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1.  Influence of preparation depths on the fracture load of customized zirconia abutments with titanium insert 
This study evaluated the fracture load of customized zirconia abutments with titanium insert according to preparation depths, with or without 5-year artificial aging.
Thirty-six identical lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max press) were fabricated to replace a maxillary right central incisor and cemented to the customized zirconia abutment with titanium insert on a 4.5×10 mm titanium fixture. Abutments were fabricated with 3 preparation depths (0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, and 0.9 mm). Half of the samples were then processed using thermocycling (temperature: 5-55℃, dwelling time: 120s) and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 49 N load). All specimens were classified into 6 groups depending on the preparation depth and artificial aging (non-artificial aging groups: N5, N7, N9; artificial aging groups: A5, A7, A9). Static load was applied at 135 degrees to the implant axis in a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses of the results were performed using 1-way ANOVA, 2-way ANOVA, independent t-test and multiple linear regression.
The fracture loads were 539.28 ± 63.11 N (N5), 406.56 ± 28.94 N (N7), 366.66 ± 30.19 N (N9), 392.61 ± 50.57 N (A5), 317.94 ± 30.05 N (A7), and 292.74 ± 37.15 N (A9). The fracture load of group N5 was significantly higher than those of group N7 and N9 (P<.017). Consequently, the fracture load of group A5 was also significantly higher than those of group A7 and A9 (P<.05). After artificial aging, the fracture load was significantly decreased in all groups with various preparation depths (P<.05).
The fracture load of a single anterior implant restored with lithium disilicate crown on zirconia abutment with titanium insert differed depending on the preparation depths. After 5-year artificial aging, the fracture loads of all preparation groups decreased significantly.
PMCID: PMC4486613  PMID: 26140169
Dental implant; Zirconia abutment; Titanium insert; Fracture load; Preparation depth; Artificial aging
2.  Comparion of stability in titanium implants with different surface topographies in dogs 
A few of studies which compared and continuously measured the stability of various surface treated implants in the same individual had been performed.
We aim to find the clinical significance of surface treatments by observing the differences in the stabilization stages of implant stability.
Eight different surface topographies of dental implants were especially designed for the present study. Machined surface implants were used as a control group. 4 nano-treated surface implants (20 nm TiO2 coating surface, heat-treated 80 nm TiO2 coating surface, CaP coating surface, heat treated CaP coating surface) and 3 micro-treated surface implants [resorbable blast media (RBM) surface, sandblast and acid-etched (SAE) surface, anodized RBM surface] were used as experiment groups. All 24 implants were placed in 3 adult dogs. Periotest® & ISQ values measured for 8 weeks and all animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks after surgery. Then the histological analyses were done.
In PTV, all implants were stabilized except 1 failed implants. In ISQ values, The lowest stability was observed at different times for each individual. The ISQ values were showed increased tendency after 5 weeks in every groups. After 4 to 5 weeks, the values were stabilized. There was no statistical correlation between the ISQ values and PTV. In the histological findings, the bone formation was observed to be adequate in general and no differences among the 8 surface treated implants.
In this study, the difference in the stability of the implants was determined not by the differences in the surface treatment but by the individual specificity.
PMCID: PMC2994674  PMID: 21165255
Implant stability quotient (ISQ); Periotest value (PTV); Stability; Surface treatment; Titanium implant
3.  Oral rehabilitation for a patient with oligodontia and maxillary hypoplasia 
An 18 year old female with oligodontia and maxillary hypoplasia was treated using an interdisciplinary team approach involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons and prosthodontists. Full mouth one-piece fixed partial dentures were the final restoration. The fixed partial dentures fabricated for the maxilla and mandible using the concept of a shortened dental arch resulted in improved esthetics and the masticatory function. This paper describes the treatment procedures for an oligodontia patient with alveolar bone hypoplasia.
PMCID: PMC2994676  PMID: 21165248
Rehabilitation; Oligodontia; Interdisciplinary; Shortend dental arch; Esthetics
4.  Effect of loading time on marginal bone loss around hydroxyapatite-coated implants 
The objective of this study is compare the rate of marginal bone resorption around hydroxyapatite-coated implants given different loading times in order to evaluate their stability.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted retrospectively for one year, targeting 41 patients whose treatment areas were the posterior maxilla and the mandible. Osstem TS III HA (Osstem Implant Co., Busan, Korea) and Zimmer TSV-HA (Zimmer Dental, Carlsbad, CA, USA), which employ the new hydroxyapatite coating technique, were used. The patients were divided into two groups - immediate and delayed loading - and the bone level at the time of loading commencement and after one year of loading was measured using periapical radiography. Differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney (α=0.05).
For all patients as a single group, the survival rate of the implants was 100%, and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.26±0.59 mm. In comparison of the differences by loading, mean marginal bone loss of 0.32±0.69 mm was recorded for the immediate loading group whereas the delayed loading group had mean marginal bone loss of 0.16±0.42 mm. However, the difference was not significant (P>0.05).
Within the limited observation period of one year, predictable survival rates can be expected when using immediately loaded hydroxyapatite-coated implants.
PMCID: PMC3858130  PMID: 24471037
Loading; Bone loss
5.  A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea 
We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth.
A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level.
The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male.
After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards.
PMCID: PMC3303915  PMID: 22439095
Single upper central incisor; Esthetics; Width-to-length ratio
6.  Shear bond strength of composite resin to titanium according to various surface treatments 
When veneering composite resin-metal restoration is prepared, the fact that bond strength between Ti and composite resin is relatively weak should be considered.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength between the veneering composite resin and commercial pure (CP) Ti / Ti-6Al-4V alloy according to the method of surface treatment.
