Plaque psoriasis is a chronic disease characterized by scaly plaques on the skin that can itch and bleed. Psoriasis covering over 10% of the body is classified as moderate to severe, and can impact patient quality of life.
To assess the relationship between plaque psoriasis self-reported severity symptoms and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.
The study sample included 199 patients recruited from internet panels, of which 179 respondents had plaque psoriasis and 20 had plaque and inverse psoriasis. Itching, pain, and scaling symptoms were studied. A structural equation modeling framework was used to estimate the effect of these symptoms on patient outcomes. First, each severity variable was regressed on a set of covariates to generate a predicted severity score. These predicted values were placed in a second-stage model with patient mental and physical scores (Short-Form 12 questionnaire), work productivity, and activity impairment indicators as dependent variables.
Itching severity had a marginal negative effect (P < 0.06) on patients’ Short-Form 12 physical and mental component scores. Pain severity also negatively affected physical and mental health scores (P < 0.02). Patients were more likely to miss work because of itching (odds ratio [OR]: 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 4.10), pain (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.52), and scaling (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.52) symptoms. These symptoms also lowered self-reported productivity. As itching (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.95), scaling (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.90), and pain symptoms (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.09) increased, so did the odds that a patient would be less productive at work.
Plaque psoriasis significantly affects patient quality of life. In addition to greater mental and physical pain, patients are more likely to miss work and have diminished productivity as symptom severity increases.
psoriasis; severity; activity impairment; work productivity loss; structural equation modeling
A street rabies virus (RV) isolate, GXHXN, was obtained from brain tissue of rabid cattle in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China in 2009. GXHXN is the first isolate from cattle in China with its entire genome sequenced and is closely related to BJ2011E from horse in Beijing, WH11 from donkey in the Hubei Province, and isolates from dogs in the Guangxi and Fujian Provinces, with homologies of 97.6% to 99.6%. It is more distantly related to isolates from domestic cat, pig, Chinese ferret badger, and vaccine strains, with homologies of 83.1% to 88.0%.
A mechanism-based model was developed to describe the time course of lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior and azithromycin pharmacodynamics in mice. The lipopolysaccharide-induced disease progression was monitored by lipopolysaccharide, proinflammatory cytokines, and kynrenine concentration in plasma. The depressive-like behavior was investigated by forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Azithromycin was selected to inhibit the surge of proinflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide. Disease progression model and azithromycin pharmacodynamics were constructed from transduction and indirect response models. A delay in the onset of increased proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine, and behavior test compared to lipopolysaccharide was successfully characterized by series transduction models. The inhibition of azithromycin on proinflammatory cytokines was described by an indirect response model. After lipopolysaccharide challenging, the proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior tests would peak approximately at 3, 12, and 24 h respectively, and then the time courses slowly declined toward a baseline state after peak response. During azithromycin administration, the peak levels of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and behavior indexes decreased. Model parameters indicated that azithromycin significantly inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines level in plasma and improved the depressive-like behavior induced by inflammation. The integrated model for disease progression and drug intervention captures turnovers of proinflammatory cytokines, kynrenine and the behavior results in the different time phases and conditions.
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a hypoxia-inducible protein with cytoprotective effects in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and related disorders, but the molecular mechanisms involved in its induction are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates Ngb levels, using shRNA-mediated knockdown and lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of the HIF-1α subunit, in cultured neural (HN33) cells. HIF-1α knockdown decreased and HIF-1α overexpression increased Ngb levels, consistent with a connection between HIF-1 and Ngb induction. These findings may have implications for understanding the hypoxia-response repertoire of neural cells and devising therapeutic strategies for neurologic disorders.
