Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.
The crystal structure of the 11.14 kDa orphan ORF 1382 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AF1382) has been determined by sulfur SAD phasing using data collected from a moderately diffracting crystal and 1.9 Å synchrotron X-rays.
The crystal structure of the 11.14 kDa orphan ORF 1382 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AF1382) has been determined by sulfur SAD phasing using a moderately diffracting crystal and 1.9 Å wavelength synchrotron X-rays. AF1382 was selected as a structural genomics target by the Southeast Collaboratory for Structural Genomics (SECSG) since sequence analyses showed that it did not belong to the Pfam-A database and thus could represent a novel fold. The structure was determined by exploiting longer wavelength X-rays and data redundancy to increase the anomalous signal in the data. AF1382 is a 95-residue protein containing five S atoms associated with four methionine residues and a single cysteine residue that yields a calculated Bijvoet ratio (ΔF
anom/F) of 1.39% for 1.9 Å wavelength X-rays. Coupled with an average Bijvoet redundancy of 25 (two 360° data sets), this produced an excellent electron-density map that allowed 69 of the 95 residues to be automatically fitted. The S-SAD model was then manually completed and refined (R = 23.2%, R
free = 26.8%) to 2.3 Å resolution (PDB entry 3o3k). High-resolution data were subsequently collected from a better diffracting crystal using 0.97 Å wavelength synchrotron X-rays and the S-SAD model was refined (R = 17.9%, R
free = 21.4%) to 1.85 Å resolution (PDB entry 3ov8). AF1382 has a winged-helix–turn–helix structure common to many DNA-binding proteins and most closely resembles the N-terminal domain (residues 1–82) of the Rio2 kinase from A. fulgidus, which has been shown to bind DNA, and a number of MarR-family transcriptional regulators, suggesting a similar DNA-binding function for AF1382. The analysis also points out the advantage gained from carrying out data reduction and structure determination on-site while the crystal is still available for further data collection.
AF1382; orphan ORFs; sulfur SAD; Archaeoglobus fulgidus
This systematic review aims to evaluate current evidence for the benefit and side effect of oral Panax notoginseng preparation for coronary heart disease (CHD). We included 17 randomized clinical trials (17 papers and 1747 participants). Comparing with no intervention on the basis of conventional therapy, oral Panax notoginseng did not show significant effect on reducing cardiovascular events, but it could alleviate angina pectoris (including improving the symptoms of angina pectoris [RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.28; 7 trials, n = 791], improving electrocardiogram [RR 1.35; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.53; 8 trials, n = 727], decreasing the recurrence of angina pectoris [RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.94; 1 trials, n = 60], duration of angina pectoris [RR −1.88; 95% CI −2.08 to −1.69; 2 trials, n = 292], and dosage of nitroglycerin [MD −1.13; 95% CI −1.70 to −0.56; 2 trials, n = 212]); oral Panax notoginseng had no significant difference compared with isosorbide dinitrate on immediate effect for angina pectoris [RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.15; 1 trial, n = 80]. In conclusion, oral Panax notoginseng preparation could relieve angina pectoris related symptoms. However, the small sample size and potential bias of most trials influence the convincingness of this conclusion. More rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence, especially for the potential benefit of cardiovascular events.
Objective. This trial aims to look for the protein biomarker of “toxin syndrome” of CHD patients. Methods. We have performed two trials in this paper. The first trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the plasma proteome in unstable angina (UA) patients by Maldi-Tof Mass. The second trial was a nested case-control study in 1503 stable CHD patients with one-year followup for acute cardiovascular events (ACEs). Results. In the RCT study, 12 protein spots were found to be the differential protein for the significant differences between the difference of before and after treatment in group A and group B; 2 of them (3207.37 Da and 4279.95 Da) was considered to be unique to “toxin syndrome” for being differential proteins of group B but not group A. These 2 spots were identified as Isoform 1 of Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor (FGA, 3207.37 Da) and Isoform 2 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 4279.95 Da), respectively. In the nested case-control study, the result of Western blot demonstrated that protein expression of ITIH4 in the group with followup ACEs was significantly lower than the matched group without followup ACEs (P = 0.027). Conclusion. ITIH4 might be a new potential biomarker of CHD “toxin syndrome” in TCM, indicating the potential role in early identifying high-risk CHD patients in stable period.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death. As the main treatment of CHD, modern medicine has improved dramatically in recent years. Although researches of TCM and integrative medicine on CHD are witnessed encouraging progress in many respects, the role TCM playing in the prevention and treatment of CHD has been unprecedentedly challenged under such circumstance of the very fast development of modern medicine. In order to share mutual complementary advantages of TCM and western medicine, this review summarizes the relatively prominent researches of TCM and integrative medicine on CHD in recent years, and illuminates the issue of the orientation of the further research of integrative medicine on CHD, including (1) original innovation of TCM etiology and pathogenesis, (2) combination of disease and TCM syndrome, (3) biological basis of TCM syndrome of CHD, (4) clinical design and quality control of integrative medicine research, (5) herb-drug interaction, (6) difficulties and hot issues of modern medicine.
