Umbilical cord blood (CB) is becoming an important source of haematopoietic support for transplant patients lacking human leukocyte antigen matched donors. The ethnic diversity, relative ease of collection, ready availability as cryopreserved units from CB banks, reduced incidence and severity of graft versus host disease and tolerance of higher degrees of HLA disparity between donor and recipient, are positive attributes when compared to bone marrow or cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood. However, CB transplantation is associated with significantly delayed neutrophil and platelet engraftment and an elevated risk of graft failure. These hurdles are thought to be due, at least in part, to low total nucleated cell and CD34+ cell doses transplanted. Here, current strategies directed at improving TNC and CD34+ cell doses at transplant are discussed, with particular attention paid to the use of a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/CB mononuclear cell ex vivo co-culture expansion system.
Cord blood (CB) transplantation; ex vivo expansion; mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)
Prediction of disease-specific survival (DSS) for individual patient with gastric cancer after R0 resection remains a clinical concern. Since the clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric cancer vary widely between China and western countries, this study is to evaluate a nomogram from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for predicting the probability of DSS in patients with gastric cancer from a Chinese cohort.
From 1998 to 2007, clinical data of 979 patients with gastric cancer who underwent R0 resection were retrospectively collected from Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute and used for external validation. The performance of the MSKCC nomogram in our population was assessed using concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot.
The C-index for the MSKCC predictive nomogram was 0.74 in the Chinese cohort, compared with 0.69 for American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system (P<0.0001). This suggests that the discriminating value of MSKCC nomogram is superior to AJCC staging system for prognostic prediction in the Chinese population. Calibration plots showed that the actual survival of Chinese patients corresponded closely to the MSKCC nonogram-predicted survival probabilities. Moreover, MSKCC nomogram predictions demonstrated the heterogeneity of survival in stage IIA/IIB/IIIA/IIIB disease of the Chinese patients.
In this study, we externally validated MSKCC nomogram for predicting the probability of 5- and 9-year DSS after R0 resection for gastric cancer in a Chinese population. The MSKCC nomogram performed well with good discrimination and calibration. The MSKCC nomogram improved individualized predictions of survival, and may assist Chinese clinicians and patients in individual follow-up scheduling, and decision making with regard to various treatment options.
Quantum-dots (QDs) have fuelled up intensive research efforts over the past two decades. Nevertheless, currently developed two classes of fluorescent QDs, colloidal semiconductor QDs and carbonaceous QDs suffer from either toxicity or short luminescence lifetime. Here, we report a new class of fluorescent bio-dots that are derived from DNA via self-assembly at low temperatures down to 80°C, which has an optical bandgap of 3.4 eV, and in particular possesses strong photoluminescence with a much longer luminescence lifetime (τ1 = 10.44 ns) than the carbonaceous QDs (τ1 < 0.5 ns). It is discovered that it is the interactions of base pair cytosines with each other to form sp2 carbon–like centers as luminescence centers or chromophores for the photoluminescence. The use of bio-dots in cell imaging with strong photoluminescence signal and good biocompatibility demonstrates great potentials of broad biological and optoelectronic applications.
Optical computing uses photons as information carriers, opening up the possibility for ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic devices are indispensible core components of optical computing systems. However, up to now, little experimental progress has been made in nanoscale all-optical logic discriminators, which have the function of discriminating and encoding incident light signals according to wavelength. Here, we report a strategy to realize a nanoscale all-optical logic discriminator based on plasmonic bandgap engineering in a planar plasmonic microstructure. Light signals falling within different operating wavelength ranges are differentiated and endowed with different logic state encodings. Compared with values previously reported, the operating bandwidth is enlarged by one order of magnitude. Also the SPP light source is integrated with the logic device while retaining its ultracompact size. This opens up a way to construct on-chip all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.
“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” was detected by PCR in 4.0% (34/841) of the rodents tested in this study. The 34 rodents represented nine species from seven regions of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial groEL and nearly entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of the agent revealed genetic diversity, which was correlated with its geographic origins.
