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1.  Relationship between Serum Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Determined Using the Framingham Risk Score in Male Patients with Sexual Dysfunction 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2014;32(3):139-144.
The aim of the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone on cardiovascular disease by using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in patients with sexual dysfunction.
Materials and Methods
A total of 308 men with sexual dysfunction were enrolled in this study. Clinical assessments included the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), blood pressure measurement, and clinical laboratory indexes. The FRS, which predicts the incidence rate of cardiovascular diseases in the next 10 years, was calculated on the basis of age, gender, total cholesterol, smoking status, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.
The mean age of the 308 enrolled patients was 49.42±10.73 years, and the patients' mean body mass index (kg/m2) was 25.07±3.14. The mean total IIEF score was 28.44±18.06. The median total testosterone concentration was 3.2 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3~3.2 ng/mL). The median calculated free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were 0.052 ng/mL (IQR 0.039~0.070 ng/mL) and 1.30 ng/mL (IQR: 1.00~1.76 ng/mL), respectively. The mean FRS was 10.47±6.45. The FRS tended to show a negative correlation with the total and calculated free testosterone levels, but this was not significant (p=0.064 and p=0.074, respectively). In the multiple linear regression analysis, a significant negative correlation was observed between the total testosterone level and the FRS (p=0.048).
The results suggest that the testosterone level is related to the FRS and that a high testosterone level may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC4298816  PMID: 25606562
Cardiovascular diseases; Sexual dysfunction; Testosterone
2.  Effects of Low-Dose Tamsulosin on Sexual Function in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):697-702.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose tamsulosin on sexual function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods
A total of 138 male LUTS patients aged more than 50 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 were enrolled in this open-label, multicenter, prospective, noncomparative observational study. Clinical assessments included IPSS, quality of life (QoL) index, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS), and an early morning erection questionnaire. The data were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after treatment with tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d. Adverse events were analyzed in all patients.
During the study period of 3 months, the IPSS and QoL index significantly improved from baseline by -11.40±9.40 and -1.11±1.36, respectively (p<0.001). However, there were no clinically relevant changes in total IIEF score (mean difference, 1.63±15.50; p=0.406) or the 5 subdomains (p>0.05). Furthermore, DAN-PSS weighted scores (A×B) showed no clinically relevant changes (mean difference on Q1, Q2, and Q3: -0.45±2.94, 0.27±2.50, and -1.27±2.27, p>0.05). In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in responses on the early morning erection questionnaire.
Tamsulosin at the dose of 0.2 mg significantly improved the IPSS and the QoL index compared with baseline. However, tamsulosin did not exhibit any significant impact on sexual function or any negative impact on ejaculatory function.
PMCID: PMC3806995  PMID: 24175045
Ejaculation; Erectile dysfunction; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostatic hyperplasia; Tamsulosin
3.  Sexual Behavior of the Elderly in Urban Areas 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2012;30(3):166-171.
This study aimed at investigating sexual behavior patterns of elderly residents of urban areas in South Korea and their correlation with lower urinary tract symptoms.
Materials and Methods
From May, 2009 to October, 2009, 154 males and 299 females over 60 years old who visited senior welfare centers of Seoul were administered a questionnaire on sex life patterns and voiding symptoms.
Among the 154 males, 59 (38.3%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 95 males (61.7%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of impotence for 52 males (52.6%), no sexual desire for 28 males (29.4%), and sex partner's problems for 15 males (15.7%). The higher International Prostate Symptom Score was, the lower International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 was (p=0.035). Among 299 females, 37 (12.4%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 262 females (87.6%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of no spouse for 163 females (63.2%), no sexual desire for 48 females (18.6%), the spouse's impotence for 34 females (13.2%), and the spouse's bad health for 10 females (3.9%). It was found that self-diagnosis of overactive bladder affects sex life negatively.
The sexual behaviors of the elderly included varying activity. Sexual intercourse were significantly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Our results suggest that the counseling with the elderly about sexual health is as important as it is with non-elderly individuals.