Background. Coronary heart disease (CHD) due to atherosclerotic inflammation remains a significant threat to global health despite the success of the lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory statins. Tanshinone IIA, a potent anti-inflammatory compound derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), may be able to supplement statins by further reducing levels of circulating inflammatory markers correlated to cardiovascular risk. Here, we present the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will investigate the synergistic effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfate and simvastatin on reducing elevated inflammatory markers in patients with CHD. Participants: Seventy-two inpatients with confirmed CHD, elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) level, and a TCM diagnosis of blood stasis syndrome will be enrolled and randomized 1 : 1 into the control or experimental group. Intervention. All subjects will receive a standard Western therapy including 20 mg simvastatin orally once per evening. Patients in the experimental group will additionally receive a daily 80 mg dose of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfate intravenously, diluted into 250 mL 0.9% NaCl solution. The treatment period will be 14 days. Outcomes. Primary outcome parameter: serum Hs-CRP level. Secondary outcome parameters: other circulating inflammatory markers (including IL-6, TNFα, VCAM-1, CD40, sCD40L, MCP-1, and MMP-9), improvement in symptoms of angina and blood stasis syndrome, and safety. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-12002361.
Aims. To investigate the treatment of hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognostic factors in Beijing, China.
Materials and Methods. A multicenter prospective study was conducted through an integrative platform of clinical and research at 12 hospitals in Beijing, China. The clinical information of 3537 hospitalized patients with CAD was collected from September 2009 to May 2011, and the efficacy of secondary prevention during one-year followup was evaluated. In addition, a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify some factors which will have independent impact on the prognosis. Results. The average age of all patients was 64.88 ± 11.97. Of them, 65.42% are males. The medicines for patients were as follows: antiplatelet drugs accounting for 91.97%, statins accounting for 83.66%, β-receptor blockers accounting for 72.55%, ACEI/ARB accounting for 58.92%, and revascularization (including PCI and CABG) accounting for 40.29%. The overall incidence of cardiovascular events was 13.26% (469/3537). The logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that heart failure (OR, 3.707, 95% CI = 2.756–4.986), age ≥ 65 years old (OR, 2.007, 95% CI = 1.587–2.53), and myocardial infarction (OR, 1.649, 95% CI = 1.322–2.057) were the independent risk factors of others factors for cardiovascular events that occurred during followup of one-year period. Integrative medicine (IM) therapy showed the beneficial tendency for decreasing incidence of cardiovascular events, although no statistical significance was found (OR, 0.797, 95% CI = 0.613~1.036). Conclusions. Heart failure, age ≥ 65 years old, and myocardial infarction were associated with an increase in incidence of cardiovascular events, and treatment with IM showed a tendency for decreasing incidence of cardiovascular events.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with angioplasty in the treatment of hepatic vein obstruction in Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) complicated by thrombosis. In 14 cases of BCS, the patients with hepatic vein obstruction complicated by thrombosis who underwent catheter-directed urokinase thrombolysis, balloon dilatation and/or stent placement were followed up with an ultrasound examination of the liver. Among the 13 cases of successful treatment, one hepatic vein was recanalized in 12 patients (right hepatic vein, seven cases; left hepatic vein, three cases; middle hepatic vein, one case and accessory hepatic vein, one case) and two hepatic veins (right and left) were recanalized in one patient without serious complications, such as bleeding and pulmonary embolism. There was one patient in whom the treatment was unsuccessful. During an average follow-up period of 24.8±19.6 months, hepatic vein restenosis was observed in one patient in the sixth month after opperation; however, a successful result was obtained following a second balloon dilatation. The remaining 12 patients did not demonstrate any recurrence of restenosis or thrombosis. Catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with angioplasty was observed to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of hepatic vein obstruction in BCS complicated by thrombosis.