Actively all-optical tunable plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials paves the way for achieving ultrahigh-speed quantum information processing chips. Unfortunately, up to now, very small experimental progress has been made for all-optical tunable plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials in the visible and near-infrared range because of small third-order optical nonlinearity of conventional materials. The achieved operating pump intensity was as high as several GW/cm2 order. Here, we report an ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials coated on polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer at the optical communication range. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by four orders of magnitude, while an ultrafast response time of picoseconds order is maintained. This work not only offers a way to constructing photonic materials with large nonlinearity and ultrafast response, but also opens up the possibility for realizing quantum solid chips and ultrafast integrated photonic devices based on metamaterials.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) represents a new trend in the development of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. When applied in lung cancer surgeries, VATS can be used for both pulmonary lobectomy and regional lymph node dissection. Currently the main concerns are focused on the completeness of lymph node dissection for lung cancer and the safety of surgery. The lymph node dissection includes two parts: (I) dissection of interlobar and hilar lymph nodes; and (II) dissection of mediastinal lymph nodes. The demonstrated surgical procedures are featured by: (I) the interlobar and hilar lymph nodes are not removed separately; rathr, they are taken out en bloc with the pulmonary lobes during the surgery; and (II) systematic lymph node dissection, instead of systematic sampling, is applied for the removal of mediastinal lymph nodes. Also, during the fully anatomical resection, each blood vessel and bronchus underwent anatomical dissociation, indicating that this surgery is safe.
Lobectomy; lung cancer; video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS); systematic lymph node dissection
To evaluate adherence of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to transmucosal abutment of dental implant with different surface conditions with time and to investigate the roles of focal adhesion linker proteins (FALPs) involved in HGFs adhesion to abutment surfaces.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Morphologies of cultured HGFs on titanium and ceramic discs with different surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and focal adhesion were evaluated by ultrasonic wave application and cell viability assay. FALPs expression levels were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot.
There seemed to be little difference in biocompatibility and adhesion strength of HGFs depending on the surface conditions and materials. In all experimental groups, the number of cells remaining on the disc surface after ultrasonic wave application increased more than 2 times at 3 days after seeding compared to 1-day cultured cells and this continued until 7 days of culture. FALPs expression levels, especially of vinculin and paxillin, also increased in 5-day cultured cells compared to 1-day cultured fibroblasts on the disc surface.
These results might suggest that the strength of adhesion of fibroblasts to transmucosal abutment surfaces increases with time and it seemed to be related to expressions of FALPs.
Transmucosal abutment; Focal adhesion linker proteins; Gingival fibroblast; Adhesion
We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE−/−) mice, so called E−/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF-2α). Furthermore, the eIF-2α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E−/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice. Our results showed that the level of food intake, bodyweight, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides was comparable in apoE−/− mice treated with or without 2-AP. However, the mean size of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta sinus as well as the surface area of the entire aorta of 2-AP-treated apoE−/− mice were reduced by about 55% and 39%, respectively, compared to samples from untreated control apoE−/− mice. In addition, the 2-AP-treated apoE−/− mice showed a significant decrease in glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and phosphorylated eIF-2α in their aortic samples as compared to levels in untreated control apoE−/− mice. These observations suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a causal mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and that therapeutic strategies can be developed for using eIF-2α phosphorylation inhibitors, such as 2-AP, to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.
Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas are common findings in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors.
We performed a molecular analysis to identify oncogenic mutations (HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, CDKN2A, and TP53) in the lesions from patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. An analysis of an independent validation set and functional studies with BRAF inhibitors in the presence of the prevalent RAS mutation was also performed.
Among 21 tumor samples, 13 had RAS mutations (12 in HRAS). In a validation set of 14 samples, 8 had RAS mutations (4 in HRAS). Thus, 60% (21 of 35) of the specimens harbored RAS mutations, the most prevalent being HRAS Q61L. Increased proliferation of HRAS Q61L–mutant cell lines exposed to vemurafenib was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)–pathway signaling and activation of ERK-mediated transcription. In a mouse model of HRAS Q61L–mediated skin carcinogenesis, the vemurafenib analogue PLX4720 was not an initiator or a promoter of carcinogenesis but accelerated growth of the lesions harboring HRAS mutations, and this growth was blocked by concomitant treatment with a MEK inhibitor.
Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are frequent in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas that develop in patients treated with vemurafenib. The molecular mechanism is consistent with the paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling and leads to accelerated growth of these lesions. (Funded by Hoffmann–La Roche and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00405587, NCT00949702, NCT01001299, and NCT01006980.)
Aims: We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the value of clinicopathological factors and a novel molecular marker stathmin in predicting treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with docetaxel-containing regimens in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: Fifty-four consecutive locally advanced patients receiving docetaxel-containing NCT between January 2006 and July 2010 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were included. The expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and p53 were detected by immunohistochemistry, while expression of stathmin mRNA was measured by Quanti-Gene assay. Results: The overall clinical objective response (cOR) rate was 75.9% (41/54) in breast. A total of 34 patients (63.0%) experienced pathological OR (pOR), with pathological complete remission (pCR) rate of 20.4% (11/54) in breast and 16.7% (9/54) in both breast and axilla. In univariate analysis, there were associations of pOR in both breast and axilla with age (p=0.054), ER status (p=0.059), subtypes (p=0.062), p53 (p=0.030), and stathmin expression (three terciles) (p=0.039). Mean expression of stathmin in pOR group was 0.410, compared with that in no response group of 0.556 (p=0.051 by Student's t-test). Similarly, a lower expression of stathmin might represent a higher pCR rate (p=0.061). Moreover, the LOWESS smoothing plot showed the same trend, that is, that tumor with a lower level of stathmin expression had a higher probability of response to docetaxel-containing NCT. After multivariate adjustment, both ER and stathmin remained significant with hazard ratio of 4.58 (95% CI: 1.11–18.94, p=0.036) and 2.94 (95% CI: 1.26–6.86, p=0.012), respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, ER and stathmin were independent predictive factors for NCT with docetaxel-containing regimens.
Background and Aim
Gastric motility dysfunction is most commonly seen in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis patients. Recently we reported that impaired nitrergic relaxation and a reduced NO (nitric oxide) bioavailability were responsible for gastric motility dysfunction in diabetic female rats. One of the main factors involved in the inactivation of the nitrergic system is oxidative stress commonly seen in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidemia may also be one of the detrimental causes for impaired gastric motility associated with diabetes. In the current study, we investigated whether apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-KO), an oxidative stress animal model with a hyperlipidemia burden, also displays an impaired nitrergic system. To test this, nitrergic relaxation (AUC/mg tissue) was measured at 2 Hz through electric field stimulation using gastric pyloric strips prepared from C57BL WT or ApoE-KO female mice. Protein expression was determined by Western blots.
Nitrergic relaxation was reduced in gastric strips from ApoE-KO versus WT mice. Protein levels of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), GCH-1 (GTP cyclohydrolase 1), Nrf2 (nuclear factor E-2 related factor 2) and GCSc (glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic) were also reduced in ApoE-KO compared to controls, with no significant change in GCSm (glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier) and HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1). The activities of DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) and antioxidant enzymes were also reduced in ApoE-KO mice.
This novel study is the first to reveal that a deficiency in ApoE impairs gastric motility functions, and that hyperlipidemia and the suppression of selective antioxidants may be an underlying mechanism for this pathological change.
Apolipoprotein E; Nitric oxide; Gastroparesis; Nitrergic relaxation; nNOS dimerization; Nrf2; Phase II enzymes; BH4
Delayed engraftment remains a major hurdle following cord blood (CB) transplantation. It may be due, at least in part, to low fucosylation of cell surface molecules important for homing to the BM microenvironment. Since fucosylation of specific cell surface ligands is required before effective interaction with selectins expressed by the BM microvasculature can occur, a simple 30 minute ex vivo incubation of CB HPC with fucosyltransferase (FT) - VI and its substrate (GDP-fucose) was performed to increase levels of fucosylation. The physiologic impact of CB HPC hypo-fucosylation was investigated in vivo in NOD-SCID IL-2Rγnull (NSG) mice. By isolating fucosylated and non-fucosylated CD34+ cells from CB we show that only fucosylated CD34+ cells are responsible for engraftment in NSG mice. Further, since the proportion of CD34+ cells that are fucosylated in CB is significantly less than in BM and PB, we hypothesize that these combined observations might explain, at least in part, the delayed engraftment observed following CB transplantation. Since engraftment appears to be correlated with the fucosylation of CD34+ cells, we hypothesized that increasing the proportion of CD34+ cells that are fucosylated would improve CB engraftment. Ex vivo treatment with fucosyltransferase (FT)-VI significantly increases the levels of CD34+ fucosylation and, as hypothesized, this was associated with improved engraftment. Ex vivo fucosylation did not alter the biodistribution of engrafting cells, or pattern of long-term, multi-lineage, multi-tissue engraftment. We propose that ex vivo fucosylation will similarly improve the rate and magnitude of engraftment for CB transplant recipients in a clinical setting.