neuroglobin; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor-1; stroke
Depletion of neurogenesis worsens functional outcome in young-adult mice after focal cerebral ischemia, but whether a similar effect occurs in older mice is unknown. Using middle-aged (12-month-old) transgenic (DCX-TK(+)) mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) under control of the doublecortin (DCX) promoter, we conditionally depleted DCX-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus by treatment with ganciclovir (GCV) for 14 days. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) or occlusion of the distal segment of middle cerebral artery (dMCAO) on day 14 of vehicle or GCV treatment and mice were killed 24 hr or 12 weeks later. Increased infarct volume or brain atrophy was found in GCV- compared to vehicle-treated middle-aged DCX-TK(+) mice, both 24 hr after MCAO and 12 weeks after dMCAO. More severe motor deficits were also observed in GCV-treated, middle-aged DCX-TK(+) transgenic mice at both time points. Our results indicate that ischemia-induced newborn neurons contribute to anatomical and functional outcome after experimental stroke in middle-aged mice.
The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is highly expressed on the bronchial and bronchiole epithelium, submucosal glands in intrapulmonary bronchi, pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in human lung. This study aimed to perform positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of lung inflammation with [18F]FEDAC, a specific TSPO radioligand, and to determine cellular sources enriching TSPO expression in the lung.
An acute lung injury model was prepared by intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat. Uptake of radioactivity in the rat lungs was measured with small-animal PET after injection of [18F]FEDAC. Presence of TSPO was examined in the lung tissue using Western blot and immunohistochemical assays.
The uptake of [18F]FEDAC increased in the lung with the progress of inflammation by treatment with LPS. Pretreatment with a TSPO-selective ligand PK11195 showed a significant decrease in the lung uptake of [18F]FEDAC due to competitive binding to TSPO. TSPO expression was elevated in the inflamed lung section and its level responded to the [18F]FEDAC uptake and severity of inflammation. Increase of TSPO expression was mainly found in the neutrophils and macrophages of inflamed lungs.
From this study we conclude that PET with [18F]FEDAC may be a useful tool for imaging TSPO expression and evaluating progress of lung inflammation. Study on human lung using [18F]FEDAC-PET is promising.
Background and Purpose
Interhemispheric inhibition via the corpus callosum has been proposed as an exacerbating factor in outcome from stroke.
We measured infarct volume and behavioral outcome following middle cerebral artery occlusion in callosotomized rats and acallosal mice.
Neither callosotomy in rats nor callosal agenesis in mice improved infarct volume or behavioral outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion.
These findings argue against a role for transcallosal projections in exacerbating focal cerebral ischemia.
corpus callosum; stroke; ischemia; callosotomy; callosal agenesis
Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics hold much promise for providing better nutritional advice to the public generally, genetic subgroups and individuals. Because nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and ever new ‘omic’ technologies, it is often difficult, even for educated professionals, to appreciate their relevance to the practice of preventive approaches for optimising health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This review discusses (i) the basic concepts, technical terms and technology involved in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics; (ii) how this emerging knowledge can be applied to optimise health, prevent and treat diseases; (iii) how to read, understand and interpret nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic research results, and (iv) how this knowledge may potentially transform nutrition and dietetic practice, and the implications of such a transformation. This is in effect an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics relevant to health practitioners who are seeking a better understanding of this new frontier in nutrition research and its potential application to dietetic practice.
Dietetics; Nutrigenetics; Nutrigenomics; Nutrition Research; Personalised nutrition
We reported previously that ablation of doublecortin (DCX)-immunopositive newborn neurons in mice worsens anatomical and functional outcome measured 1 day after experimental stroke, but whether this effect persists is unknown. We generated transgenic mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase under control of the DCX promoter (DCX-TK transgenic mice). DCX-expressing and recently divided cells in the rostral subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus of DCX-TK transgenic mice, but not wild-type mice, were specifically depleted after ganciclovir (GCV) treatment for 14 days. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on day 14 of vehicle or GCV treatment, and mice were killed 12 weeks after MCAO. Infarct volume was significantly increased and neurologic deficits were more severe in GCV- compared to vehicle-treated DCX-TK transgenic mice at first 8 weeks, after depletion of DCX- and bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive cells in the SVZ and dentate gyrus following focal ischemia. Our results indicate that endogenous neurogenesis in a critical period following experimental stroke influences the course of long-term recovery.
