Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) catalyzes the conversion of 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHNP) to 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin (HP) in the folate biosynthetic pathway. There are four conserved active site residues at the active site, E22, Y54, E74, and K100 in Staphylococcus aureus DHNA (SaDHNA), corresponding to E21, Y53, E73, and K98 in Escherichia coli DHNA (EcDHNA). The functional roles of the conserved glutamate and lysine residues have been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis in this work. E22 and E74 of SaDHNA and E21, E73, and K98 of EcDHNA were replaced by alanine. K100 of SaDHNA was replaced by alanine and glutamine. The mutant proteins were characterized by equilibrium binding, stopped-flow binding, and steady-state kinetic analyses. For SaDHNA, none of the mutations except E74A caused dramatic changes in the affinities of the enzyme for the substrate or product analogues or the rate constants. The Kd values for SaE74A were estimated to be >3000 μM, suggesting that the Kd values of the mutant is at least 100 times those of the wild-type enzyme. For EcDHNA, the E73A mutation caused increases in the Kd values for the substrate or product analogues neopterin (MP), monapterin (NP), and 6-hydroxypterin (HPO) by factors of 340, 160, and 5600, respectively, relative to those of the wild-type enzyme. The K98A mutation caused increases in the Kd values for NP, MP, and HPO by factors of 14, 3.6, and 230, respectively. The E21A mutation caused increases in the Kd values for NP and HPO by factors of 2.2 and 42, respectively, but a decrease in the Kd value for MP by a factor of 3.3. The E22 (E21) and K100 (K98) mutations caused decreases in the kcat values by factors of 1.3×104 to 2×104. The E74 (E73) mutation caused decreases in the kcat values by factors of ~10. The results suggested that E74 of SaDHNA and E73 of EcDHNA are important for substrate binding, but their roles in catalysis are minor. In contrast, E22 and K100 of SaDHNA are important for catalysis, but their roles in substrate binding are minor. On the other hand, E21 and K98 of EcDHNA are important for both substrate binding and catalysis.