Small RNAs are widespread in plants and animals. They largely include microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and they play key roles in gene and chromatin regulations. Here we describe in detail the method for an effective construction of the recently developed short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to block small RNA functions in plants and animals. STTM is a powerful technology complementing the previous target mimic (TM) in plants and the miRNA sponge, as well as the recently defined endogenous competing RNA (CeRNA) in animals. We expect STTM will not only be effective in blocking small RNA functions in plants but will also become a popular approach in animals.
Small RNA; miRNA; miR165/166; miR-30d; Short tandem target mimic (STTM); Target mimic; miRNA sponge; CeRNA
In nature, a sapling can grow into a big tree under irradiation of sunlight. In chemistry, a similar concept that a small molecule only exposing to sunlight grows into a hyperbranched macromolecule has not been realized by now. The achievement of the concept will be fascinating and valuable for polymer synthesis wherein sunlight is inexpensive, abundant, renewable, and nonpolluting. Herein, we report a new strategy in which small monomers can directly grow into big hyperbranched macromolecule under irradiation of sunlight without any catalyst.
We aimed to guide clinical nursing by studying the relationship between intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease and intestinal infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
We present an effective nursing method by comparing and analyzing the degree, duration time, and volume of diarrhea, and the distribution of pathogens in 44 patients who developed intestinal aGVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (24 patients with no intestinal infection).
21.4% of patients with grade I–II intestinal aGVHD developed into intestinal infection and 87.5% of patients with grade III–IV intestinal aGVHD developed into intestinal infection (P<0.05). Higher mortality was found in the grade III–IV intestinal aGVHD patients with intestinal infection. Patient age had no effect on the incidence of GVHD according to our data (P<0.05). We found remarkable differences in the amount and duration of diarrhea between patients with and without intestinal infection (P<0.05). The most common pathogens cultivated were Candida glabrata (24%) and Candida albicans (22.67%).
The incidence of intestinal infection increased remarkably after intestinal aGVHD occurred. Severe aGVHD can easily lead to fungus infection. Nursing care can decrease the incidence of intestinal infection in aGVHD.
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease; intestinal infection; nursing care
Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk “shift” may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths). This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth) in twin pregnancies.
This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence.
Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78)]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63)] or with birth weight <1500 g [aHR 0.61 (0.53-0.69)]. In contrast, diabetes was associated with an elevated risk of perinatal death in pregnancies delivered between 32 and 36 weeks [aHR 1.38 (1.10-1.72)] or with birth weight >=2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13)].
Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be “protective” against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.
Promoting Complement (C) activation may enhance immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor antibodies for tumor destruction. However, C activation components, such as C5a, trigger inflammation which can promote tumor growth. We addressed the role of C5a on tumor growth by transfecting both human carcinoma and murine lymphoma with mouse C5a. In vitro growth kinetics of C5a, control vector (CV), or parental cells revealed no significant differences. Tumor-bearing mice with C5a-transfected xenografted tumor cells had significantly less tumor burden as compared to CV tumors. NK cells and macrophages infiltrated C5a expressing tumors with significantly greater frequency while VEGF, arginase, and TNF-α production were significantly less. Tumor-bearing mice with high C5a-producing syngeneic lymphoma cells had significantly accelerated tumor progression with more Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells in spleen and overall decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor, tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), and spleen. In contrast, tumor-bearing mice with low C5a-producing lymphoma cells had a significantly reduced tumor burden with increased IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in spleen and TDLN. These studies suggest concentration of local C5a within the tumor microenvironment is critical in determining its role in tumor progression.
Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a “Huggins pitch” stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated) between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with impairment of T and NK cell immunity. This study was aimed at investigating the impact of treatment with telbivudine (LDT) on T and NK cell immunity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 54 CHB patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Individual patients were treated orally with 600 mg LDT daily for 13 months. The serum HBV DNA loads, the levels of the HBV-related biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), and the numbers of different subsets of peripheral T and NK cells in subjects were measured before and longitudinally after LDT treatment. Following treatment with LDT, the serum HBV DNA loads and the percentages of HBsAg- or HBeAg-seropositive cases were gradually reduced, accompanied by decreased levels of serum ALT and AST. In comparison with the HC, fewer CD3− CD56+ and CD244+ NK cells and CD3+ CD8+ T cells, lower frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells, and more CD3+ CD4+, CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low, and CD8+ PD-1+ T cells were detected in CHB patients. Treatment with LDT increased the numbers of NK and CD8+ cells and the frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells but reduced the numbers of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low, and CD8+ PD-1+ T cells in CHB patients. The frequencies of cytokine+ CD4+ T cells were negatively associated with the levels of serum HBV DNA, ALT, and AST. Thus, treatment with LDT inhibits HBV replication, modulates T and NK cell immunity, and improves liver function in Chinese patients with CHB.
This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug.
The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action.
Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P < 0.05). The PDOX group had significantly higher WBC than the DOX group (P < 0.05), and higher PLT than Control (P < 0.05). Serum BUN and Cr levels were lower in the PDOX group than DOX and Control groups (P < 0.05). Compared with Control, DOX increased CK and CK-MB; while PDOX decreased CK compared with DOX (P < 0.05). Multiple spotty degenerative changes of the myocardium were observed in DOX-treated mice, but not in the Control and PDOX groups. PDOX could significantly reduce the Ki-67 positive rate of tumor cells, compared with DOX and Control groups. PDOX produced the effects at least via the ERK pathway.
Compared with DOX, PDOX may have better anti-metastatic efficacy and reduced side effects especially cardio-toxicities in this HCC model.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Molecular targeting therapy; Doxorubicin; PDOX; Metastases
Mammalian hibernators display phenotypes similar to physiological responses to calorie restriction and fasting, sleep, cold exposure, and ischemia-reperfusion in non-hibernating species. Whether biochemical changes evident during hibernation have parallels in non-hibernating systems on molecular and genetic levels is unclear.
We identified the molecular signatures of torpor and arousal episodes during hibernation using a custom-designed microarray for the Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) and compared them with molecular signatures of selected mouse phenotypes. Our results indicate that differential gene expression related to metabolism during hibernation is associated with that during calorie restriction and that the nuclear receptor protein PPARα is potentially crucial for metabolic remodeling in torpor. Sleep-wake cycle-related and temperature response genes follow the same expression changes as during the torpor-arousal cycle. Increased fatty acid metabolism occurs during hibernation but not during ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and, thus, might contribute to protection against ischemia-reperfusion during hibernation.
In this study, we systematically compared hibernation with alternative phenotypes to reveal novel mechanisms that might be used therapeutically in human pathological conditions.
Hibernation; Microarray; Molecular signatures; Liver; Urocitellus parryii
Although several large studies showed roflumilast (Rof) has demonstrated efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the efficacy of Rof in dyspnea remains unclear. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of Rof in dyspnea for COPD patients.
A computerized search through electronic databases was performed to obtain randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Dyspnea was assessed by the transition dyspnea index (TDI) and the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ). The quality of the included studies was assessed by the Jadad score. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 test. The effect sizes were compared with the minimum clinically important difference (MCID).
Four RCTs involving 4,767 patients with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) <80% predicted met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad score of each study was 5 scores. Rof statistically improved the TDI focal score (WMD =0.30 units; 95% CI: 0.14-0.46), but failed to decrease the SOBQ (WMD =–1.10 units; 95% CI: –4.24 to 2.04). The overall effect sizes were lower than the MCID of the TDI and the SOBQ, respectively.
Sufficient evidence to support Rof relieving dyspnea in COPD patients is currently lacking. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of Rof in dyspnea, especially for COPD patients with a different phenotype.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); roflumilast (Rof); dyspnea; meta-analysis
The gold standard of tumor diagnosis is histological examination of a biopsy; however, there is concern that tumor cell dissemination along the needle track during percutaneous biopsy can cause local tumor relapse. We aimed to evaluate the value of an adriamycin (ADM)-loaded gelatin sponge in preventing tumor cell contamination along the biopsy needle track.