Little is known about the relationship between neuronal cell transplantation and endogenous neurogenesis after experimental stroke. We found previously that transplantation of neuronal precursors derived from BG01 human embryonic stem cells reduced infarct volume and improved behavioral outcome after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. In this study, transplantation was performed 14 d after distal MCAO and doublecortin (Dcx)-expressing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ) were counted 60 d post-transplant. Transplantation increased neurogenesis (Dcx expression) in ipsilateral SVZ, but not in contralateral SVZ or either SGZ, in both young adult (3 mo-old) and aged (24-mo-old) rats. These findings suggest that cell-based therapy for stroke may be associated with changes in endogenous adaptive processes, including neurogenesis.
Ischemia; stroke; transplantation; neurogenesis; subventricular zone
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the world. To make progress in understanding POAG, it is necessary to identify more POAG-causing genes.
Using haplotype analysis, we found that mutational region is located on chromosome 2 in two families. Furthermore, we screened 11 candidate genes on chromosome 2 by protein–protein interaction (PPI) analysis, including mutS homolog 6 (MSH6), mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL), endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), vaccinia related kinase 2 (VRK2), F-box protein 11 (FBXO11), EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1), reticulon 4 (RTN4), RAB1A, member RAS oncogene family (RAB1A), ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (ACTR2), and calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta; CALM2). These 11 genes are all predicted to be related to trabecular meshwork changes and progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells in POAG patients.
According to our study, FBXO11 and VRK2 may interact with tumor protein p53 to regulate mitochondrial membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane organization, and apoptosis. MSH2 is responsible for repairing DNA mismatches and RTN4 is for neuronal regeneration. Therefore, they are supposed to play a negative role in cellular process in POAG. CALM2 may be involved in retinal ganglion cell death and oxidative damage to cell communication.
The results demonstrate that the genes above may be associated with pathogenesis of POAG.
We reported previously that Notch signaling is activated in human arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and that intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in humans is accompanied by increased neurogenesis. The former phenomenon may be involved in AVM pathogenesis and the latter in the brain’s response to ICH-induced injury. Here we describe increased expression of the hypoxia-inducible neuroprotective protein, neuroglobin (Ngb), in neurons surrounding unruptured AVMs and in the perihematomal region adjacent to ICH. In these disorders, as in other clinical settings, such as ischemic stroke, AVM- and ICHinduced overexpression of Ngb may be stimulated by ischemic hypoxia and may help to constrain brain injury.
Neuroglobin; Arteriovenous malformation; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Hypoxia; Ischemia
Neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation may have a role in restoring brain function after stroke, but how aging might affect the brain’s receptivity to such transplants is unknown. We reported previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived NPCs together with biomaterial (Matrigel) scaffolding into the brains of young adult Sprague-Dawley rats 3 wks after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reduced infarct volume, and improved neurobehavioral performance. In this study we compared the effect of NPC and Matrigel transplants in young adult (3-mo-old) and aged (24-mo-old) Fisher 344 rats from the National Institute on Aging’s aged rodent colony. Distal MCAO was induced by electrocoagulation and hESC-derived NPCs were transplanted into the infarct cavity 3 wks later. Aged rats developed larger infarcts, but infarct volume and performance on the cylinder and elevated body swing tests, measured 6–8 wks post-transplant, were improved by transplantation. We conclude that advanced age does not preclude a beneficial response to NPC and Matrigel transplantation following experimental stroke.
transplant; neural precursor; ischemia; stroke; brain
It is unclear whether mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via a loss-of-function effect due to titrating FUS from the nucleus or a gain-of-function effect from cytoplasmic overabundance. To investigate this question, we generated a series of independent Caenorhabditis elegans lines expressing mutant or wild-type (WT) human FUS. We show that mutant FUS, but not WT-FUS, causes cytoplasmic mislocalization associated with progressive motor dysfunction and reduced lifespan. The severity of the mutant phenotype in C. elegans was directly correlated with the severity of the illness caused by the same mutation in humans, arguing that this model closely replicates key features of the human illness. Importantly, the mutant phenotype could not be rescued by overexpression of WT-FUS, even though WT-FUS had physiological intracellular localization, and was not recruited to the cytoplasmic mutant FUS aggregates. Our data suggest that FUS mutants cause neuronal dysfunction by a dominant gain-of-function effect related either to neurotoxic aggregates of mutant FUS in the cytoplasm or to dysfunction in its RNA-binding functions.