PMCID: PMC3623532  PMID: 23596607
Aged; Sexual behavior; Lower urinary tract symptoms
4.  Spontaneous Recovery of Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(8):560-565.
To investigate pathophysiological consequences and spontaneous recovery after cavernous nerve crush injury (CNCI) in a rat model.
Materials and Methods
Twenty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated group (n=10) and bilateral CNCI groups (n=10) for two different durations (12 and 24 weeks). At both time points, CN electrical stimulation was used to assess erectile function by measuring the intracavernous pressure. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and sonic hedgehog (SHH) was examined in penile tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for nerve growth factor (NGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and smooth muscle α-actin.
CNCI significantly decreased erectile function at 12 weeks (51.7% vs. 71.9%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05) and increased the expression of HIF-1α and decreased the expression of eNOS, nNOS, and SHH. At 24 weeks, erectile function in the CNCI group was improved with no significant difference versus the sham group (70.5% vs. 63.3%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05) or the CN group at 12 weeks (51.7% vs. 63.3%, mean ICP/BP ratio, p<0.05). By RT-PCR, the increase in HIF-1α and decrease in SHH mRNA was restored at 24 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, the expression of eNOS and nNOS was increased at 24 weeks.
CN injury induces significantly impaired erectile function and altered gene and protein expression, which suggests that local hypoxic and inflammatory processes may contribute to this change. Significant spontaneous recovery of erectile function was observed at 6 months after CN crush injury.
PMCID: PMC3162223  PMID: 21927704
Erectile dysfunction; Hedgehog proteins; Nerve injury
5.  Multicenter, prospective, comparative cohort study evaluating the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin 10 mg with regard to blood pressure in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without antihypertensive medications 
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin 10 mg monotherapy or combined antihypertensive medication on blood pressure (BP) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/LUTS) with or without antihypertensive medication.
This was a 3-month, multicenter, randomized, open-label study in 335 patients aged ≥45 years with a clinical diagnosis of BPH/LUTS by medical history and clinical examination, a total International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 points, a maximum flow rate >5 mL/sec and ≤15 mL/sec, and a voided volume ≥120 mL. Eligible subjects were randomized to receive alfuzosin 10 mg as monotherapy (group 1) or alfuzosin 10 mg + antihypertensive combination therapy (group 2). Based on baseline BP and hypertensive history with or without antihypertensive medications at first medical examination, group 1 was divided into two subgroups of normotensive and untreated hypertensive patients, and group 2 into two subgroups of controlled hypertensive and uncontrolled hypertensive patients. The primary study outcomes were change in IPSS, BP, and heart rate from baseline. Secondary outcomes were change in IPSS-quality of life score, maximum flow rate, average flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided volume.
The overall BP change was not significantly different between groups 1 and 2 (systolic BP, P=0.825; diastolic BP, P>0.999). In patients with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension, alfuzosin 10 mg alone or combined with antihypertensive therapy significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP. The mean difference in total IPSS and IPSS-quality of life scores from baseline between groups 1 and 2 was 0.45 (95% CI: −1.26, 2.16) and 0.12 (95% CI: −0.21, 0.45), respectively (both P>0.05). Maximum flow rate, average flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided volume at endpoint were numerically, but not significantly, changed from baseline (all P>0.05).
This study shows that alfuzosin 10 mg is effective and well tolerated in patients with BPH/LUTS with or without antihypertensive medications. However, in patients with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension, alfuzosin 10 mg alone or in combination with antihypertensive medication appears to decrease systolic and diastolic BP, and these patients should be warned about a decrease in BP on initiation of therapy.
PMCID: PMC4303366  PMID: 25653511
alfuzosin; lower urinary tract symptoms; benign prostatic hyperplasia; antihypertensive medication; blood pressure
6.  Effect of Improvement in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Sexual Function in Men: Tamsulosin Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy of Tamsulosin and Solifenacin 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(9):608-614.
To evaluate how much the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) affects sexual function and which storage symptoms or voiding symptoms have the greatest effect on sexual function.
