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1.  Using Hemoglobin A1c to Derive Mean Blood Glucose in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
American journal of nephrology  2013;37(5):10.1159/000349929.
Background
Although hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been widely used as a clinical assessment tool for outcome analyses related to glycemic control, the relationship between HbA1c and average blood glucose (BG) specific to peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with diabetes has not been characterized. We sought to develop HbA1c-BG equation models for PD patients.
Methods
We examined associations between HbA1c and random serum BG values over time in a contemporary 5-year (2001–2006) cohort of DaVita PD patients with diabetes. We identified 850 patients (mean age 58±13 years old and 56% male) with 4,566 paired measurements of HbA1c and BG. The bootstrapping method was used to estimate average BG and corresponding HbA1c.
Results
Linear regression analyses yielded the following HbA1c-BG equations: (1) BG (mg/dL)=24.1 + 28.6 × HbA1c – 12.2 × Albumin (R2adj=0.454), (2) BG = 55.3+ 28.8 × HbA1c-10.2 × Albumin −3.3 × Hemoglobin (R2adj=0.457), (3) and BG =69.5 +28.7 × HbA1c- 10.1 × Albumin- 3.7 × Hemoglobin- 0.1 × Age+ Race/Ethnicity (−10.1 African-Americans, −5.4 other race/ethnicities; R2adj=0.457). All models showed greater explanatory power of BG variation than previously established HbA1c-BG equation models defined within non-PD cohorts (R2adj=0.446 for both the DCCT and the ADAG equations).
Conclusions
The association between HbA1c and BG in PD patients is different than that of patients with normal kidney function. Our analysis suggests that equations incorporating serum albumin and/or hemoglobin values better estimate the HbA1c-BG relationship in PD patients compared to equations using HbA1c alone.
doi:10.1159/000349929
PMCID: PMC3844668  PMID: 23594745
Hemoglobin A1c; blood glucose; equation model; glycemic control; albumin; hemoglobin; peritoneal dialysis; race
2.  Developing an HbA1c-Based Equation to Estimate Blood Glucose in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(4):922-927.
OBJECTIVE
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been widely used as a clinically important assessment tool for outcome analyses related to glycemic control. However, because of special conditions in dialysis patients, including the uremic milieu, there is no HbA1c blood glucose (BG) equation specific for patients on dialysis. In this study, we sought to develop HbA1c-BG equation models for hemodialysis patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We examined associations between HbA1c and random serum BG over time in a contemporary cohort of diabetic patients with hemodialysis treated in DaVita dialysis clinics. We identified 11,986 patients (63 ± 12 years old and 49% male) with 69,764 paired measurements of HbA1c and BG over the course of 5 years (2001–2006). Bootstrapping method was used to estimate average BG and corresponding HbA1c levels. The association was adjusted by patient factors using linear regression.
RESULTS
Linear regression analyses yielded the following three regression equations: BG = 59.2 + 29.4 × HbA1c − 20.8 × Alb (R2 = 0.483); BG = 104.8 + 29.7 × HbA1c − 18.4 × Alb − 4.7 × Hb (R2 = 0.486); and BG = 82.9 + 30.7 × HbA1c − 16.5 × Alb − 5.4 × Hb + 0.3 × age + race (R2 = 0.491). All our models showed stronger association than previous equation models (R2 = 0.468 in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and A1c-Derived Average Glucose equations).
CONCLUSIONS
The association between HbA1c and BG in hemodialysis patients is different than that of patients with normal kidney function. Our analysis suggests that equations including serum albumin or hemoglobin are better for hemodialysis patients.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1019
PMCID: PMC3609538  PMID: 23238664
3.  IgA Nephropathy Caused by Unusual Polymerization of IgA1 with Aberrant N-Glycosylation in a Patient with Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposition Disease 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91079.
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a form of chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by the deposition of IgA immune complexes in the glomerular region. The cause of IgAN is unknown, but multiple mechanisms have been suggested. We previously reported a rare case of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a patient with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with monoclonal IgA1. In this study, we performed the detailed analyses of serum IgA1 from this patient in comparison with those from patients with mIgA plasma cell disorder without renal involvement and healthy volunteers. We found unusual polymerization of IgA1 with additional N-glycosylation distinctive in this patient, which was different from known etiologies. Glycan profiling of IgA1 by the lectin microarray revealed an intense signal for Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). This signal was reduced by disrupting the native conformation of IgA1, suggesting that the distinct glycan profile was reflecting the conformational alteration of IgA1, including the glycan conformation detected as additional N-glycans on both the heavy and light chains. This unusually polymerized state of IgA1 would cause an increase of the binding avidity for lectins. WFA specifically recognized highly polymerized and glycosylated IgA1. Our results of analysis in the rare case of a patient with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease suggest that the formation of unusually polymerized IgA1 is caused by divergent mechanisms including multiple structural alterations of glycans, which contributes to IgA1 deposition and mesangium proliferation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091079
PMCID: PMC3961232  PMID: 24651839
4.  Expression and Function of Allergin-1 on Human Primary Mast Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76160.
