Gastric mucosa tissue was collected from patients with gastroduodenal diseases in a region of norrteastern China showing a high risk of gastric cancer incidence. The presence of EBV and HPV were assayed to investigate the relationship between gastric carcinomas and virus infection. Neither EBV nor HPV DNA was detected in tissue from the patients. The role of EBV and HPV in gastric cancer is not well understood and still needs to be clarified.
Human papillomavirus; Epstein-Barr virus; polymerase chain reaction; gastric carcinoma
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent arrhythmia with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1) is believed to be an important regulator of reentrant-spiral dynamics and a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. MicroRNA-26 (miR-26) is predicted to target the gene encoding KIR2.1, KCNJ2. We found that miR-26 was downregulated in atrial samples from AF animals and patients and this downregulation was accompanied by upregulation of IK1/KIR2.1 protein. miR-26 overexpression suppressed expression of KCNJ2/KIR2.1. In contrast, miR-26 knockdown, inhibition, or binding-site mutation enhanced KCNJ2/KIR2.1 expression, establishing KCNJ2 as a miR-26 target. Knockdown of endogenous miR-26 promoted AF in mice, whereas adenovirus-mediated expression of miR-26 reduced AF vulnerability. Kcnj2-specific miR-masks eliminated miR-26–mediated reductions in Kcnj2, abolishing miR-26’s protective effects, while coinjection of a Kcnj2-specific miR-mimic prevented miR-26 knockdown-associated AF in mice. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a known actor in AF-associated remodeling, was found to negatively regulate miR-26 transcription. Our results demonstrate that miR-26 controls the expression of KCNJ2 and suggest that this downregulation may promote AF.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs and inhibiting expression via translation repression or RNA degradation. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including tumor development. We profiled the miRNA expression between mature ovarian teratoma samples and matched normal tissues using miRNA microarrays, followed by validation with quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The most highly expressed miRNAs in mature ovarian teratoma tissues were miRNA-520a-5p, miRNA-26b*, miRNA-421, miRNA-492 and miRNA-555, with a 1.3- to 2.6-fold change, whereas the least expressed miRNAs were miRNA-142-3p, let-7a, miRNA-19a, miRNA-34a, miRNA-620, miRNA-934, miRNA-657, miRNA-720, miRNA-22, miRNA-629 and miRNA-214, with a decreased level of 55–87% compared with normal tissues. The findings of the present study are the first to provide an altered miRNA profile for mature ovarian teratomas and differentially expressed miRNAs, which, if validated in future studies, may be essential in the pathogenesis of mature ovarian teratomas.
microRNAs; mature ovarian teratomas; microarrays
Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) during development, immune surveillance, and metastatic cancer remains poorly understood. We have completed the first in vivo screen for regulators of cell invasion through BM, using the simple model of C. elegans anchor cell invasion, and identified 99 genes that promote invasion, including the chaperonin complex cct. Notably, most of these genes have not been previously implicated in cell invasive behavior. We further characterized members of the cct complex and 11 other genes, determining the distinct aspects of the invasive cascade that they regulate, including formation of a specialized invasive cell membrane and its ability to breach the BM. Suggesting a shared genetic program underlies cell invasion, siRNA knockdown of the human orthologs of cct-5 and lit-1, both previously unknown pro-invasive genes, reduced the invasiveness of metastatic carcinoma cells. Our results reveal the genetic underpinnings of cell invasion and provide new potential therapeutic targets to limit this behavior.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules involved in a variety of biological processes and human diseases. However, the pathological effects of lncRNAs on primary varicose great saphenous veins (GSVs) remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify aberrantly expressed lncRNAs involved in the prevalence of GSV varicosities and predict their potential functions. Using microarray with 33,045 lncRNA and 30,215 mRNA probes, 557 lncRNAs and 980 mRNAs that differed significantly in expression between the varicose great saphenous veins and control veins were identified in six pairs of samples. These lncRNAs were sub-grouped and mRNAs expressed at different levels were clustered into several pathways with six focused on metabolic pathways. Quantitative real-time PCR replication of nine lncRNAs was performed in 32 subjects, validating six lncRNAs (AF119885, AK021444, NR_027830, G36810, NR_027927, uc.345-). A coding-non-coding gene co-expression network revealed that four of these six lncRNAs may be correlated with 11 mRNAs and pathway analysis revealed that they may be correlated with another 8 mRNAs associated with metabolic pathways. In conclusion, aberrantly expressed lncRNAs for GSV varicosities were here systematically screened and validated and their functions were predicted. These findings provide novel insight into the physiology of lncRNAs and the pathogenesis of varicose veins for further investigation. These aberrantly expressed lncRNAs may serve as new therapeutic targets for varicose veins. The Human Ethnics Committee of Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine approved the study (NO.: 2011-DF-53).
