The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic outcome of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with pancreatoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction in addition to highlighting the mortality/morbidity and main prognostic factors associated with this treatment.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of a total of 566 pancreatic cancer patients who were treated with PD from five teaching hospitals during the period of December 2006–December 2011. This study included 119 (21.0%) patients treated with PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction. We performed a detailed statistical analysis of various factors, including postoperative complications, operative mortality, survival rate, operative time, pathological type, and lymph node metastasis.
The median survival time of the 119 cases that received PD combined with vascular resection was 13.3 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 30.3%, 14.1%, and 8.1%, respectively. The postoperative complication incidence was 23.5%, and the mortality rate was 6.7%. For the combined vascular resection group, complications occurred in 28 cases (23.5%). For the group without vascular resection, complications occurred in 37 cases (8.2%). There was significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.001). The degree of tumor differentiation and the occurrence of complications after surgery were independent prognostic factors that determined the patients’ long-term survival.
Compared with PD without vascular resection, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction increased the incidence of postoperative complications. However, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction could achieve the complete removal of tumors without significantly increasing the mortality rate, and the median survival time was higher than that of patients who underwent palliative treatment. In addition, the two independent factors affecting the postoperative survival time were the degree of tumor differentiation and the presence or absence of postoperative complications.
Norepinephrine (NE) can modulate multiple cellular functions important for cancer progression; however, how this single extracellular signal regulates such a broad array of cellular processes is unknown. Here, we identify Src as a key regulator of phosphoproteomic signaling networks activated in response to beta-adrenergic signaling in cancer cells. These results also identify a new mechanism of Src phosphorylation that mediates beta-adrenergic/PKA regulation of downstream networks, thereby enhancing tumor cell migration, invasion and growth. In human ovarian cancer samples, high tumoral NE levels were correlated with high pSrcY419 levels. Moreover, among cancer patients, the use of beta blockers was significantly associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Collectively, these data provide a pivotal molecular target for disrupting neural signaling in the tumor microenvironment.
Hypoxia plays a vital role in cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion. However, it is not quite clear how hypoxia may contribute to these events. Here we investigate the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in hypoxia induced pancreatic cancer EMT and invasion.
Pancreatic cancer cells were cultured under controlled hypoxia conditions (3% O2) or normoxic conditions. HIF-1α siRNA, cyclopamine (a SMO antagonist) and GLI1 siRNA were used to inhibit HIF-1α transcription or Hh signaling activation. The effect of hypoxia and Hh signaling on cancer cell EMT and invasion were evaluated by Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blot analysis and invasion assay.
Here, we show that non-canonical Hh signaling is required as an important role to switch on hypoxia-induced EMT and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate hypoxia induces EMT process as well as invasion, and activates the non-canonical Hh pathway without affecting sonic hedgehog homolog (SHH) expression. Moreover, these effects are reversible upon HIF-1α siRNA interference with unchanged SHH and patched1 (PTCH1) level. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that hypoxia induced invasion and EMT process are effectively inhibited by Smoothened (SMO) antagonist cyclopamine and GLI1 siRNA. In addition, GLI1 interference inhibited EMT progress with significantly suppressed vimentin expression, whereas inhibition of SMO through cyclopamine could not reduce vimentin level. This data indicate that hypoxia could trigger other factors (such as TGF-β, KRAS or RTK) bypassing SMO to activate GLI1 directly.
Our findings suggest that Hh signaling modulates hypoxia induced pancreatic cancer EMT and invasion in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, Hh signaling may represent a promising therapeutic target for preventing pancreatic cancer progression.
Hedgehog signaling; Epithelial to mesenchymal transition; Hypoxia; Invasion; Pancreatic cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the world and is the main cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. Surgical intervention is not suitable for majority of hepatocellular carcinoma. Investigation of the effective targeting to the tumor cells is essential for both primary tumors and metastases. Tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been considered to be the attractive vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents toward various tumor diseases. This study was to explore the distribution pattern of CTL carrying the lentiviral vectors with the characteristic of adenoviral E1 gene under the control of the cell activation-dependent CD40 ligand promoter (Lenti/hCD40L/E1AB). Following transduction with adenoviral vectors containing chimeric type 5 and type 35 fiber proteins (Ad5/35-TRAIL), these CTLs produced infectious virus when exposed to HepG2 cells. We assessed the therapeutic ability of CTLs using MTT, Western blot and colony formation assay. The novel CTL harboring Lenti/hCD40L/E1AB and Ad5/35-TRAIL caused proliferation inhibition and significant apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Thus, the novel CTL may be useful for the development of gene therapy approaches to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Altered expression of Twist, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 proteins has been identified in various types of human cancers. However, the correlation between Twist and these gelatinases in breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis of Twist, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression was performed on tissue microarrays from 200 breast cancer cases. The association of Twist and gelatinase expression with clinicopathological factors and patient survival was analyzed. Altered expression of Twist, MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was observed in breast cancer tissue. The positive rates of Twist, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression were 75.5, 97.0 and 96.0%, respectively. Increased expression of Twist was positively correlated with the status of axillary lymph node metastasis and higher tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P<0.01). Moreover, increased expression of Twist was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and post-operative relapse-free survival (RFS), compared with those for the patients with reduced expression levels of Twist (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was positively correlated with Twist expression (P<0.001). Our results indicate that Twist may play an important role in the invasion, metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer. Additionally, our results suggest that Twist may be a regulator of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9).