Materials and Methods
A total of 187 patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either tamsulosin 0.2 mg (group A) or tamsulosin 0.2 mg and solifenacin 5 mg (group B). At 4 weeks and 12 weeks, the LUTS and sexual function of the patients were evaluated by use of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF5), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) questionnaire, uroflowmetry, and bladder scan.
Both groups A and B showed statistically significant improvements in IPSS, OABSS, and quality of life (QoL). Group A showed improved maximum flow rate, mean flow rate, and residual urine volume by time. Group B did not show an improvement in flow rate or residual urine volume but total voiding volume increased with time. The IIEF5 score was not improved in either group. In group A, the IIEF5 score dropped from 13.66±4.97 to 11.93±6.14 after 12 weeks (p=0.072). Group B showed a decline in the IIEF5 score from 13.19±5.91 to 12.45±6.38 (p=0.299). Although group B showed a relatively smaller decrease in the IIEF5 score, the difference between the two groups was not significant (p=0.696).
Tamsulosin monotherapy and combination therapy with solifenacin did not improve erectile function despite improvements in voiding symptoms and QoL. The improvement in storage symptoms did not affect erectile function.
PMCID: PMC4165924  PMID: 25237463
Erectile dysfunction; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Overactive urinary bladder
7.  Efficacy and Safety of the Selective α1A-Adrenoceptor Blocker Silodosin for Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Prospective, Single-Open-Label, Multicenter Study in Korea 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(5):335-340.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of silodosin 8 mg once daily in a 12-week treatment of subjects with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
A total of 100 subjects from 10 urology centers in Korea were included in this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥50 years, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥20, quality of life (QoL) score ≥3, urine volume ≥120 mL and maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax) <15 mL/s, and postvoid residual volume (PVR) <100 mL. We assessed the improvement of LUTS with change in IPSS, QoL score, Qmax, PVR, and adverse events at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after treatment with silodosin 8 mg once daily.
The IPSS values were 23.27±3.34, 15.89±6.26, and 13.80±6.31 at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively, with significant improvements (p<0.0001, p=0.0214, respectively). QoL scores were 4.44±0.85, 3.38±1.20, and 3.04±1.20 at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in Qmax between baseline and 12 weeks (p<0.0001) but not in PVR (p=0.9404) during the clinical trial. The most frequent adverse event in this study was ejaculation failure with 13 cases. However, no subject dropped out because of ejaculation failure, and in 12 of the 13 cases it was fully resolved without further treatment.
Silodosin 8 mg once daily may be effective and safe in Korean patients with severe LUTS associated with BPH.
PMCID: PMC4026660  PMID: 24868338
α1A-Adrenoceptor antagonis; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Selective; Silodosin
8.  Urologists' Perceptions and Practice Patterns in Peyronie's Disease: A Korean Nationwide Survey Including Patient Satisfaction 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(1):57-63.
A nationwide survey was conducted of Korean urologists to illustrate physicians' perceptions and real practical patterns regarding Peyronie disease (PD).
Materials and Methods
A specially designed questionnaire exploring practice characteristics and attitudes regarding PD, as well as patient satisfaction with each treatment modality, was e-mailed to 2,421 randomly selected urologists.
Responses were received from 385 practicing urologists (15.9%) with a median time after certification as an urologist of 12 years. Regarding the natural course, 87% of respondents believed that PD is a progressive disease, and 82% replied that spontaneous healing in PD occurred in fewer than 20% of patients. Regarding diagnosis of PD, the methods used were, in order, history taking with physical examination (98%), International Index of Erectile Function questionnaires (40%), intracavernous injection and stimulation (35%), and duplex sonography (28%). Vitamin E was most preferred as an initial medical management (80.2%), followed by phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (27.4%) and Potaba (aminobenzoate potassium, 20.1%). For urologists who administered intralesional injection, the injected agent was, in order, corticosteroid (72.2%), verapamil (45.1%), and interferon (3.2%). The most frequently performed surgical procedure was plication (84.1%), followed by excision and graft (42.9%) and penile prosthesis implantation (14.2%). Among the most popular treatments in each modality, the urologists' perceptions regarding the suitability of treatment and patient satisfaction were significantly different, favoring plication surgery.