The disks were cast by two types of metal. Their surfaces were treated by sandblasting, metal conditioner, TiN coating and silicoating respectively. After surface treatment, the disks were veneered by composite resin (Tescera™, Bisco, USA) which is 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. The specimens were stored in water at 25℃ for 24 hours, and then evaluated for their shear bond strength by universal testing machine (STM-5®, United Calibration, USA). These values were statistically analyzed.
1. All methods of surface treatment were used in this study satisfied the requirements of ISO 10477 which is the standard of polymer-based crown and bridge materials. 2. The metal conditioner treated group showed the highest value in shear bond strength of CP Ti, silicoated group, TiN coated group, sandblasted group, in following order. 3. The silicoated group showed the highest value in shear bond strength of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, metal conditioner treated group, sandblasted group, TiN coated group, in following order.
Within the limitations of this study, all methods of surface treatment used in this study are clinically available.
PMCID: PMC2994681  PMID: 21165258
Shear bond strength; Surface treatment
7.  Histologic evaluation and removal torque analysis of nano- and microtreated titanium implants in the dogs 
A number of studies about the nano-treated surfaces of implants have been conducting along with micro-treated surfaces of implants.
The purpose of this study was to get information for the clinical use of nano-treated surfaces compared with micro-treated surfaces by measuring removal torque and analyzing histological characteristics after the placement of various surface-treated implants on femurs of dogs.
Machined surface implants were used as a control group. 4 nano-treated surface implants and 3 micro-treated surface implants [resorbable blast media surface (RBM), sandblast and acid-etched surface (SAE), anodized RBM surface] were used as experimental groups. Removal torque values of implants were measured respectively and the histological analyses were conducted on both 4weeks and 8weeks after implant surgery. The surfaces of removed implants after measuring removal torque values were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 8 weeks.
1. Removal torque values of the nano-treated groups were lower than those of micro-treated groups. 2. Removal torque values were similar in the anodized RBM surface groups. 3. On the histological views, there was much of bone formation at 8 weeks, but there was no difference between 4 and 8 weeks, and between the types of implant surfaces as well.
It is suggested that implant topography is more effective in removal torque test than surface chemistry. To get better clinical result, further studies should be fulfilled on the combined effect of surface topography and chemistry for the implant surface treatments.
PMCID: PMC2994682  PMID: 21165259
removal torque; implant; surfaces characteristics; dog; histology; SEM
8.  Effect of adhesive primers on bonding strength of heat cure denture base resin to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy 
The poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast titanium framework often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage.
This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of a heat cure denture base resin to commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy using two adhesive primers.
Disks of commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy were cast. Specimens without the primer were also prepared and used as the controls. The shear bond strengths were measured on a screw-driven universal testing machine.
The primers significantly (P < .05) improved the shear bond strengths of the heat cure resin to all metals. However, the specimens primed with the Alloy primer® (MDP monomer) showed higher bond strength than those primed with the MR bond® (MAC-10 monomer) on titanium. Only adhesive failure was observed at the metal-resin interface in the non-primed specimens, while the primed specimens showed mixed failure of adhesive and cohesive failure.
The use of appropriate adhesive metal primers makes it possible not only to eliminate the need for surface preparation of the metal framework before applying the heat cure resins, but also reduce the need for retentive devices on the metal substructure. In particular, the Alloy primer®, which contains the phosphoric acid monomer, MDP, might be clinically more acceptable for bonding a heat cure resin to titanium than a MR bond®, which contains the carboxylic acid monomer, MAC-10.
PMCID: PMC2994673  PMID: 21165254
Heat cure denture base resin; Adhesive primers
9.  Cell response to a newly developed Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloy and its sputtered nanoscale coating 
The success of titanium implants is due to osseointegration or the direct contact of the implant surface and bone without a fibrous connective tissue interface.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osteoblast precursor response to titanium - 10 tantalum - 10 niobium (Ti-Ta-Nb) alloy and its sputtered coating.
Ti-Ta-Nb coatings were sputtered onto the Ti-Ta-Nb disks. Ti6-Al-4V alloy disks were used as controls. An osteoblast precursor cell line, were used to evaluate the cell responses to the 3 groups. Cell attachment was measured using coulter counter and the cell morphology during attachment period was observed using fluorescent microscopy. Cell culture was performed at 4, 8, 12 and 16 days.
The sputtered Ti-Ta-Nb coatings consisted of dense nanoscale grains in the range of 30 to 100 nm with alpha-Ti crystal structure. The Ti-Ta-Nb disks and its sputtered nanoscale coatings exhibited greater hydrophilicity and rougher surfaces compared to the Ti-6Al-4V disks. The sputtered nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings exhibited significantly greater cell attachment compared to Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Ta-Nb disks. Nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings exhibited significantly greater ALP specific activity and total protein production compared to the other 2 groups.
It was concluded that nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings enhance cell adhesion. In addition, Ti-Ta-Nb alloy and its nanoscale coatings enhanced osteoblast differentiation, but did not support osteoblast precursor proliferation compared to Ti-6Al-4V. These results indicate that the new developed Ti-Ta-Nb alloy and its nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings may be useful as an implant material.
PMCID: PMC2994675  PMID: 21165256
Implant; Ti-Ta-Nb; Cell response; Sputter; Nanoscale; Osteoblast

Results 1-9 (9)