core gp120 bound by VRC-PG04 and (ii) a circularly permutated version of the outer domain in complex with antibody PGT128. Much of the VRC-PG04 epitope was preserved in the OD4.2.2 structure, though with altered N and C termini conformations. Overall, roughly one-third of the outer domain structure appeared to be fixed in conformation, independent of alterations in termini, clade, or ligand, while other portions of the outer domain displayed substantial structural malleability. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 with VRC-PG04 provides atomic-level details for an HIV-1 domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and insights relevant to the rational design of an immunogen that could elicit such antibodies by vaccination.
Slight elevations in cardiac troponin I and T are frequently observed after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a complex syndrome induced by exposure to intravascular contrast media (CM). Currently, the relationships between the CM, pre-existing kidney insufficiency, CI-AKI, and myonecrosis after elective PCI are unclear. To investigate the relationship between CI-AKI and post-procedural myonecrosis (PMN) after PCI, we analyzed 327 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome subjects undertaking elective PCI. The levels of cardiac troponins (cTns), cTnI and cTnT, at baseline and on at least one occasion 18–24 h after PCI were measured. We also recorded serum levels of creatinine (SCr) and the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) before coronary angiography, and 24–48 h and 48–72 h after contrast administration. A post-procedure increase in cTns was detected in 16.21% (53/327) of subjects with cTns levels >99th to 5×99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). Twenty-seven patients (8.26%) developed CI-AKI. CI-AKI occurred more often in subjects with PMN than in those without PMN (20.8% versus 5.8%, respectively, P=0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that pre-existing microalbuminuria (MA) was an important independent predictor of PMN (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.26–8.65, P=0.01). However, there was no correlation between the incidence of CI-AKI and PMN (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 0.88–6.46, P=0.09). We conclude that pre-existing MA was not only an important independent predictor of CI-AKI but also of PMN.
Percutaneous coronary intervention; Myonecrosis; Contrast-induced nephropathy; Acute kidney injury; Contrast media
The genus Amphibacillus was established in 1990, and seven additional species were described in the past two decades. Amphibacillus jilinensis Y1T is a facultatively anaerobic and alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a soda lake in China. Here we describe the structural and genetic features of the draft genome about the type strain Y1T (3,831,075 bp, with a G+C content of 37.27%). This is the first genome report of the Amphibacillus genus.
Amphibacillus; facultative anaerobe; alkaliphilic bacterium; halotolerant; soda lake; two-component systems
The gold standard of tumor diagnosis is histological examination of a biopsy; however, there is concern that tumor cell dissemination along the needle track during percutaneous biopsy can cause local tumor relapse. We aimed to evaluate the value of an adriamycin (ADM)-loaded gelatin sponge in preventing tumor cell contamination along the biopsy needle track.
Data were obtained from 40 patients who were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as having osteosarcoma and who were followed up at our hospital between 2008 and 2011. Of the 40 patients, 20 had the needle biopsy tracks filled with ADM-loaded absorbable gelatin sponge immediately after the biopsy specimen was obtained, while the other 20 did not. All 40 patients underwent limb-salvage surgery, and specimens were obtained from the biopsy track for histopathologic examination of multiple sections.
On histological examination, there was less tumor cell contamination along the biopsy tracks in the ADM group.
Use of ADM-loaded absorbable gelatin sponge may prevent tumor cell contamination of a biopsy track, and reduce the possibility of consequent tumor relapse.
Adriamycin; Gelatin sponge; Biopsy track; Embolism; Osteosarcoma
To create an HIV-1 vaccine that generates sufficient breadth of immune recognition to protect against the genetically diverse forms of the circulating virus, we have been exploring vaccines based on consensus and mosaic protein designs. Increasing the valency of a mosaic immunogen cocktail increases epitope coverage but with diminishing returns, as increasingly rare epitopes are incorporated into the mosaic proteins. In this study we compared the immunogenicity of 2-valent and 3-valent HIV-1 envelope mosaic immunogens in rhesus monkeys. Immunizations with the 3-valent mosaic immunogens resulted in a modest increase in the breadth of vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses compared to the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. However, the 3-valent mosaic immunogens elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses to Tier 1 viruses than the 2-valent mosaic immunogens. These findings underscore the potential utility of polyvalent mosaic immunogens for eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1.
HIV-1 vaccine; Mosaic immunogen; T cell