breast neoplasms; pathology; gelatinases; matrix metalloproteinase 2; matrix metalloproteinase 9; immunohistochemistry
GABAergic deficit is one of the major mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures. Previous studies have mainly focused on alterations of synaptic GABAergic inhibition during epileptogenesis. Recent work suggested that tonic inhibition may also play a role in regulating epileptogenesis, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.
We employed molecular and pharmacological tools to investigate the role of tonic inhibition during epileptogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We overexpressed two distinct subtypes of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, α5β3γ2 and α6β3δ receptors, in cultured hippocampal neurons. We demonstrated that overexpression of both α5β3γ2 and α6β3δ receptors enhanced tonic inhibition and reduced epileptiform activity in vitro. We then showed that injection of THIP (5 μM), a selective agonist for extrasynaptic GABAA receptors at low concentration, into rat brain also suppressed epileptiform burst activity and behavioral seizures in vivo. Mechanistically, we discovered that low concentration of THIP had no effect on GABAergic synaptic transmission and did not affect the basal level of action potentials, but significantly inhibited high frequency neuronal activity induced by epileptogenic agents.
Our studies suggest that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors play an important role in controlling hyperexcitatory activity, such as that during epileptogenesis, but a less prominent role in modulating a low level of basal activity. We propose that tonic inhibition may play a greater role under pathological conditions than in physiological conditions in terms of modulating neural network activity.
Extrasynaptic GABAA receptor, α5 subunit; δ subunit; Tonic inhibition; Epileptogenesis; Epileptiform activity; THIP; Seizure behavior
Secondary Dengue viral infection can produce capillary leakage associated with increased mortality known as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Because the mortality of DHF can be reduced by early detection and intensive support, improved methods for its detection are needed. We applied multidimensional protein profiling to predict outcomes in a prospective Dengue surveillance study in South America. Plasma samples taken from initial clinical presentation of acute Dengue infection were subjected to proteomics analyses using ELISA and a recently developed biofluid analysis platform. Demographics, clinical laboratory measurements, 9 cytokines and 419 plasma proteins collected at the time of initial presentation were compared between the DF and DHF outcomes. Here, the subject’s gender, clinical parameters, 2 cytokines and 42 proteins discriminated between the outcomes. These factors were reduced by multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) that a highly accurate classification model based on 8 discriminant features with an AUC of 0.999. Model analysis indicated that the feature-outcome relationship were non-linear. Although this DHF risk model will need validation in a larger cohort, we conclude that approaches to develop predictive biomarker models for disease outcome will need to incorporate nonparametric modeling approaches.
A multiplexed peptide quantification strategy using the iTRAQ™ reagent has been described for relative measurements of peptides in digested protein mixtures. To validate the chemical specificity of the iTRAQ reaction, we have performed a detailed study of iTRAQ reactivity with two sets of synthetic peptides. The first set of peptides had sequences of Tyr-Xaa-Ser-Glu-Gly-Leu-Ser-Lys and Tyr-Xaa-Ser-Glu-Tyr-Leu-Ser-Lys where Xaa = Ala, Pro, Trp, Tyr, or Glu and was designed to study the extent of O-acylation by iTRAQ, especially hydroxyl-containing residues in different positions. The second set of peptides included Ala-Ser-Glu-His-Ala-Xaa-Tyr-Gly where Xaa = Ser, Thr, or Tyr and was selected to investigate the effect of histidyl residues separated by one amino acid residue from seryl, tyrosyl, or threonyl residues. Our findings indicated that in addition to variable levels of O-acylation of non-sequence-specific hydroxyl-containing residues, significant sequence-specific O-acylation of seryl, threonyl, and tyrosyl hydroxyls occurred when separated one residue removed from a histidyl residue; i.e., (Tyr/Ser)-Xaa-His or His-Xaa-(Tyr/Ser/Thr). This behavior was verified by a separate spiking experiment of one of the first set of peptides into E. coli protein extracts, followed by retention time targeted LC/MS/MS to demonstrate the occurrence of modifications in a complex mixture. These sequence-dependent O-acylation modifications can be confounding factors to accurate MS quantification. Reversal of peptide O-acylation by the iTRAQ reagent can be accomplished by reaction with hydroxylamine with virtually no cleavage of N-acylation and is a recommended modification of the iTRAQ protocol for many applications.