Data were obtained from 40 patients who were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as having osteosarcoma and who were followed up at our hospital between 2008 and 2011. Of the 40 patients, 20 had the needle biopsy tracks filled with ADM-loaded absorbable gelatin sponge immediately after the biopsy specimen was obtained, while the other 20 did not. All 40 patients underwent limb-salvage surgery, and specimens were obtained from the biopsy track for histopathologic examination of multiple sections.
On histological examination, there was less tumor cell contamination along the biopsy tracks in the ADM group.
Use of ADM-loaded absorbable gelatin sponge may prevent tumor cell contamination of a biopsy track, and reduce the possibility of consequent tumor relapse.
Adriamycin; Gelatin sponge; Biopsy track; Embolism; Osteosarcoma
Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.
Vaccination is considered as the most effective preventive method to control influenza. The hallmark of influenza virus is the remarkable variability of its major surface glycoproteins, HA and NA, which allows the virus to evade existing anti-influenza immunity in the target population. So it is necessary to develop a novel vaccine to control animal influenza virus. Also we know that the ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved in animal influenza A viruses, so a vaccine based on the M2e could avoid several drawbacks of the traditional vaccines. In this study we designed a novel tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) based vaccine, which was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper (Th) cell epitope, and then investigated its immune responses.
Our results show that the M2e-MAP induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody,which responses following 2 doses immunization in the presence of Freunds’ adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication substantially. Also it could attenuate histopathological damage in the lungs of challenged mice and counteracted weight loss. M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against the lethal challenge with PR8 virus.
Based on these findings, M2e-MAP-based vaccine seemed to provide useful information for the research of M2e-based influenza vaccine. Also it show huge potential to study vaccines for other similarly viruses.
Influenza A virus; Influenza; M2e; Synthetic peptide vaccine
Aims: We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the value of clinicopathological factors and a novel molecular marker stathmin in predicting treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with docetaxel-containing regimens in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: Fifty-four consecutive locally advanced patients receiving docetaxel-containing NCT between January 2006 and July 2010 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were included. The expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and p53 were detected by immunohistochemistry, while expression of stathmin mRNA was measured by Quanti-Gene assay. Results: The overall clinical objective response (cOR) rate was 75.9% (41/54) in breast. A total of 34 patients (63.0%) experienced pathological OR (pOR), with pathological complete remission (pCR) rate of 20.4% (11/54) in breast and 16.7% (9/54) in both breast and axilla. In univariate analysis, there were associations of pOR in both breast and axilla with age (p=0.054), ER status (p=0.059), subtypes (p=0.062), p53 (p=0.030), and stathmin expression (three terciles) (p=0.039). Mean expression of stathmin in pOR group was 0.410, compared with that in no response group of 0.556 (p=0.051 by Student's t-test). Similarly, a lower expression of stathmin might represent a higher pCR rate (p=0.061). Moreover, the LOWESS smoothing plot showed the same trend, that is, that tumor with a lower level of stathmin expression had a higher probability of response to docetaxel-containing NCT. After multivariate adjustment, both ER and stathmin remained significant with hazard ratio of 4.58 (95% CI: 1.11–18.94, p=0.036) and 2.94 (95% CI: 1.26–6.86, p=0.012), respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, ER and stathmin were independent predictive factors for NCT with docetaxel-containing regimens.
Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc) Maxim is a member of the Berberidaceae family of basal eudicot plants, widely distributed and used as a traditional medicinal plant in China for therapeutic effects on many diseases with a long history. Recent data shows that E. sagittatum has a relatively large genome, with a haploid genome size of ~4496 Mbp, divided into a small number of only 12 diploid chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12). However, little is known about Epimedium genome structure and composition. Here we present the analysis of 691 kb of high-quality genomic sequence derived from 672 randomly selected plasmid clones of E. sagittatum genomic DNA, representing ~0.0154% of the genome. The sampled sequences comprised at least 78.41% repetitive DNA elements and 2.51% confirmed annotated gene sequences, with a total GC% content of 39%. Retrotransposons represented the major class of transposable element (TE) repeats identified (65.37% of all TE repeats), particularly LTR (Long Terminal Repeat) retrotransposons (52.27% of all TE repeats). Chromosome analysis and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Gypsy-Ty3 retrotransposons were performed to survey the E. sagittatum genome at the cytological level. Our data provide the first insights into the composition and structure of the E. sagittatum genome, and will facilitate the functional genomic analysis of this valuable medicinal plant.
Epimedium sagittatum; Chinese medicinal plant; structural genomics; genome composition; Gypsy-Ty3 retrotransposon; repetitive elements; FISH; chromosome
The body temperature is considered a universal cue by which the master clock synchronizes the peripheral clocks in mammals, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here we identified two cold-induced RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), Cirbp and Rbm3, as important regulators for the temperature entrained circadian gene expression. The depletion of Cirbp or Rbm3 significantly reduced the amplitudes of core circadian genes. PAR-CLIP analyses showed that the 3′UTR binding sites of Cirbp and Rbm3 were significantly enriched near the polyadenylation sites (PASs). Furthermore, the depletion of Cirbp or Rbm3 shortened 3′UTR, whereas low temperature (upregulating Cirbp and Rbm3) lengthened 3′UTR. Remarkably, we found that they repressed the usage of proximal PASs by binding to the common 3′UTR, and many cases of proximal/distal PAS selection regulated by them showed strong circadian oscillations. Our results suggested that Cirbp and Rbm3 regulated the circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation (APA).
In the title compound, C25H25NO2, the phenyl ring on the 1,3-oxazole ring is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.600 (4) and 0.400 (4). The interplanar angle between these two disordered rings is 77.8 (2)°. There is an intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond of moderate strength. In the crystal, C—H⋯π interactions interconnect neighbouring molecules. The absolute structure has been derived from the known absolute structure of the reagents.
Histopathology forms the gold standard for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been proposed to be a potentially powerful adjunct to current histopathological techniques. A label-free imaging based on two- photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation is developed for differentiating normal breast tissues, benign, as well as breast cancer tissues. Human breast biopsies (including human normal breast tissues, benign as well as breast cancer tissues ) that are first imaged (fresh, unfixed, and unstained) with MPM and are then processed for routine H-E histopathology. Our results suggest that the MPM images, obtained from these unprocessed biopsies, can readily distinguish between benign lesions and breast cancers. In the tissues of breast cancers, MPM showed that the tumor cells displayed marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. The tumor cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, infiltrated into disrupted connective tissue, leading to the loss of second-harmonic generation signals. For breast cancer, MPM diagnosis was 100% correct because the tissues of breast cancers did not have second-harmonic generation signals in MPM imaging. On the contrary, in benign breast masses, second-harmonic generation signals could be seen easily in MPM imaging. These observations indicate that MPM could be an important potential tool to provide label-free noninvasive diagnostic impressions that can guide surgeon in biopsy and patient management.
In recent years, acute outbreaks of epizootic diarrhea have occurred on many swine farms in China. Although the putative causative virus of the disease was not isolated, the genomic sequence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was consistently detected from feces of diseased pigs by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Here we report a complete genome sequence of PEDV which is apparently different from those of early PEDV circulated in Chinese swine herds.
An elevated red cell distribution width has been recognized as a predictor of various cardiovascular diseases. Slow coronary flow syndrome is an important angiographic clinical entity with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to examine the relationship between red cell distribution width and the presence of slow coronary flow syndrome.
In total, 185 patients with slow coronary flow syndrome and 183 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal coronary flow (controls) were prospectively enrolled in this study. Red cell distribution width and C-reactive protein were measured upon admission, and the results were compared between the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome and normal controls.