Mast cells (MC) play an important role in allergic and non-allergic immune responses. Activation of human MC is modulated by several cell surface inhibitory receptors, including recently identified Allergin-1 expressed on both human and mouse MC. Although Allergin-1 suppresses IgE-mediated, mast cell–dependent anaphylaxis in mice, the expression profile and function of Allergin-1 on human primary MC remains undetermined. Here, we established a seven-color flow cytometry method for assessing expression and function of a very small number of human primary MC. We show that Allergin-1S1, a splicing isoform of Allergin-1, is predominantly expressed on human primary MC in both bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and nasal scratching specimens. Moreover, Allergin-1S1 inhibits IgE-mediated activation from human primary MC in BAL fluid. These results indicate that Allergin-1 on human primary MC exhibits similar characteristics as mouse Allergin-1 in the expression profile and function.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076160
PMCID: PMC3792105  PMID: 24116093
5.  Association of High Pulse Pressure With Proteinuria in Subjects With Diabetes, Prediabetes, or Normal Glucose Tolerance in a Large Japanese General Population Sample 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(6):1310-1315.
OBJECTIVE
To examine whether there is a difference in the association between high pulse pressure and proteinuria, independent of other blood pressure (BP) indices, such as systolic or diastolic BP, among subjects with diabetes, prediabetes, or normal glucose tolerance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using a nationwide health checkup database of 228,778 Japanese aged ≥20 years (mean 63.2 years; 39.3% men; none had pre-existing cardiovascular disease), we examined the association between high pulse pressure, defined as the highest quintile of pulse pressure (≥63 mmHg, n = 40,511), and proteinuria (≥1+ on dipstick, n = 12,090) separately in subjects with diabetes (n = 27,913), prediabetes (n = 100,214), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 100,651).
RESULTS
The prevalence of proteinuria was different among subjects with diabetes, prediabetes, and normal glucose tolerance (11.3 vs. 5.0 vs. 3.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). In subjects with diabetes, but not those with prediabetes or normal glucose tolerance, high pulse pressure was associated with proteinuria independently of significant covariates, including systolic BP (odds ratio 1.15 [95% CI 1.04–1.28]) or diastolic or mean BP (all P < 0.01). In patients with diabetes, a +1 SD increase of pulse pressure (+13 mmHg) was associated with proteinuria, even after adjustment for systolic BP (1.07 [1.00–1.13]) or diastolic or mean BP (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Among the Japanese general population, there was a significant difference in the association between high pulse pressure and proteinuria among subjects with diabetes, prediabetes, and normal glucose tolerance. Only in diabetes was high pulse pressure associated with proteinuria independent of systolic, diastolic, or mean BP levels.
doi:10.2337/dc11-2245
PMCID: PMC3357237  PMID: 22474041
6.  Prediction of Response to Treatment by Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood in Patients with Microscopic Polyangiitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63182.
The JMAAV study was an open-labeled prospective clinical trial, which proposed severity-based treatment protocols for patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The results suggest that the proposed protocols are useful (remission rate: 89.4%), but are also indicative of relapse or patient demise regardless of the treatment (recurrence rate: 19.0%; mortality rate: 10.6%). The aim of this study is to develop the method to predict response to the treatment in patients with MPA. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was performed using peripheral blood from patients enrolled in the JMAAV study before and 1-week after the beginning of treatment. The gene expression profile before treatment was not directly related to the response to the treatment. However, when the samples from 9 patients with good response (persistent remission for 18 months) were examined, the expression of 88 genes was significantly altered by the treatment. Thirty statistically reliable genes were selected, and then the alteration of expression by the treatment was examined among 22 patients, including 17 with good response, which was defined as persistent remission for 18 months and 5 with poor response, which was defined as relapse after remission or no remission. Discrimination analysis between the alteration of expression of the 30 genes by the treatment and the response identified a combination of 16 genes as the most valuable gene set to predict the response to the treatment. This preliminary study identified IRF7, IFIT1, IFIT5, OASL, CLC, GBP-1, PSMB9, HERC5, CCR1, CD36, MS4A4A, BIRC4BP, PLSCR1, DEFA1/DEFA3, DEFA4, and COL9A2 as the important genes that can predict the response to the treatment in patients with MPA at an early point during the therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063182
PMCID: PMC3656865  PMID: 23690996
7.  Significance of Urinary Full-Length and Ectodomain Forms of Megalin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(5):1112-1118.