Glypican-3 (GPC3) has been reported to be a novel serum and histochemical marker for HCC. The positivity or negativity for GPC3 in hepatic precancerous lesions, such as dysplastic nodules (DN), has also been described. Moreover, our previous studies have demonstrated that some DN in liver cirrhosis represent monoclonal hyperplasia, and confirmed their neoplastic nature. However, additional studies must be performed to investigate further the relationship between DN with GPC3 positivity and HCC. Thus, we first investigated the expression of GPC3 in 136 HCC and 103 small DN (less than 1 cm in diameter) by immunohistochemical staining and determined the clonality of 81 DN from female patients using X-chromosome inactivation mosaicism and polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR) gene. Then we examined these samples for chromosomal loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 11 microsatellite polymorphism sites. The results demonstrated that GPC3 immunoreactivity was detected in 103 of 136 HCC (75.7%) and 19 of 103 DN (18.4%), and the positive ratio correlated with HBsAg positivity. Clonality assays showed that 15 GPC3-positive DN from female patients, including 12 high-grade DN (HGDN), and 28 (42.4%) of 66 GPC3-negative DN, were monoclonal. In addition, among 19 GPC3-positive DN, chromosomal LOH was found at loci D6S1008 (100%, 19/19), D8S262 (52.6%, 10/19) and D11S1301 (57.9%, 11/19). However, the LOH frequency in GPC3-negative DN was 5.95% (5/84), 23.8% (20/84), and 4.76% (4/84) in three loci, respectively. Thus, we concluded that GPC3-positive DN, especially GPC3-positive HGDN, was really a late premalignant lesion of HCC.
Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gammaproteobacteria frequently found in deep-sea sediments, which may play important roles in deep-sea sediment ecosystem. Although genome sequence analysis of Pseudoalteromonas has revealed some specific features associated with adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment, it is still difficult to study how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. The aim of this study is to develop a genetic system in the deep-sea sedimentary bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, making it possible to perform gene mutation by homologous recombination.
The sensitivity of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 to antibiotic was investigated and the erythromycin resistance gene was chosen as the selective marker. A shuttle vector pOriT-4Em was constructed and transferred into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 through intergeneric conjugation with an efficiency of 1.8 × 10-3, which is high enough to perform the gene knockout assay. A suicide vector pMT was constructed using pOriT-4Em as the bone vector and sacB gene as the counterselective marker. The epsT gene encoding the UDP-glucose lipid carrier transferase was selected as the target gene for inactivation by in-frame deletion. The epsT was in-frame deleted using a two-step integration–segregation strategy after transferring the suicide vector pMT into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. The ΔepsT mutant showed approximately 73% decrease in the yield of exopolysaccharides, indicating that epsT is an important gene involved in the EPS production of SM9913.
A conjugal transfer system was constructed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 with a wide temperature range for selection and a high transfer efficiency, which will lay the foundation of genetic manipulation in this strain. The epsT gene of SM9913 was successfully deleted with no selective marker left in the chromosome of the host, which thus make it possible to knock out other genes in the same host. The construction of a gene knockout system for Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment.
COX-2-mPGES-1-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays important roles in regulating vascular tone and renal sodium excretion; however, little is known about the role of mPGES-1 during acute blood pressure regulation. The present study was designed to examine the contribution of vascular mPGES-1 to acute blood pressure homeostasis.