Transplantation of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived precursors holds great promise for treating various disease conditions. Tracing of precursors derived from ESC after transplantation is important to determine their migration and fate. Chemical labeling, as well as transfection or viral-mediated transduction of tracer genes in ESC or in ESC-derived precursors, which are the methods that have been used in the generation of the vast majority of labeled ESCs, have serious drawbacks such as varying efficacy. To circumvent this problem we generated endogenously traceable mouse (m)ESC clones by direct derivation from blastocysts of transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the housekeeping β-actin promoter The only previous report of endogenously EGFP-labeled mESC derived directly from transgenic EGFP embryos is that of Ahn and colleagues (Ahn et al, 2008. Cytotherapy 10:759–769), who used embryos from a different transgenic line and used a significantly different protocol for derivation. Cells from a high-expressing EGFP-mESC clone, G11, retain high levels of EGFP expression after differentiation into derivatives of all three primary germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, and contribution to all tissues in chimeric progeny. To determine whether progenitor cells derived from G11 could be used in transplantation experiments, we differentiated them to early neuronal precursors and injected them into syngeneic mouse brains. Transplanted EGFP-expressing cells at different stages of differentiation along the neuronal lineage could be identified in brains by expression of EGFP twelve weeks after transplantation. Our results suggest that the EGFP-mESC(G11) line may constitute a useful tool in ESC-based cell and tissue replacement studies.
The effectiveness of ginseng in preventing and treating various central nervous system (CNS) diseases has been widely confirmed. However, ginsenosides, the principal components of ginseng, are characterized by poor accessibility to the brain, and this pharmacokinetic-pharmacological paradox remains poorly explained. Anti-inflammatory approaches are becoming promising therapeutic strategies for depression and other CNS diseases; however, previous studies have focused largely on anti-inflammatory therapies directed at the central nervous system. It is thus of interest to determine whether ginsenosides, characterized by poor brain distribution, are also effective in treating lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced depression-like behavior and neuroinflammation.
In an LPS-induced depression-like behavior model, the antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) were assessed using a forced swimming test, a tail suspension test, and a sucrose preference test. The anti-inflammatory efficacies of GTS in brain, plasma, and LPS-challenged RAW264.7 cells were validated using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in the periphery and brain were also determined by measuring levels of kynurenine/tryptophan.
GTS significantly attenuated LPS-induced depression-like behavior. Moreover, LPS-induced increases in 5-HT and tryptophane turnover in the brain were significantly reduced by GTS. IDO activities in brain and periphery were also suppressed after pretreatment with GTS. Furthermore, GTS-associated recovery from LPS-induced depression-like behavior was paralleled with reduced mRNA levels for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IDO in hippocampus. Poor brain distribution of ginsenosides was confirmed in LPS-challenged mice. GTS treatment significantly decreased production of various proinflammatory cytokines in both LPS-challenged mice and RAW264.7 cells.
This study suggests that the anti-depression efficacy of GTS may be largely attributable to its peripheral anti-inflammatory activity. Our study also strengthens an important notion that peripheral anti-inflammation strategies may be useful in the therapy of inflammation-related depression and possibly other CNS diseases.