OBJECTIVE
Megalin, an endocytic receptor in proximal tubule cells, is involved in the mechanisms of albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To develop efficient novel biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis of DN, we investigated urinary megalin excretion in type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems were established with monoclonal antibodies against the NH2 (amino [A]-megalin assay) and COOH (C-megalin assay) termini of megalin to analyze urinary forms of megalin in 68 patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
The A-megalin assay mainly detected a megalin ectodomain form in the soluble urinary fraction, whereas the C-megalin assay identified a full-length form in both soluble and insoluble fractions. Urinary C-megalin levels were significantly high in patients with normoalbuminuria, were elevated in line with increased albuminuria, and showed a better association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) than did urinary albumin. In contrast, urinary A-megalin levels were increased in patients with normo- and microalbuminuria but not in those with macroalbuminuria. Urinary C-megalin levels were also positively associated with plasma inorganic phosphate and negatively with hemoglobin levels in those showing no features of bleeding and not taking vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
CONCLUSIONS
Urinary full-length megalin excretion as measured by the C-megalin assay is well associated with reduced eGFR and linked to the severity of DN, phosphate dysregulation, and anemia, whereas urinary excretion of megalin ectodomain as measured by the A-megalin assay may be associated with distinctive mechanisms of earlier DN in type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1684
PMCID: PMC3329833  PMID: 22410816
8.  Cost-effectiveness of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan 
Background
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem. Strategy for its early detection is still controversial. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of population strategy, i.e. mass screening, and Japan’s health checkup reform.
Methods
Cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out to compare test modalities in the context of reforming Japan’s mandatory annual health checkup for adults. A decision tree and Markov model with societal perspective were constructed to compare dipstick test to check proteinuria only, serum creatinine (Cr) assay only, or both.
Results
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of mass screening compared with do-nothing were calculated as ¥1,139,399/QALY (US $12,660/QALY) for dipstick test only, ¥8,122,492/QALY (US $90,250/QALY) for serum Cr assay only and ¥8,235,431/QALY (US $91,505/QALY) for both. ICERs associated with the reform were calculated as ¥9,325,663/QALY (US $103,618/QALY) for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥9,001,414/QALY (US $100,016/QALY) for mandating serum Cr assay and applying dipstick test at discretion.
Conclusions
Taking a threshold to judge cost-effectiveness according to World Health Organization’s recommendation, i.e. three times gross domestic product per capita of ¥11.5 million/QALY (US $128 thousand/QALY), a policy that mandates serum Cr assay is cost-effective. The choice of continuing the current policy which mandates dipstick test only is also cost-effective. Our results suggest that a population strategy for CKD detection such as mass screening using dipstick test and/or serum Cr assay can be justified as an efficient use of health care resources in a population with high prevalence of the disease such as in Japan and Asian countries.
doi:10.1007/s10157-011-0567-1
PMCID: PMC3328680  PMID: 22167460
Chronic kidney disease; Cost-effectiveness; Dipstick test; Mass screening; Proteinuria; Serum creatinine
9.  Severity-based treatment for Japanese patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis: the JMAAV study 
Modern Rheumatology  2011;22(3):394-404.
We (JMAAV [Japanese patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis] Study Group) performed a prospective, open-label, multi-center trial to evaluate the usefulness of severity-based treatment in Japanese patients with myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis received a severity-based regimen according to the appropriate protocol: low-dose corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclophosphamide or azathioprine in patients with mild form; high-dose corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide in those with severe form; and the severe-form regimen plus plasmapheresis in those with the most severe form. We followed up the patients for 18 months. The primary end points were the induction of remission, death, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Fifty-two patients were registered, and 48 patients were enrolled in this study (mild form, n = 23; severe form, n = 23; most severe form, n = 2). Among the 47 patients who received the predefined therapies, 42 achieved remission within 6 months, 5 died, and 1 developed ESRD. Disease flared up in 8 of the 42 patients with remission during the 18-month follow-up period. The JMAAV trial is the first prospective trial for MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis to be performed in Japan. The remission and death rates were comparable to those in several previous clinical trials performed in western counties. The regimen employed in this trial was tailor-made based on patients’ disease severity and disease type, and it seems that standardization can be consistent with treatment choices made according to severity.
doi:10.1007/s10165-011-0525-5
PMCID: PMC3375427  PMID: 21928092
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; Microscopic polyangiitis; Prophylaxis; Pulmonary-limited vasculitis; Severity-based treatment
10.  Role of Plasma Protein and Low-Molecular Weight Substances in the Change of Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity in Hemodialysis Patients 
While it is well known that hemodialysis (HD) patients with end stage renal failure are exposed to high oxidative stress, there is not a general opinion regarding whether antioxidant activity is high or low in these patients. We evaluated the variation of plasma hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (p-HRSA) by a single-session of HD in 69 patients by using a new system, reactive flow-injection electron spin resonance. And then comparing p-HRSA with their biochemical parameters, we tried to elucidate what components affected p-HRSA in the HD patients. The average of p-HRSA significantly increased after HD and the variation of p-HRSA by HD was correlated with that of plasma total protein (TP). In 5 patients however, their p-HRSA decreased after HD, in spite of increasing TP. In pre-HD, the p-HRSA values and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of low-molecular weight fraction of plasma were significantly higher in these 5 patients than in patients whose p-HRSA increased after HD. These 5 patients were in an inflammatory state. These findings suggest that p-HRSA is mainly affected by TP, but caution should be exercised in patients who have high p-HRSA before HD and whose p-HRSA does not increase after HD.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.2008016
PMCID: PMC2266055  PMID: 18385827
hemodialysis; plasma hydroxyl radical scavenging activity; flow-injection electron spin resonance; total protein; low-molecular weight substance

Results 1-10 (10)