quantitative proteomics; iTRAQ™; sequence-specific modification; peptide O-acylation; mass spectrometry; hydroxyl amino acid reactivity
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major public-health concern globally and can be difficult to manage clinically. Spinal tuberculosis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, there have been few reports on the topic of drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and drug susceptibility patterns and the outcomes of management with a combination of surgery and individualised chemotherapy, for drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis.
We retrospectively analysed 35 patients with drug-resistant tuberculous spondylitis. After surgery, individualised chemotherapy was tailored for each patient according to the drug-resistance profile and previous history of chemotherapy. The patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for an average period of 35.8 months.
Among 35 drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis cases, 13 were retreatment cases. Twelve were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and 23 were non-MDR-TB. The patients with MDR-TB and non-MDR-TB had undergone previous chemotherapy for an average of 14.50 ± 2.00 (0–60) months and 4.56 ± 1.54 (0–74) months, respectively. A total of 32 cases underwent open operations, and the other three had percutaneous drainage and local chemotherapy. Patients received individualised chemotherapy for an average of 23.6 months postoperatively. Local recurrence was observed in six patients. Thirty-three patients had been cured at the final follow-up, and the other two were still receiving chemotherapy.
Drug-resistant tuberculous spondylitis is mainly acquired through previous irregular chemotherapy and the spreading of drug-resistant strains. Management with a combination of surgery and individualised chemotherapy is feasible in the treatment of severe complications and the prevention of acquired drug resistance.
Artemin (ARTN) has been implicated in promoting oncogenicity, tumor growth and invasiveness in diverse human malignancies. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of upstream ligand binding components, potentially mediating ARTN oncogenicity, largely remain to be determined.
We determined the mRNA and protein expression of three proteins demonstrated to bind ARTN, namely GFRα1, GFRα3 and Syndecan-3 (SDC3), in benign breast disease and mammary carcinoma by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Their prognostic significance combined with ARTN expression was also investigated in mammary carcinoma.
The expression of GFRα1 and GFRα3, but not SDC3, was significantly increased in mammary carcinoma and positively associated with tumor lymph node metastases, higher clinical stage and HER-2 positivity. Moreover, both GFRα1 and GFRα3 expression were significantly associated with survival outcome of patients with mammary carcinoma by univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas expression of SDC3 was not. Co-expression of ARTN with either GFRα1 or GFRα3, but not SDC3, produced synergistic increases in the odds ratio for both relapse-free and overall survival in patients with mammary carcinoma. Furthermore, significant association of GFRα1 and GFRα3 expression with survival outcome observed herein were restricted to ER negative or HER-2 negative mammary carcinoma.
The expression of GFRα1 and/or GFRα3, especially when combined with ARTN expression, may be useful predictors of disease progression and outcome in specific subtypes of mammary carcinoma.
ARTN; GFRα1; GFRα3; SDC3; Mammary carcinoma; Survival
A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ∼0.07 N and ∼46.2 Hz was observed. This method provides a cost-effective, recyclable, environment-friendly and simple way to directly split water for hydrogen fuels by scavenging mechanical waste energy forms such as noise or traffic vibration in the environment.
piezoelectric; energy harvesting; hydrogen production; piezoelectrochemical
The neurotrophic factor ARTEMIN (ARTN) has been reported to possess a role in mammary carcinoma progression and metastasis. Herein, we report that ARTN modulates endothelial cell behaviour and promotes angiogenesis in ER-mammary carcinoma (ER-MC). Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) do not express ARTN but respond to exogenously added, and paracrine ARTN secreted by ER-MC cells. ARTN promoted endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and 3D matrigel tube formation. Angiogenic behaviour promoted by ARTN secreted by ER-MC cells was mediated by AKT with resultant increased TWIST1 and subsequently VEGF-A expression. In a patient cohort of ER-MC, ARTN positively correlated with VEGF-A expression as measured by Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. In xenograft experiments, ER-MC cells with forced expression of ARTN produced tumors with increased VEGF-A expression and increased microvessel density (CD31 and CD34) compared to tumors formed by control cells. Functional inhibition of ARTN by siRNA decreased the angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells. Bevacizumab (a humanized monoclonal anti-VEGF-A antibody) partially inhibited the ARTN mediated angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells and combined inhibition of ARTN and VEGF-A by the same resulted in further significant decrease in the angiogenic effects of ER-MC cells. Thus, ARTN stimulates de novo tumor angiogenesis mediated in part by VEGF-A. ARTN therefore co-ordinately regulates multiple aspects of tumor growth and metastasis.