Budd-Chiari syndrome; hepatic vein thrombosis; thrombolytic therapy; hepatic vein angioplasty/stenting
In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a ‘depot’ of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4+CD69+ T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.
polysaccharide; Agaricus blazei; Th1; vaccine; immune
Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plus conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results. Participants (n = 808) with ACS who underwent PCI from thirteen hospitals of mainland China were randomized into two groups: CHMs plus conventional treatment group (treatment group) or conventional treatment alone group (control group). All participants received conventional treatment, and participants in treatment group additionally received CHMs for six months. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Secondary endpoint was the composite of readmission for ACS, stroke, or congestive heart failure. The safety endpoint involved occurrence of major bleeding events. The incidence of primary endpoint was 2.7% in treatment group versus 6.2% in control group (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.87; P = 0.015). The incidence of secondary endpoint was 3.5% in treatment group versus 8.7% in control group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.72; P = 0.002). No major bleeding events were observed in any participant. Conclusion. Treatment with CHMs plus conventional treatment further reduced the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS after PCI without increasing risk of major bleeding.
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty using balloon catheters for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have become increasingly accepted as alternative therapeutic modalities. However, few studies have investigated the clinical efficacy of combining percutaneous microwave ablation with angioplasty for patients with BCS complicated by HCC. In the present study, a safe and effective method for treating BCS associated with HCC is presented. Color Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), inferior venacavography, hepatic arteriogram and cytological examinations were used for the diagnosis. A KY2000 microwave system with an emission of 915 MHz was also employed for the treatment. Two patients with BCS associated with HCC that were administered different adjuvant drug treatments underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and percutaneous microwave ablation successfully, with no treatment-related complications. Combining angioplasty with percutaneous microwave ablation may represent an alternative method for the treatment of BCS associated with HCC.
Budd-Chiari syndrome; hepatocellular carcinoma; angioplasty; percutaneous microwave ablation
Objective. This paper systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound Danshen dropping pill (CDDP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing CDDP with no intervention, placebo, or conventional western medicine, were retrieved. Data extraction and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. We assessed risk of bias for each included study and evaluated the strength of evidence on prespecified outcomes. Results. Seven RCTs enrolling 1215 patients were included. CDDP was associated with statistically significant reductions in the risk of cardiac death and heart failure compared with no intervention based on conventional therapy for AMI. In addition, CDDP was associated with improvement of quality of life and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the safety of CDDP was unproven for the limited data. The quality of evidence for each outcome in the main comparison (CDDP versus no intervention) was “low” or “moderate.” Conclusion. CDDP showed some potential benefits for AMI patients, such as the reductions of cardiac death and heart failure. However, the overall quality of evidence was poor, and the safety of CDDP for AMI patients was not confirmed. More evidence from high quality RCTs is warranted to support the use of CDDP for AMI patients.
To evaluate the impact of the Janus kinase 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gastric cancer risk.
In this hospital-based, case–control study, the genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols in 661 individuals (359 gastric cancer patients and 302 age and sex matched cancer-free controls).
Both the frequency of A allele in rs2230724 and G allele in rs1887427 were more frequent in patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively). Compared with the common genotype, subjects with the (AG+AA) genotypes of rs2230724 and the (AG+GG) genotypes of rs1887427 had a 59% and 98% increased risk of developing gastric cancer, respectively (P = 0.010, adjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12–2.27; P<0.001, adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.39–2.81, respectively). Further stratified analysis showed that the association between the risk of gastric cancer and the rare genotypes of rs2230724 were more profound in the subgroups of elder individuals (>56 years), males, nonsmokers and urban subjects, while the association between the risk and the rare genotypes of rs1887427 persisted in subgroups of younger individuals (≤56 years), males, nonsmokers and both of rural and urban subjects.
The JAK2 gene rs2230724 and rs1887427 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Many Sox proteins play important roles both in mesoderm and ectoderm development. It is reported that Sox2, a member of this family, is essential for the maintenance of the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ES) and neural stem cells (NSCs). To investigate whether Sox2 participates in mesoderm development besides ectoderm, Sox2 was introduced into C3H10T1/2 cells.