Angiotensin II (AngII, 75 pmol/kg/min) was continuously infused via the jugular vein into wild-type and mPGES-1−/− mice for 30 min, and blood pressure was measured by carotid arterial catheterization. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression and localization of mPGES-1 in the mouse arterial vessels. Mesenteric arteries were dissected from mice of both genotypes to study vessel tension and measure vascular PGE2 levels.
Wild-type and mPGES-1−/− mice showed similar blood pressure levels at baseline, and the acute intravenous infusion of AngII caused a greater increase in mean arterial pressure in the mPGES-1−/− group, with a similar diuretic and natriuretic response in both groups. mPGES-1 was constitutively expressed in the aortic and mesenteric arteries and vascular smooth muscle cells of wild-type mice. Strong staining was detected in the smooth muscle layer of arterial vessels. Ex vivo treatment of mesenteric arteries with AngII produced more vasodilatory PGE2 in wild-type than in mPGES-1−/− mice. In vitro tension assays further revealed that the mesenteric arteries of mPGES-1−/− mice exhibited a greater vasopressor response to AngII than those arteries of wild-type mice.
Vascular mPGES-1 acts as an important tonic vasodilator, contributing to acute blood pressure regulation.
PGE2; mPGES-1; Angiotensin II; Blood pressure; Resistant vessel
While researchers have extensively characterized functional connectivity between brain regions, the characterization of functional homogeneity within a region of the brain connectome is in early stages of development. Several functional homogeneity measures were proposed previously, among which regional homogeneity (ReHo) was most widely used as a measure to characterize functional homogeneity of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) signals within a small region (Zang et al., 2004). Despite a burgeoning literature on ReHo in the field of neuroimaging brain disorders, its test–retest (TRT) reliability remains unestablished. Using two sets of public R-fMRI TRT data, we systematically evaluated the ReHo’s TRT reliability and further investigated the various factors influencing its reliability and found: 1) nuisance (head motion, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) correction of R-fMRI time series can significantly improve the TRT reliability of ReHo while additional removal of global brain signal reduces its reliability, 2) spatial smoothing of R-fMRI time series artificially enhances ReHo intensity and influences its reliability, 3) surface-based R-fMRI computation largely improves the TRT reliability of ReHo, 4) a scan duration of 5 min can achieve reliable estimates of ReHo, and 5) fast sampling rates of R-fMRI dramatically increase the reliability of ReHo. Inspired by these findings and seeking a highly reliable approach to exploratory analysis of the human functional connectome, we established an R-fMRI pipeline to conduct ReHo computations in both 3-dimensions (volume) and 2-dimensions (surface).
Connectome; Test–retest; Reliability; Functional homogeneity; Default network
Several studies have brought about increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that miRNAs play a pivotal role in multiple processes of carcinogenesis, including cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of miR-31 in colorectal cancer (CRC) aggressiveness and its underlying mechanisms. We found that miR-31 increased in CRC cells originated from metastatic foci and human primary CRC tissues with lymph node metastases. Furthermore, the high-level expression of miR-31 was significantly associated with a more aggressive and poor prognostic phenotype of patients with CRC (p < 0.05). The stable over-expression of miR-31 in CRC cells was sufficient to promote cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. It facilitated tumor growth and metastasis in vivo too. Further studies showed that miR-31 can directly bind to the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) of SATB2 mRNA and subsequently repress both the mRNA and protein expressions of SATB2. Ectopic expression of SATB2 by transiently transfected with pCAG-SATB2 vector encoding the entire SATB2 coding sequence could reverse the effects of miR-31 on CRC tumorigenesis and progression. In addition, ectopic over-expression of miR-31 in CRC cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results illustrated that the up-regulation of miR-31 played an important role in CRC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo through direct repressing SATB2, suggesting a potential application of miR-31 in prognosis prediction and therapeutic application in CRC.