The practice pattern of urologists depicted in this survey is in line with currently available Western guidelines, which indicates the need for development of further local guidelines based on solid clinical data.
PMCID: PMC3897632  PMID: 24466399
Data collection; Penile induration; Perception
9.  Urologist's Practice Patterns Including Surgical Treatment in the Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Korean Nationwide Survey 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2013;31(3):226-231.
According to previous studies, the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Korea ranges from 11.3% to 33%. However, the actual practice patterns in managing patients with PE is not well known. In this study, we have endeavored to determine how contemporary urologists in Korea manage patients with PE.
Materials and Methods
The e-mailing list was obtained from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians. A specifically designed questionnaire was e-mailed to the 2,421 urologists in Korea from May 2012 to August 2012.
Urologists in Korea diagnosed PE using various criteria: the definition of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (63.4%), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (43.8%), International Statistical Classification of Disease, 10th edition (61.7%), or perceptional self-diagnosis by the patient himself (23.5%). A brief self-administered questionnaire, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, was used by only 42.5% of the urologists. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy was the main treatment modality (91.5%) for PE patients. 40.2% of the urologists used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 47.6% behavior therapy, and 53.7% local anesthetics. Further, 286 (54.3%) urologists managed PE patients with a surgical modality such as selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN).
A majority of Korean urologists diagnose PE by a multidimensional approach using various diagnostic tools. Most urologists believe that medical treatment with an SSRI is effective in the management of PE. At the same time, surgical treatment such as SDN also investigated as one of major treatment modality despite the lack of scientific evidence.
PMCID: PMC3888892  PMID: 24459656
Physician's practice patterns; Premature ejaculation; Urologic surgical procedures
10.  Influence of Donor's Renal Function on the Outcome of Living Kidney Transplantation: 10-Year Follow-up 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):126-130.
With the improved surgical techniques and immunosuppression available today, conventional prognostic factors have taken on less significance. Accordingly, the native renal function of the donor is thought to be more important. Thus, we analyzed the prognostic significance of the donor's renal function as assessed by 24-hour urine creatinine clearance on kidney graft survival for 10 years after living kidney transplantation.
Materials and Methods
From January 1998 to July 2000, 71 living kidney transplantations were performed at a single institution. From among these, 68 recipients were followed for more than 6 months and were included in the present analysis. We analyzed kidney graft survival according to clinical parameters of the donor and the recipient.
Mean follow-up duration of recipients after living kidney transplantation was 115.0±39.4 months (range, 10 to 157 months), and 31 recipients (45.6%) experienced kidney graft loss during this time period. Estimated mean kidney graft survival time was 131.8±6.2 months, and 5-year and 10-year kidney graft survival rates were estimated as 88.2% and 61.0%, respectively. Donor's mean 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (Ccr) before kidney transplantation was 122.8±21.2 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range, 70.1 to 186.6 ml/min/1.73 m2). The 10-year kidney graft survival rates for cases stratified by a donor's Ccr lower and higher than 120 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 39.0% and 67.2%, respectively (p=0.005). In univariate and multivariate analysis, donor's Ccr was retained as an independent prognostic factor of kidney graft survival (p=0.001 and 0.005, respectively).
Donor's 24-hour urine Ccr before living kidney transplantation was an independent prognostic factor of kidney graft survival. Therefore, it should be considered before living kidney transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3285708  PMID: 22379593
Creatinine; Kidney transplantation; Survival
11.  Effect of Desmopressin with Anticholinergics in Female Patients with Overactive Bladder 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(6):396-400.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of desmopressin combined with anticholinergics on daytime frequency and urgency in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and Methods
We included 68 female patients with OAB. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 5 mg of solifenacin (group I) or 5 mg of solifenacin and 0.2 mg of desmopressin (group II) for 2 weeks. A pre/post-treatment 3-day voiding diary and the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) were used to assess changes in voiding symptoms and quality of life (QoL); results were compared between the two groups.