Hematopoiesis; cord blood; transplantation; engraftment; fucosylation
Objective. To explore the association of hypermethylation of the proenkephalin gene (ppENK) with pancreatic carcinoma and to identify the effects of a demethylating agent on pancreatic cell lines. Method. Human pancreatic cancer tissues and five pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, as well as normal pancreatic tissue, were used. ppENK methylation status was detected by MS-PCR (methylation-specific PCR). Results. Methylation of ppENK was detected in 90.3% (28/31) of the human pancreatic carcinoma tissues but was not seen in normal pancreatic tissue. There was no correlation between the extent of methylation of ppENK and the clinicopathological features of the pancreatic carcinomas. Methylated ppENK was detected in all the pancreatic cancer cell lines and was associated with loss of mRNA expression in the pancreatic carcinoma cell lines and normal pancreatic tissue. After treatment with 5-aza-dC, methylated ppENK was not detected and the inhibition of ppENK mRNA expression was reversed. Conclusions. Inhibition of ppENK expression by a change in its methylation status plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. ppENK methylation is thus an important molecular event that distinguishes pancreatic carcinoma tissue from normal pancreatic tissue. Effects on cell growth, apoptosis, and the cell cycle may contribute to changes of ppENK methylation status.
The cerebellum has a conserved foliation pattern and a well-organized layered structure. The process of foliation and lamination begins around birth. β-catenin is a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in tissue organization. Lack of β-catenin at early embryonic stages leads to either prenatal or neonatal death, therefore it has been difficult to resolve its role in cerebellar foliation and lamination. Here we used GFAP-Cre to ablate β-catenin in neuronal cells of the cerebellum after embryonic day 12.5, and found an unexpected role of β-catenin in determination of the foliation pattern. In the mutant mice, the positions of fissure formation were changed, and the meninges were improperly incorporated into fissures. At later stages, some lobules were formed by Purkinje cells remaining in deep regions of the cerebellum and the laminar structure was dramatically altered. Our results suggest that β-catenin is critical for cerebellar foliation and lamination. We also found a non cell-autonomous role of β-catenin in some developmental properties of major cerebellar cell types during specific stages.
Multifunctional nanomaterials with unique magnetic and luminescent properties have broad potential in biological applications. Because of the overexpression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) receptors in inflammatory endothelial cells as compared with normal endothelial cells, an anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody can be used as a targeting ligand. Herein we describe the development of multifunctional core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles with the ability to target inflammatory endothelial cells via VCAM-1, magnetism, and fluorescence imaging, with efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast characteristics. Superparamagnetic iron oxide and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were loaded successfully inside the nanoparticle core and the silica shell, respectively, creating VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles that were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry, zeta potential assay, and fluorescence microscopy. The VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles typically had a diameter of 355 ± 37 nm, showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and cumulative and targeted adhesion to an inflammatory subline of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-CS) activated by lipopolysaccharide. Further, our data show that adhesion of VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles to inflammatory HUVEC-CS depended on both shear stress and duration of exposure to stress. Analysis of internalization into HUVEC-CS showed that the efficiency of delivery of VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles was also significantly greater than that of nontargeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)-NH2 nanoparticles. Magnetic resonance images showed that the superparamagnetic iron oxide cores of the VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles could also act as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Taken together, the cumulative adhesion and uptake potential of these VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) nanoparticles targeted to inflammatory endothelial cells could be used in the transfer of therapeutic drugs/genes into these cells or for diagnosis of vascular disease at the molecular and cellular levels in the future.
silica nanoparticles; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; endothelial cells; adhesion; magnetic resonance imaging
Bartonella quintana is a re-emerging pathogen and the causative agent of a broad spectrum of disease manifestations in humans. The present study reports the complete genome of B. quintana strain RM_11, which was isolated from rhesus macaques.