DNA microarrays can detect tuberculosis and its multi-drug resistant form in M. tuberculosis isolates and sputum specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. However, no performance data currently exists for its use in spinal tuberculosis specimens. This study was aimed to assess the performance of the CapitalBio™ DNA microarray in the detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) resistance in spinal tuberculosis compared with the BACT/MGIT 960 system.
From March 2009 to December 2011, 153 consecutive patients from Southwest Hospital, Chongqing with clinically and pathologically diagnosed spinal tuberculosis were enrolled into this study. Specimens collected during surgery from the tuberculosis patients were subjected to M. tuberculosis species identification and drug-resistance detection by the CapitalBio™ DNA microarray, and results were compared with those obtained from the absolute concentration drug susceptibility testing.
The CapitalBio™ DNA microarray achieved 93.55% sensitivity for the correct M. tuberculosis species identification of the 93 specimens that tested positive for spinal tuberculosis through culture. In addition, twenty-seven additional patients (45.0%) were detected by the DNA microarray to be positive for M. tuberculosis among sixty spinal tuberculosis patients who were culture negative. Moreover, the DNA microarray had a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 90.7% for RMP resistance, and the microarray had a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 91.0% for INH resistance. The mean turn-around time of M. tuberculosis species identification and drug resistance detection using the DNA microarray was 5.8 (range, 4–9) hours.
The CapitalBio™ DNA microarray is a feasible and accurate tool for the species identification of M. tuberculosis and for directly detecting RMP and INH resistance from spinal tuberculosis specimens in fewer than 9 hours.
DNA microarray; Spinal tuberculosis; Drug resistance; Gene mutation
The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and may be a potential target for cancer therapy. Livin, which belongs to this family, is highly expressed in various tumors. The previous study demonstrated that silencing Livin gene promoted lung cancer cell apoptosis; however, the effects on tumor growth suppression by targeting this gene in vivo, to thereby determine the efficacy of targeting Livin for patient therapy, have not been determined. This study injected lentivirus-delivered livinshRNA into established xenograft tumors derived from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1 in BALB/C nude mice, the result showed that LivinshRNA down-regulated Livin expression effectively, induced tumor cell apoptosis, reduced tumor cell proliferation, and suppressed tumor growth dramatically, with a tumor volume inhibitory rate of (58.65±4.82)% and a tumor weight inhibitory rate of (47.44±1.64)%, but with less severe adverse reaction to the mouse. This study further demonstrated that Livin gene silencing induced a G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest and cyclin D1 downregulation, which is a key regulator of the G0/G1- to S-phase transition. These findings suggest that LivinshRNA local injection may serve as a therapeutic method for patient treatment, and that LivinshRNA may suppress tumor growth by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1-phase.
Livin gene; RNA interference; lung adenocarcinoma; xenograft tumor model; cell cycle
We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations and executive function (EF) skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables.
SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225) in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr) ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST).
Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P < 0.001). Alcoholics with the A/A genotype for SNP rs6465084 had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and had poorer EF skills than alcoholics who were G-carriers for this SNP (P < 0.01). Non-alcoholics with the A/A genotype for rs6465084 also had lower NAA/Cr levels in prefrontal GM and made more random errors in the WCST than G-carriers (P < 0.01). The A/A genotype group for SNP rs6465084 was significantly different from the G carriers for the variables of NAA/Cr ratios and WCST scores in both alcoholics and controls (P < 0.05). Alcoholics who were T-carriers for rs1468412 had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and showed poorer EF skills (P < 0.05). No effects of rs2299225 genotype on NAA/Cr or executive skills were observed. NAA/Cr in left prefrontal regions correlated with certain parameters of EF testing in both alcoholics and controls (P < 0.05), but the significance of this correlation among alcoholics disappeared after adjustment for the effects of genotype.
Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412) may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.