Red cell distribution width levels were significantly higher in the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome than the normal controls. Moreover, the data showed that the plasma C-reactive protein levels were also higher in the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome than in the normal controls. In addition, a multivariate analysis indicated that C-reactive protein and red cell distribution width were the independent variables most strongly associated with slow coronary flow syndrome. Finally, the red cell distribution width was positively correlated with C-reactive protein and mean thrombosis in the myocardial infarction frame counts of the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome.
The data demonstrated that red cell distribution width levels are significantly higher and strongly positively correlated with both C-reactive protein and thrombosis in the myocardial infarction frame counts of patients with slow coronary flow syndrome. These findings suggest that red cell distribution width may be a useful marker for patients with slow coronary flow syndrome.
Red Cell Distribution Width; Slow Coronary Flow Syndrome; C-Reactive Protein; Biomarker; Inflammation
To evaluate the application of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with silicon prosthetic implantation following bilateral nipple-preserving subcutaneous mammary gland excision in the treatment of young patients with early breast cancer.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 21 patients with breast cancer who were performed on IBR following bilateral nipple-preserving subcutaneous mammary gland excision in our hospital from January 2006 to March 2011.
The operations were successful in all the 21 patients. Also, the treatment provided a good cosmetic effect. No local recurrence or distant metastasis was found in these 21 patients during the 6-66-month follow-up.
For the young patients with early breast cancer, mammary gland excision on the affected side along with prophylactic excision of the contralateral side, namely IBR following bilateral nipple-preserving subcutaneous mammary gland excision, provides good clinical effectiveness and cosmetological effects.
Breast cancer; prophylactic mastectomy; immediate breast reconstruction
The toxicological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated after intratracheal instillation in male Wistar rats over a 15-day period using metabonomic analysis of 1H (nuclear magnetic resonance) NMR spectra of blood plasma and liver tissue extracts. Concurrent liver histopathology examinations and plasma clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. Significant changes were observed in clinical chemistry features, including alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total cholesterol, and in liver pathology, suggesting that SWCNTs clearly have hepatotoxicity in the rat. 1H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from nanomaterial-treated rats showed remarkable differences in the excretion of lactate, trimethylamine oxide, bilineurin, phosphocholine, amylaceum, and glycogen. Indications of amino acid metabolism impairment were supported by increased lactate concentrations and decreased alanine concentrations in plasma. The rise in plasma and liver tissue extract concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, together with decreased lipids and lipoproteins, after SWCNTs treatment indicated a disruption of membrane fluidity caused by lipid peroxidation. Energy, amino acid, and fat metabolism appeared to be affected by SWCNTs exposure. Clinical chemistry and metabonomic approaches clearly indicated liver injury, which might have been associated with an indirect mechanism involving nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes; Hepatotoxicity; Metabolomics; Nuclear magnetic resonance
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes on a tissue culture plate. The lipoplexes can be immobilized on a tissue culture plate with an intact pseudospherical structure and lyophilization without any lyoprotectant. In this study, reverse transfection resulted in highly efficient cellular uptake of miRNA and enabled significant manipulation of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 μL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and −20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expression, amount of alkaline phosphatase present, production of collagen, and matrix mineralization. Overall, the miRNA reverse transfection formulation developed in this study is a promising approach for miRNA transfection which can control stem cell fate and is suitable for loading miRNAs onto various biomaterials.
microRNAs; lyophilization; tissue culture plate; mesenchymal stem cells; osteogenic differentiation
Here, we report three complete genome sequences of porcine torque teno virus type I (TTV1) which were obtained from swine tissues and sera from southern China through routine and nested PCR amplification and characterized together with other genome sequences already deposited in GenBank. The results showed that the TTV1 sequences were highly divergent and could be divided into 1a and 1b subtypes.
Through routine and nested PCR amplifications, four complete genome sequences of porcine Torque teno virus (TTV) type II were obtained from swine herds. By comparison with the TTV genome sequences deposited in GenBank, we found the most divergent types so far described. The level of genetic diversity between these genomes is higher than would be expected within a single virus species. A nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic tree was constructed.