Photomorphogenesis is controlled by multiple signaling pathways, including the
light and brassinosteroid (BR) pathways. BR signaling activates the BZR1
transcription factor, which is required for suppressing photomorphogenesis in
the dark. We identified a suppressor of the BR hypersensitive mutant
bzr1–1D and named it
(bzs1–D). The bzs1–D mutation
was caused by overexpression of a B-box zinc finger protein BZS1, which is
transcriptionally repressed by BZR1. Overexpression of BZS1
causes de-etiolation in the dark, short hypocotyls in the light, reduced
sensitivity to BR treatment, and repression of many BR-activated genes.
Knockdown of BZS1 by co-suppression partly suppressed the short
hypocotyl phenotypes of BR-deficient or insensitive mutants. These results
support that BZS1 is a negative regulator of BR response. BZS1 overexpressors
are hypersensitive to different wavelengths of light and loss of function of
BZS1 reduces plant sensitivity to light and partly suppresses the
constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (cop1)
mutant in the dark, suggesting a positive role in light response. BZS1 protein
accumulates at an increased level after light treatment of dark-grown
BZS1–OX plants and in the cop1
mutants, and BZS1 interacts with COP1 in vitro, suggesting that
light regulates BZS1 through COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal
degradation. These results demonstrate that BZS1 mediates the crosstalk between
BR and light pathways.
photomorphogenesis; light signaling; Brassinosteroid; BZS1; Arabidopsis
To perform a rat experiment using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonator, a cryostat is essential to maintain the rat's temperature. In this work, a compact temperature-stable HTS cryo-system, keeping animal rectal temperature at 37.4°C for more than 3 hours, was successfully developed. With this HTS cryo-system, a 40-mm-diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) surface resonator at 77 K was demonstrated in a 3-Tesla MRI system. The proton resonant frequency (PRF) method was employed to monitor the rat's temperature. Moreover, the capacity of MR thermometry in the HTS experiments was evaluated by correlating with data from independent fiber-optic sensor temperature measurements. The PRF thermal coefficient was derived as 0.03 rad/°C and the temperature-monitoring architecture can be implemented to upgrade the quality and safety in HTS experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the HTS surface resonator at 77 K was higher than that of a professionally made copper surface resonator at 300 K, which has the same geometry, by a 3.79-fold SNR gain. Furthermore, the temperature-stable HTS cryo-system we developed can obtain stable SNR gain in every scan. A temperature-stable HTS cryo-system with an external air-blowing circulation system is demonstrated.
Basigin, which has four isoforms, has been demonstrated to be involved in progression of various human cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of basigin-2 protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the function of basigin-2 in ovarian cancer was further investigated in cell culture models.
Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to investigate basigin-2 expression in a total of 146 ovarian tissue specimens. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to assess the relationship between basigin-2 and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Real-time PCR, RT-PCR and western blot were used to explore basigin-2, basigin-3 and basigin-4 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues. To evaluate possible contributions of basigin-2 to MMP secretion and cell migration and invasion, the overexpression vectors pcDNA3.1-basigin-2 and basigin-2 siRNA were transfected into HO-8910 and HO-8910 PM cells respectively.
High basigin-2 expression was associated with lymph-vascular space involvement, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated that basigin-2 positivity was an independent prognostic factor for PFS (P = 0.006) and OS (P = 0.019), respectively. Overexpression of basigin-2 increased the secretion of MMP-2/9 and cancer cell migration and invasion of HO-8910 cells, whereas knockdown of basigin-2 reduced active MMP-2/9 production, migration and invasion of HO-8910 PM cells.