To investigate the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic essential hypertension in elderly population.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used in 260 elderly normal control patients, 205 elderly hypertensive patients and 138 elderly diabetic hypertensive patients to detect the I/D polymorphism in ACE gene.
DD genotype frequency (0.352) and D allele frequency (0.543) in elderly hypertensive patients were higher than those in the normal control patients. DD genotype (0.421) and D allele frequency (0.579) in elderly diabetic hypertensive patients were significantly higher than those in the control patients (0.133 and 0.250). The differences of DD genotype and D allele frequency between the elderly hypertensive patients and the elderly diabetic hypertensive patients were not significant (P > 0.05).
ACE gene deletion is a risk factor for hypertension but is not a risk factor for diabetes in elderly population.
Angiotensin converting enzyme gene; Insertion/deletion polymorphism; Elderly; Hypertension; Diabetic hypertension
The present study explored the neuroprotective effect of Coeloglossum viride var. bracteatum extract (CE) against oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. The results demonstrated that administration of CE inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity tested by MTT, LDH release, and TUNEL assays. We further found that CE inhibited the activation of caspase-3 (Csp3) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, CE was found to reverse the hydrogen peroxide-induced downregulation of active AKT and Bcl-2. We then showed that the neuroprotective effect of CE was blocked by adding the AKT inhibitor, Ly294002. Thus, our data strongly indicated that CE played a neuroprotective role against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data.
Background. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a protective role in atherosclerosis prone models and are related to the onset of acute coronary syndromes (ACS, including non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTEACS) and ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEAMI)). CD4+LAP+ Treg cells are a novel subset of Tregs that have been found to ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, and these cells also exist in humans. The present study was designed to investigate whether CD4+LAP+ Treg cells are involved in the onset of ACS. Methods. The frequencies of CD4+LAP+ and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells were detected using flow cytometric analysis, and the plasma IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels were measured using an ELISA in 29 stable angina (SA) patients, 30 NSTEACS patients, 27 STEAMI patients, and a control group (30 cases).
Results. The results revealed a significant decrease in the frequencies of CD4+LAP+ and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and in the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in patients with ACS compared with those in the SA and control groups. Conclusions. The decrease in the frequencies of CD4+LAP+ and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells may play a role in the onset of ACS.
The present study investigated neural correlations underlying the psychological processing of stimuli with various degrees of self-relevance. Event-related potentials were recorded for names that differ in their extent of relevance to the study participant. Participants performed a three-stimulus oddball task. ERP results showed larger P2 averaged amplitudes for highly self-relevant names than for moderately self-relevant, minimally self-relevant, and non-self-relevant names. N2 averaged amplitudes were larger for the highly self-relevant names than for the moderately self-relevant, minimally self-relevant, and non-self-relevant names. Highly self-relevant names elicited larger P3 averaged amplitudes than the moderately self-relevant names which, in turn, had larger P3 values than for minimally self-relevant names. Minimally self-relevant stimuli elicited larger P3 averaged amplitudes than non-self-relevant stimuli. These results demonstrate a degree effect of self-reference, which was indexed using electrophysiological activity.
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential in preventing the host from developing certain autoimmune diseases and limiting excessive immune responses against pathogens. The normal function of most Treg cells requires sustained expression of functional FOXP3, a member of the FOXP family transcription factors. FOXP3 is distinct from other subfamily members because of its unique proline rich amino (N)-terminal domain. Mutations in this region are occasionally identified in certain patients with X-linked autoimmunity–allergic dysregulation syndrome (XLAAD) and similar mutations also increase susceptibility of autoimmune diseases in rodent models. Previous analyses of the FOXP3 N- domain revealed a role in nuclear import, interaction with other transcription factors, and as sites of specific post-translational modifications of FOXP3 that contribute to FOXP3 stability.
This study investigated the capability of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT) to quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion defects that are induced by central lung cancer.
Thirty-two patients with central lung cancer underwent CT angiography using spectral imaging. A univariate general linear model was conducted to analyze the variance of iodine concentration/CT value with three factors of lung fields. A paired t-test was used to compare iodine concentrations and CT values between the distal end of lung cancer and the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung.