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a principal site of adult neurogenesis and appears to participate in the brain’s response to injury. Thus, measures that enhance SVZ neurogenesis may have a role in treatment of neurological disease. To better characterize SVZ cells and identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention, we studied electrophysiological properties of SVZ cells in adult mouse brain slices using patch-clamp techniques. Electrophysiology was correlated with immunohistochemical phenotype by injecting cells with lucifer yellow and by studying transgenic mice carrying green fluorescent protein under control of the doublecortin (DCX) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. We identified five types of cells in the adult mouse SVZ: type 1 cells, with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)/tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive and CdCl2-sensitive inward currents; type 2 cells, with Ca2+-sensitive K+ and both 4-AP/TEA-sensitive and -insensitive currents; type 3 cells, with 4-AP/TEA-sensitive and -insensitive and small Na+ currents; type 4 cells, with slowly activating, large linear outward current and sustained outward current without fast-inactivating component; and type 5 cells, with a large outward rectifying current with a fast inactivating component. Type 2 and 3 cells expressed DCX, types 4 and 5 cells expressed GFAP, and type 1 cells expressed neither. We propose that SVZ neurogenesis involves a progression of electrophysiological cell phenotypes from types 4 and 5 cells (astrocytes) to type 1 cells (neuronal progenitors) to types 2 and 3 cells (nascent neurons), and that drugs acting on. ion channels expressed during neurogenesis might promote therapeutic neurogenesis in the injured brain.
doublecortin; potassium channels; sodium channels; neurogenesis; stroke
The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features of malignant melanoma of the finger and therapeutic efficacies of different treatments. The clinical data of 22 patients with malignant melanoma of the finger (confirmed by pathological examination), admitted and treated in our hospital between February 1995 and October 2007, were analyzed retrospectively. The primary site of the tumor was the thumb in 12 cases, index finger in 3 cases, middle finger in 3 cases, ring finger in 2 cases and little finger in 2 cases. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and black patches on the fingers. A total of 15 of the 22 patients had subungual disease, 12 had a history of trauma and 2 had osteolytic bone lesions of the phalanx. The main treatments employed were surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Finger amputation was performed for all 22 patients and axillary lymph node dissection in the same side was performed for 13 patients. Nineteen cases were followed up for 1-10 years with an average of 5.5 years. Three patients were lost to follow-up 2 years after treatment. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 86.4% (19/22), 42.1% (12/19) and 31.2% (6/19), respectively. In conclusion, malignant melanoma of the finger is a rarely occurring tumor. Comprehensive treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, is the key approach for malignant melanoma of the finger. Prognosis of the disease is associated with the size of the tumor, depth of infiltration and clinical stages.
Transplantation of neural cells is a potential approach for stroke treatment, but disruption of tissue architecture may limit transplant efficacy. One strategy for enhancing the ability of transplants to restore brain structure and function is to administer cells together with biomaterial scaffolding. We electrocoagulated the distal middle cerebral artery in adult rats and, 3 weeks later, injected one of the following into the infarct cavity: artificial cerebrospinal fluid, Matrigel scaffolding, human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursor cells, scaffolding plus cells, or cells cultured in and administered together with scaffolding. Five weeks after transplantation, the latter two groups showed ∼50% and ∼60% reductions, respectively, in infarct cavity volume. Rats given cells cultured in and administered together with scaffolding also showed (1) survival and neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells shown by immunostaining for neuronal marker proteins and cleaved caspase-3, and by patch-clamp recording, 8 weeks after transplantation and (2) improved outcome on tests of sensorimotor and cognitive functions, 4 to 9 weeks after transplantation. These results indicate that transplantation of human neural cells together with biomaterial scaffolding has the potential to improve the outcome from stroke, even when treatment is delayed for several weeks after the ischemic event.
ischemia; neurogenesis; neuronal progenitor cell; stem cells; stroke; transplantation
Background and Purpose
We investigated whether neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal protein that protects neurons from hypoxic-ischemic injury, is upregulated in ischemic stroke.
Ngb immunoreactivity was measured in brain tissue from control subjects and patients with ischemic stroke.
Ngb was detected in several brain areas and its expression was increased in the cortical peri-infarct region following stroke.