The expression of basigin-2 might be an independent prognostic marker and basigin-2 inhibition would be a potential strategy for epithelial ovarian cancer patients, especially in inhibiting and preventing cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Ovarian cancer; Basigin-2; Prognosis; Survival; Migration; Invasion
Mercaptocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain lengths were used for stabilizing uniform 15 nm copper nanoparticles. The effects of surface chemistry such as ligand type and surface oxidation on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the copper nanoparticles were examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and an acellular ROS assay show that ROS generation is closely related to the surface oxidation of copper nanoparticles. It was found that the copper nanoparticles with longer chain ligands had surfaces that were better protected from oxidation and a corresponding lower ROS generating capacity than did particles with shorter chain ligands. Conversely, the copper nanoparticles with greater surface oxidation also had higher ROS generating capacity.
copper nanoparticles; ROS; oxidation; surface chemistry; mercaptocarboxylic acids
Endophytes of medicinal plants have the capacity to synthesis same or similar active substances with their hosts. To investigate the diversity and capacity to produce saponins of endophytic fungi of Panax ginseng, thirty-eight strains of were isolated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to identify the isolates, and saponins concentrations in the cultures were measured. Agar diffusion method was used to test antimicrobial activity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze ginsenosides produced by representative strains. Nectria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Verticillium, Engyodontium, Plectosphaerella, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Ascomycete species were isolated. Overall, 18.4% of the isolates belonged to Nectria (Nectria haematococca), 13.2% belonged to Aspergillus, and 10.5% belonged to Penicillium. The highest concentration of triterpenoid saponin was 0.181 mg/ml (Pg27), followed by 0.144 mg/ml (Pg30 and Pg42-1). According to the results of the phylogenetic results, these isolates were species of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Verticillium, respectively. The culture filtrate of Pg30 exhibited its antibacterial activity Staphylococcus aureus. Pg 27 and Pg30 could excrete the substances to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani. Pg42-1 showed strong inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. From HPLC results, the ginsenoside Rb2 was detected in both Pg27 and Pg30 cultures. The ginsenoside Rc was found in Pg42-1 cultures. In conclusion, thirty-eight endophytic fungal strains were isolated and Pg27 (Fusarium sp.) has a potential application value in saponins production.
Diversity; Saponin; Endophytic fungi; Panax ginseng; Ginsenoside
Noroviruses (NoVs) cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis, in which histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) may play an important role in the host susceptibility. To further explore this issue, two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis caused by a GII.4 and a GII.3 NoV, respectively, in China in 2009 were studied. Stool and saliva samples from symptomatic patients and water samples from the outbreak facilities were collected. RT-PCR showed that 23 out of 33 (GII.4 outbreak) and 12 out of 13 (GII.3outbreak) stool samples were NoV positive. For the GII.4 outbreak the NoV sequences of stool and water samples were from an identical GII.4 strain, while the same GII.3 NoV sequences were found in five stool samples from the GII.3 outbreak. The HBGA phenotypes (A, B, Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley) of all saliva samples were determined, which revealed both secretors and nonsecretors in the symptomatic groups of the two outbreaks. In the GII.3 outbreak, type O individuals appeared less susceptible, while the type A may be more at risk of infection. However, No preference of HBGAs was observed in the GII.4 outbreak. The observation that nonsecretors were infected in both outbreaks differed from the previous results that nonsecretors are resistant to these two GII NoVs.
This study aims to analyze the clinical-pathological characteristics of multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC) in Chinese women.
Sixty-seven cases with MMBC were randomly collected and reviewed at seven hospitals in representative districts of China during 1999 to 2008.
The incidence of MMBC in breast cancer in China was 1.75%. Compared to those with unifocal breast cancer, women with MMBC were more likely to have larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis (59.70% vs. 45.62%) and stage III to IV (46.26% vs. 21.10%). The peak age at onset of MMBC was 40 to 49 years old and has been gradually increasing during 1999 to 2008. Most of the MMBC women were treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy.
In China, the incidence of MMBC in breast cancer is significantly lower than that in Western countries. Compared to unifocal breast cancer, MMBC is biologically more aggressive. Most MMBC women underwent mastectomy, instead of breast conservation surgery.
Breast; Carcinoma; Clinical pathology