Iodine concentrations increased progressively in the far, intermediate and near ground sides in the normal lung fields at 0.60±0.28, 0.93±0.27 and 1.25±0.38 mg/mL, respectively (P<0.001). The same trend was observed for the CT values [–(840.64±49.08), –(812.66±50.85) and –(760.83±89.17) HU, P<0.001]. The iodine concentration (0.70±0.42 mg/mL) of the lung field in the distal end of lung cancer was significantly lower than the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung (1.19±0.62 mg/mL) (t=–7.23, P<0.001). However, the CT value of lung field in the distal end of lung cancer was significantly higher than the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung [–(765.29±93.34) HU vs. –(800.07±76.18) HU, t=3.564, P=0.001].
Spectral CT imaging based on the spectral differentiation of iodine is feasible and can quantitatively evaluate pulmonary perfusion and identify perfusion defects that are induced by central lung cancer. Spectral CT seems to be a promising technique for the simultaneous evaluation of both morphological and functional lung information.
Spectral; computed tomography (CT); quantitative analysis; perfusion; lung cancer
Two new species of the genus Pseudolathra Casey from mainland China are described and attributed to their respective species groups, P. cylindrata
sp. n. from Hubei and Sichuan, and P. superficiaria
sp. n. from Yunnan. Pseudolathra pulchella (Kraatz, 1859), P. transversiceps Assing, 2013 and P. bipectinata Assing, 2013 from Yunnan are reported from China for the first time. The history of the exploration of the Chinese fauna of Pseudolathra is summarized.
New species; Pseudolathra; Paederinae; Staphylinidae; China
Health information technology has become common in the care of patients with chronic diseases; however, there are few such applications employed in kidney disease.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of a website providing disease-specific safety information by patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease.
As part of the Safe Kidney Care (SKC) study, an educational website was designed to provide information on safety concerns in chronic kidney disease. Phase I study participants were provided a medical alert accessory with a unique ID number, the Safe Kidney Care website, and an in-person tutorial on the use of the Internet and accessing the SKC website at baseline. Participants were asked to visit the website and enter their unique ID as frequently as they desired over the next 365 days or until their annual follow-up visit, whichever occurred first. Participants’ visits and dwell times on specific safety modules were tracked using embedded webpage PHP scripts linked to a MySQL database, enabling the collection of website usage statistics.
Of 108 Phase I participants, 28.7% (31/108) visited the website from 1-6 times during the observation period (median follow-up 365 days). Median access time was 7 minutes per visit (range <1-46) and 13 minutes per person (range <1-123). The three most frequently visited pages were “Renal function calculator”, “Pills to avoid”, and “Foods to avoid”. High school education and frequent Internet use were significantly associated with website entry (P=.02 and P=.03, respectively).
Preliminary results show general interest in a Web-based platform designed to improve patient safety in chronic kidney disease.
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01407367; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01407367 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KvxFKA6M).
chronic kidney disease; health information technology; patient safety
AIM: To explore the effects of curcumin (CMN) on hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in vivo.
METHODS: Male mice were randomly divided into three groups: group I (control) mice received the equivalent volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally (ip); Group II [APAP + carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] mice received 1% CMC (vehicle) 2 h before APAP injection; Group III (APAP + CMN) mice received curcumin (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip) 2 h before before or after APAP challenge. In Groups II and III, APAP was dissolved in pyrogen-free PBS and injected at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. CMN was dissolved in 1% CMC. Mice were sacrificed 16 h after the APAP injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver tissues.
RESULTS: Both pre- and post-treatment with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in serum ALT compared with APAP treatment group (10 mg/kg: 801.46 ± 661.34 U/L; 20 mg/kg: 99.68 ± 86.48 U/L vs 5406.80 ± 1785.75 U/L, P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of liver necrosis was significantly lowered in CMN treated animals. MDA contents were significantly reduced in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group, but increased in APAP treated group (10.96 ± 0.87 nmol/mg protein vs 16.03 ± 2.58 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). The decrease of SOD activity in APAP treatment group and the increase of SOD in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group were also detected (24.54 ± 4.95 U/mg protein vs 50.21 ± 1.93 U/mg protein, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CMN treatment efficiently protected against APAP-induced apoptosis via increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio.