We produced recombinant retrovirus expressing Sox2 in GP2-293t cells and infected the virus into C3H10T1/2 cells. Growth property, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, mineralized nodules, osteogenic gene expression and related signal pathways were analysed and compared between Sox2-expressing cells and control cells.
Sox2 over-expression led to increased proliferation of C3H10T1/2 cells, activation of Wnt/β-catenin and p38MAPK pathways. When cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, ALP and mineralized nodules formation were inhibited in Sox2 over-expressing cells with down-regulation of osteogenic gene expression as well as inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin and p38MAPK pathways.
All these data suggested that over-expression of Sox2 promoted proliferation and inhibited osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells.
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
Asymptomatic intrapelvic meningocele is rare. Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old Chinese man who underwent sigmoidectomy due to megacolon. During the operation, an intrapelvic cyst was found and resected. Meningocele was confirmed by histological examination. The patient recovered well postoperatively with the exception of liquorrhoea. Conservative therapy was initiated, including draining, anti-infection and specific posture maintenance. During the following week, liquorrhoea was generally relieved and the patient was discharged. This is the first known report of liquorrhoea associated with intrapelvic meningocele resection successfully treated by conservative therapy. Our case indicates that conservative treatment may be considered for similar cases so that a second surgery is avoided.
intrapelvic meningocele; liquorrhoea; conservative therapy
This study reports the effects of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) LaF3:Yb,Er on zebrafish, with the aim of investigating UCNPs toxicity. LaF3:Yb,Er were prepared by an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system, and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. 140 zebrafish embryos were divided into six test groups and one control group, and respectively were injected into 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL LaF3:Yb,Er@SiO2 solution, and respectively were raised for 5 days. Each experiment was repeated ten times. Results showed that water-soluble LaF3:Yb,Er were successfully prepared, and did not exhibit obvious toxicity to zebrafish embryos under 100 μg/mL, but exhibited chronic toxicities 200 μg/mL in vivo, resulting in malformations and delayed hatching rate and embryonic and larval development. The excretion channels of LaF3:Yb,Er in adult zebrafish were mainly found in the intestine after being injected evenly for 24 h. In conclusion, the exploration of LaF3:Yb,Er for in vivo applications in animals and humans must consider UCNPs biocompatibility.
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs); biocompatibility; toxicity; zebrafish embryo.
Vessels are a critical and necessary component of most tissues, and there has been substantial research investigating vessel formation and stabilization. Several groups have investigated coculturing endothelial cells with a second cell type to promote formation and stabilization of vessels. Some have noted that long-term vessels derived from implanted cocultures are often chimeric consisting of both host and donor cells. The questions arise as to whether the coculture cell might impact the chimeric nature of the microvessels and can modulate the density of donor cells over time. If long-term engineered microvessels are primarily of host origin, any impairment of the host's angiogenic ability has significant implications for the long-term success of the implant. If one can modulate the host versus donor response, one may be able to overcome a host's angiogenic impairment. Furthermore, if one can modulate the donor contribution, one may be able to engineer microvascular networks to deliver molecules a patient lacks systemically for long times. To investigate the impact of the cocultured cell on the host versus donor contributions of endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks, we varied the ratio of the neural progenitors to endothelial cells in subcutaneously implanted poly(ethylene glycol)/poly-L-lysine hydrogels. We found that the coculture of neural progenitors with endothelial cells led to the formation of chimeric host-donor vessels, and the ratio of neural progenitors has a significant impact on the long term residence of donor endothelial cells in engineered microvascular networks in vivo even though the neural progenitors are only present transiently in the system. We attribute this to the short term paracrine signaling between the two cell types. This suggests that one can modulate the host versus donor contributions using short-term paracrine signaling which has broad implications for the application of engineered microvascular networks and cellular therapy more broadly.