Groups I and II included 31 and 37 patients, respectively. Time to first void was 12 min later in group II (105 min vs. 117 min), but this difference was not statistically significant. However, time to the second and third voids (203 min vs. 255 min, 312 min vs. 368 min) and the first urgency episode (212 min vs. 255 min) were significantly longer in group II. Compared with group I, patients in group II showed significant improvement in QoL scores. When improvement after treatment was defined as increase in time to first void of greater than 10% after 2 weeks of treatment, desmopressin with anticholinergics was more effective in patients over the age of 65 years and with more than 150 ml of voided volume.
Desmopressin combined with anticholinergics was more effective than anticholinergics only in the treatment of female patients with OAB.
PMCID: PMC3123815  PMID: 21750750
Anticholinergics; Desmopressin; Overactive bladder
12.  Prevalence of premature ejaculation in young and middle-aged men in Korea: a multicenter internet-based survey from the Korean Andrological Society 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2010;12(6):880-889.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and perception of premature ejaculation (PE) in young and middle-aged Korean men. The study was conducted using an Internet-assisted questionnaire. A total of 2 037 Korean male adults, aged 20 years or older, were randomly sampled based on age and residency. The questionnaire developed by the PE Study Group of the Korean Andrological Society includes four categories (overall sexual function, symptoms, distress and treatment) with a total of 16 questions. For each question, symptoms were evaluated by a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time was '5–10 min' in 38.6%, followed by 'longer than 10 min' in 29.9%, '2–5 min' in 23.6%, '1–2 min' in 5.4% and 'shorter than 1 min' in 2.5%. In our series, 27.5% of respondents reported having PE. Control over ejaculation within a recent 3-month period was 6.2 points on average. Respondent complaints of PE-related stress averaged 7.1 points and stress-related complaints from sexual partners averaged 7.1 points. The effect of PE on sexual life was 6.8 points. Of the respondents determined as having PE, 42.6% responded that they were inclined to receive treatment. Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of PE diagnosed by the respondent on his own was approximately 27.5% in young and middle-aged men in Korea. PE-related stress had a significant effect on the stress, sexual activity and quality of life of the respondent and his sexual partner.
PMCID: PMC3739081  PMID: 20676115
epidemiology; premature ejaculation; questionnaire; sexual dysfunction
13.  Stent Position Is More Important than α-Blockers or Anticholinergics for Stent-Related Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Ureteroscopic Ureterolithotomy: A Prospective Randomized Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(9):636-641.
To evaluate the clinical factors that impact ureteral stent-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after ureteroscopic ureterolithotomy, including the stent position and medication.
Materials and Methods
Fifty-three patients who underwent ureteroscopic ureterolithotomy with indwelling a stent were distributed into three groups. On demand analgesics were given to the group 1 (n=18). Daily tamsulosin 0.2 mg was added for group 2 (n=15) and daily tamsulosin 0.2 mg and tolterodine 4 mg was added for group 3 (n=20). The patients were also subclassified into appropriate or inappropriate group according to stent position. All the patients completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) on the 1st and 7th postoperative days. The VAS and IPSS were analyzed according to the medication groups and the stent position.
In the appropriate stent potion group, only the storage symptom scores of groups 2 and 3 on the 1st postoperative day were significantly lower than those of the group 1 (p=0.001). This medication effect on LUTS was not observed in the inappropriate stent position group. In this group, total IPSS (p=0.015) and storage symptom scores (p=0.002) were higher than in the appropriate stent position group on the 7th postoperative day.
Correct placement of the stent was more important than medication for lessening stent-related storage symptoms.
PMCID: PMC2941813  PMID: 20856649
Adrenergic alpha-antagonists; Cholinergic antagonists; Ureteroscopy; Urinary catheterization; Urological manifestations

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