CONCLUSION: CMN has significant therapeutic potential in both APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and other types of liver diseases.
Acetaminophen; Acute hepatic injury; Apoptosis; Free radicals; Curcumin
An epidemic caused by influenza A (H7N9) virus was recently reported in China. Deep sequencing revealed the full genome of the virus obtained directly from a patient’s sputum without virus culture. The full genome showed substantial sequence heterogeneity and large differences compared with that from embryonated chicken eggs.
H7N9; influenza A virus; deep sequencing; direct sequencing; culture-free; avian-origin; influenza; viruses
The aim of this study was to compare the differences between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps (ALTFF) and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) for reconstruction in oral cancer patients.
Method and Patients: who received free flap or PMMF reconstruction after ablation surgeries were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores(Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires were collected.
Results: 81 of 118 questionnaires were returned (68.64%). There was signiﬁcant differences between two groups in the gender (P<0.005). Patients reconstructed with ALTFF had better appearance domains and better shoulders domains, in addition to better role emotion domains.
Conclusions: Using either PMMF or ALTFF for reconstruction of oral defects after cancer resection signiﬁcantly inﬂuences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for oral cancers.
Key words:Quality of life, ALTFF,PMMF, oral cancer.
The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7) have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system.
nanocomposites; core-sheath nanofibres; coaxial electrospinning; fast disintegrating; quercetin
The combination of fenretinide and selenite on ovarian cancer cells was investigated to assess its effects on proliferation and ability to induce apoptosis. Our results showed that fenretinide and selenite in combination significantly suppress the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis (including reactive oxygen species generation, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential) compared with either drug used alone. The caspase3/9-dependent pathway was triggered significantly in combination treatment, and moreover, the AMPK pathway also mediated the apoptosis induction in fenretinide and selenite combination. Fenretinide and selenite combination treatment was demonstrated to suppress tumor growth in vivo, this drug combination has been thus found to have an enhanced anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancers cells.
ovarian cancers cell; fenretinide; selenite; combination; anti-tumor effect
The objective of this study was to investigate the reversal effects of 5,5’-dimethoxylariciresinol-4’-O-β-D-glucoside (DMAG) extracted from traditional Chinese medicines Mahonia on multidrug resistance (MDR) of human leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
Materials and Methods:
MTT(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to determine the effect of DMAG on doxorubicin sensitivity to K562/DOX cells. Propidium iodide /Hoechst 33342 double staining assay was used to investigate the effect of DMAG on doxorubicin-induced cellular apoptosis. Intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 assay were performed to evaluate the effect of DMAG on drugs efflux activity of P-glycoprotein.
DMAG significantly enhanced the doxorubicin cytotoxicity to K562/DOX cells. In the presence of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the IC50 of doxorubicin decreased from 34.93 ± 1.37 μM to 12.51 ± 1.28 μM. DMAG of 1.0 μM significantly enhanced doxorubicin-induced cell apoptosis in K562/DOX cells and the enhancement was time-dependent. A significant increase in accumulation of doxorubicin in the presence of DMAG was observed. After treatment of the K562/DOX cells for 1 h with 15.0 μM doxorubicin alone, the fluorescence intensity was 33093.12. With the addition of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the fluorescence intensity of doxorubicin was 2.3-fold higher. A significant increase of accumulation of rhodamine 123 in the presence of DMAG was also observed. With the addition of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the fluorescence intensity was increased by 49.11% compared with rhodamine 123 alone.
DMAG was shown to effectively enhance chemosensitivity of resistant cells, which makes it might be a suitable candidate for potential MDR-reversing agents.
5,5’-dimethoxylariciresinol-4’-O-β-D-glucoside; doxorubicin; leukemia; multidrug resistance