The apoAI mimetic 4F was designed to inhibit atherosclerosis by improving HDL. We reported that treating tight skin (Tsk−/+) mice, a model of systemic sclerosis (SSc), with 4F decreases inflammation and restores angiogenic potential in Tsk−/+ hearts. Interferon regulating factor 5 (IRF5) is important in autoimmunity and apoptosis in immune cells. However, no studies were performed investigating IRF5 in myocardium. We hypothesize that 4F differentially modulates IRF5 expression and activation in Tsk−/+ hearts. Posterior wall thickness was significantly increased in Tsk−/+ compared to C57Bl/6J (control) and Tsk−/+ mice with 4F treatment assessed by echoradiography highlighting reduction of fibrosis in 4F treated Tsk−/+ mice. IRF5 in heart lysates from control and Tsk/+ with and without 4F treatment (sc, 1 mg/kg/d, 6–8 weeks) was determined. Phosphoserine, ubiquitin, ubiquitin K63 on IRF5 were determined on immunoprecipitates of IRF5. Immunofluorescence and TUNEL assays in heart sections were used to determine positive nuclei for IRF5 and apoptosis, respectively. Fluorescence-labeled streptavidin (SA) was used to determine endothelial cell uptake of biotinylated 4F. SA-agarose pulldown and immunoblotting for IRF5 were used to determine 4F binding IRF5 in endothelial cell cytosolic fractions and to confirm biolayer interferometry studies. IRF5 levels in Tsk−/+ hearts were similar to control. 4F treatments decrease IRF5 in Tsk−/+ hearts and decrease phosphoserine and ubiquitin K63 but increase total ubiquitin on IRF5 in Tsk−/+ compared with levels on IRF5 in control hearts. 4F binds IRF5 by mechanisms favoring association over dissociation strong enough to pull down IRF5 from a mixture of endothelial cell cytosolic proteins. IRF5 positive nuclei and apoptotic cells in Tsk−/+ hearts were increased compared with controls. 4F treatments decreased both measurements in Tsk−/+ hearts. IRF5 activation in Tsk−/+ hearts is increased. 4F treatments decrease IRF5 expression and activation in Tsk−/+ hearts by a mechanism related to 4F’s ability to bind IRF5.
Reactive gliosis had been implicated in injury and recovery patterns associated with hydrocephalus. Our aim is to determine the efficacy of minocycline, an antibiotic known for its anti-inflammatory properties, to reduce reactive gliosis and inhibit the development of hydrocephalus.
The ventricular dilatation were evaluated by MRI at 1-week post drugs treated, while GFAP and Iba-1were detected by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expression of GFAP and Iba-1 was significantly higher in hydrocephalic group compared with saline control group (p < 0.05). Minocycline treatment of hydrocephalic animals reduced the expression of GFAP and Iba-1 significantly (p < 0.05). Likewise, the severity of ventricular dilatation is lower in minocycline treated hydrocephalic animals compared with the no minocycline group (p < 0.05).
Minocycline treatment is effective in reducing the gliosis and delaying the development of hydrocephalus with prospective to be the auxiliary therapeutic method of hydrocephalus.
Hydrocephalus; Gliosis; Astrocytosis; Microgliosis; Minocycline
As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The efficacy of ALA-GNP conjugates in PDT was investigated under irradiation with a mercury lamp (central wavelength of 395 nm) and three types of light-emitting diode arrays (central wavelengths of 399, 502, and 621 nm, respectively). The impacts of GNPs on PDT were then analyzed by measuring the intracellular PpIX levels in K562 cells and the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX under irradiation.
The 2 mM ALA-GNP conjugates showed greater cytotoxicity against K562 cells than ALA alone. Light-emitting diode (505 nm) irradiation of the conjugates caused a level of K562 cell destruction similar to that with irradiation by a mercury lamp, although it had no adverse effects on drug-free control cells. These results may be attributed to the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX, which can be enhanced by GNPs.
Under irradiation with a suitable light source, ALA-GNP conjugates can effectively destroy K562 cells. The technique offers a new strategy of PDT.
nonradiative energy transfer; photodamage; protoporphyrin IX; selective destruction; singlet oxygen sensor green reagent; surface plasmon resonance
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an ethanol-inducible enzyme, has been shown to metabolically activate various carcinogens, which is critical for the development and progression of cancers. It has demonstrated that CYP2E1 polymorphisms alter the transcriptional activity of the gene. However, studies on the association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms (PstI/RsaI or DraI) and gastric cancer have reported conflicting results. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether CYP2E1 polymorphisms is associated with the development and progression of gastric cancer and its prognosis in Chinese patients.
A case-control study was conducted in which CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI and DraI polymorphisms were analyzed in 510 Chinese patients with gastric cancer and 510 age- and sex- matched healthy controls by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratios were estimated by multivariate logistic regression, and the lifetime was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. In addition, a meta-analysis was also conducted to verify the findings.
For CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI polymorphism, C2C2 homozygotes (OR = 2.15; CI: 1.18–3.94) and C2 carriers (OR = 1.48; CI: 1.13–1.96) were associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer when compared with C1C1 homozygotes. Both C1C2 and C2C2 genotypes were associated with advanced stage, but not the grade of gastric cancer. Moreover, C2C2 genotype was identified as an independent marker of poor overall survival for gastric cancer. However, there was not any significant association between CYP2E1 DraI polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer. In the meta-analysis, pooled data from 13 studies confirmed that the CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer.
CYP2E1 PstI/RsaI polymorphism is associated with increased risk of development, progression and poor prognosis of gastric cancer in Chinese patients. Pooled data from 13 studies, mainly in Asian countries, are in agreement with our findings.
This paper presents an automatic computer-aided detection scheme on digital chest radiographs to detect pneumoconiosis. Firstly, the lung fields are segmented from a digital chest X-ray image by using the active shape model method. Then, the lung fields are subdivided into six non-overlapping regions, according to Chinese diagnosis criteria of pneumoconiosis. The multi-scale difference filter bank is applied to the chest image to enhance the details of the small opacities, and the texture features are calculated from each region of the original and the processed images, respectively. After extracting the most relevant ones from the feature sets, support vector machine classifiers are utilized to separate the samples into the normal and the abnormal sets. Finally, the final classification is performed by the chest-based report-out and the classification probability values of six regions. Experiments are conducted on randomly selected images from our chest database. Both the training and the testing sets have 300 normal and 125 pneumoconiosis cases. In the training phase, training models and weighting factors for each region are derived. We evaluate the scheme using the full feature vectors or the selected feature vectors of the testing set. The results show that the classification performances are high. Compared with the previous methods, our fully automated scheme has a higher accuracy and a more convenient interaction. The scheme is very helpful to mass screening of pneumoconiosis in clinic.
Pneumoconiosis; digital radiography; computer-aided detection (CAD); active shape model (ASM); texture analysis; support vector machine (SVM)
Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to analyze the toxic effects of DEPs on a model cell line from human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were also applied to further explore DEP-induced cytotoxicity in HAECs. Results revealed that DEPs could negatively impair cell viability and alter membrane nanostructures and cytoskeleton components in a dosage- and a time-dependent manner; and analyses suggested that DEPs-induced hyperpolarization in HAECs appeared in a time-dependent manner, implying DEP treatment would lead to vasodilation, which could be supported by down-regulation of cell biophysical properties (e.g., cell elasticity). These findings are consistent with the conclusion that DEP exposure triggers important biochemical and biophysical changes that would negatively impact the pathological development of cardiovascular diseases. For example, DEP intervention would be one cause of vasodilation, which will expand understanding of biophysical aspects associated with DEP cytotoxicity in HAECs.
The American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization have recently adopted the HbA1c measurement as one method of diagnostic criteria for diabetes. The change in diagnostic criteria has important implications for diabetes treatment and prevention. We therefore investigate diabetes using HbA1c and glucose criteria together, and assess the prevalent trend in a developing southern Chinese population with 85 million residents.
A stratified multistage random sampling method was applied and a representative sample of 3590 residents 18 years of age or above was obtained in 2010. Each participant received a full medical check-up, including measurement of fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, and HbA1c. Information on history of diagnosis and treatment of diabetes was collected. The prevalence of diabetes obtained from the present survey was compared with the data from the survey in 2002.
The prevalence of diabetes based on both glucose and HbA1c measurements was 21.7% (95% CI: 17.4%–26.1%) in 2010, which suggests that more than 1 in 5 adult residents were suffering from diabetes in this developing population. Only 12.9% (95% CI: 8.3%–17.6%) of diabetic residents were aware of their condition. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 66.3% (95% CI: 62.7%–69.8%). The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes which met all the three diagnostic thresholds (fast plasma glucose, 2 hour post-load plasma glucose, and HbA1c) was 3.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Diabetes and pre-diabetes as determined by HbA1c measurement had higher vascular risk than those determined by glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–3.7%) in 2002 to 13.8% (95% CI: 10.2%–17.3%) in 2010 based on the same glucose criteria.
Our results show that the diabetes epidemic is accelerating in China. The awareness of diabetes is extremely low. The glucose test and HbA1c measurement should be used together to increase detection of diabetes and pre-diabetes.