Ischemic stroke increases expression of the neuroprotective protein Ngb, suggesting Ngb may represent a novel target for stroke therapy.
neuroglobin; ischemia; neuroprotection
The programmed death-1 (PD-1)/B7-H1 pathway acts as an important negative regulator of immune responses. We herein investigated the role of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway in establishing an immunological spontaneous tolerance status in mouse liver allografting. B7-H1 is highly expressed on the donor-derived tissue cells and it is also associated with the apoptosis of infiltrating T cells in the allografts. Strikingly, a blockade of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway via anti-B7-H1mAb or using B7-H1 knockout mice as a donor led to severe cell infiltration as well as hemorrhaging and necrosis, thus resulting in mortality within 12 days. Furthermore, the expression of the FasL, perforin, granzyme B, iNOS, and OPN mRNA in the liver allografts increased in the antibody-treated group in comparison to the controls. Taken together, these data revealed that the B7-H1 upregulation on the tissue cells of liver allografts thus plays an important role in the apoptosis of infiltrating cells, which might play a critical role of the induction of the spontaneous tolerance after hepatic transplantation in mice.
apoptosis; B7-H1; orthotopic liver transplantation; regulatory cell; spontaneous tolerance
A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that, compared with control brain vascular tissue, Notch-1 signalling was activated in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the lesional tissue. Western blotting showed an activated form of Notch-1 in brain arteriovenous malformations, irrespective of clinical presentation and with or without preoperative embolization, but not in normal cerebral vessels from controls. In addition, the Notch-1 ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like-4 and the downstream Notch-1 target Hes-1 were increased in abundance and activated in human brain arteriovenous malformations. Finally, increased angiogenesis was found in adult rats treated with a Notch-1 activator. Our findings suggest that activation of Notch-1 signalling is a phenotypic feature of brain arteriovenous malformations, and that activation of Notch-1 in normal vasculature induces a pro-angiogenic state, which may contribute to the development of vascular malformations.
Notch-1; AVM; human; brain; signalling; angiogenesis
Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis is mediated by icaADBC-dependent and -independent pathways. Subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin enhanced, in a dose-dependent manner, the level of biofilm formation by 20% (21/105 isolates) by macrolide-resistant ica-positive and -negative isolates tested in vitro. The presence of ica, however, apparently produced an enhanced effect on biofilm formation. The levels of expression of the biofilm-related genes icaA, atlE, fruA, pyrR, sarA, and sigB were increased in response to erythromycin. The results likely underscore the potential clinical relevance of macrolide-induced biofilm growth.
Transplantation of neural cells is a potential approach for the treatment of stroke, but the disruption of tissue architecture that accompanies stroke may limit the efficacy of transplantation. One strategy for enhancing the ability of transplants to restore brain structure and, thereby, function is to administer cells together with biomaterial scaffolding. We occluded the middle cerebral artery in adult rats and, 3 wks later, injected one of the following into the infarct cavity: (a) artificial cerebrospinal fluid, (b) Matrigel scaffolding, (c) human neuronal precursor cells, (d) scaffolding plus cells, or (e) cells cultured in and administered together with scaffolding. When tested up to 9 wks later, the latter group showed reduced infarct size, survival and neuronal differentiation of transplanted cells, and improved outcome on behavioral tests of sensorimotor and cognitive function. These results indicate that transplantation of human neural cells together with the scaffolding in which they are cultured has the potential to improve outcome from stroke, even when treatment is delayed for several weeks after the ischemic event.
stroke; ischemia; transplantation; neurogenesis; stem cells; neuronal progenitor cell
We sought genetic evidence for involvement of neuronal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mice expressing human ALS mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) were crossed with mice that overexpress VEGF in neurons (VEGF+/+). We report that SOD1G93A/VEGF+/+ double-transgenic mice show delayed motor neuron loss, delayed motor impairment and prolonged survival compared to SOD1G93A single-transgenics. These findings indicate that neuronal VEGF protects against motor neuron degeneration, and may have therapeutic implications for ALS.
vascular endothelial growth factor; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor neuron; superoxide dismutase-1; transgenic; neurodegeneration