Alcohol dependence; Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3; Single nucleotide polymorphism; N-acetylaspartate; Executive function
Melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is a cell adhesion molecule that is abnormally expressed in a variety of tumours and is closely associated with tumour metastasis. The role of MCAM in ovarian cancer development has not been fully studied. In this study, through immunohistochemical staining of ovarian cancer tissue samples and RNA interference to silence MCAM in ovarian cancer cells, we examined the impact of MCAM on the biological functions of ovarian cancer cells and attempted to reveal the role of MCAM in ovarian cancer development. Our results showed that MCAM expression was particularly high in metastatic ovarian cancers compared with other pathological types of ovarian epithelial tissues. After MCAM silencing in the MCAM high-expression ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3, the cell apoptosis was increased, whereas the cell spreading and invasion were significantly reduced, which may be related with dysregulation of small RhoGTPase (RhoA and Cdc42).These results suggest that MCAM expression in ovarian cancer is highly correlated with the metastatic potential of the cancer. MCAM is likely to participate in the regulation of the Rho signalling pathway to protect ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis and promote their malignant invasion and metastasis. Therefore, MCAM can be used not only as a molecular marker to determine the prognosis of ovarian cancer but also as a therapeutic target in metastatic ovarian cancer.
MCAM; Ovarian cancer; Spreading; Invasion; Apoptosis
miRNAs, endogenous oligonucleotide RNAs, play an important role in mammary gland carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Detection of their expression and investigation of their functions could lead to discovery of novel biomarkers for breast cancer.
In situ hybridization was used to detect miR-133a expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast surgical specimens from 26 benign, 34 pericancerously normal and 90 cancerous tissues. qRT-PCR was performed to assess miR-133a levels in 6 breast cell lines and 10 benign and 18 cancerous fresh breast tissue specimens. Cell viability, migration, and invasion assays were used to determine the role of miR-133a in regulation of breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, respectively. Luciferase assay was performed to assess miR-133a binding to FSCN1 gene.
Expression of miR-133a was reduced from normal through benign to cancerous breast tissues. Expression of miR-133a was also low in breast cancer cell lines. The reduced miR-133a expression was associated with lymph nodes metastasis, high clinical stages, and shorter relapse-free survivals of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, transfection of miR-133a oligonucleotides slightly inhibited growth but significantly decreased migration and invasion capacity of breast cancer cells, compared with negative controls, whereas knockdown of miR-133a expression induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. In addition, we identified a putative miR-133a binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Fascin1 (FSCN1) gene using an online bioinformatical tool. We found that miR-133a transfection significantly reduced expression of FSCN1 mRNA and protein. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed that FSCN1 was the direct target gene of miR-133a.
miR-133a expression was lost in breast cancer tissues, loss of which was associated with lymph nodes metastasis, high clinical stages and shorter relapse-free survivals of patients with breast cancer. Functionally, miR-133a can suppress tumor cell invasion and migration and targeted the expression of FSCN1. Future study will verify whether detection of miR-133a expression can served as a novel biomarker for breast cancer progression and patient prognosis.
Breast cancer; miRNA; miR-133a; Tumor cell invasion; Fascin1; Prognosis
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood.
Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN), which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver.
Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC.
Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical patients and animal experiments. Thus, STAT3 in tumor infiltrating inflammatory cells may an attractive target for liver cancer therapy.
STAT3; Liver cancer; Inflammation
ARTEMIN (ARTN) is an estrogen regulated growth factor, the expression of which promotes resistance to antiestrogen therapies and predicts poorer survival outcome of patients with estrogen receptor (ER) positive mammary carcinoma (ER+MC) treated with tamoxifen. ARTN is also expressed in ER negative mammary carcinoma (ER-MC). Herein, we determined the role of ARTN in ER-MC and defined the mechanism of action producing poor patient prognosis.
We modulated the expression of ARTN in two ER- (mesenchymal/claudin-low) mammary carcinoma cell lines (BT549 and MDA-MB-231) by forced expression or small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated depletion. The effects of modulation of ARTN expression were examined by various in vitro measures of oncogenicity, including the expression of TWIST1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. In vitro results were correlated to xenograft studies in immunodeficient mice. Co-expression of ARTN and TWIST1 and their association to poor survival outcome were examined in a cohort of patients with ER-MC. Pathway analysis was performed by pharmacological inhibition of phosphorylation of AKT (pAKT-Ser 473) or modulation of TWIST1 expression.
ARTN expression resulted in ER-MC cells with enhanced mesenchymal characteristics, including increased invasion and a gene expression profile consistent with enhanced mesenchymal phenotype. ARTN stimulated ER-MC cell anchorage independent and 3D matrigel growth, endothelial cell adhesion and transmigration of ER-MC cells through an endothelial cell barrier. Forced expression of ARTN produced a larger, locally invasive tumour mass with tumour emboli that produced distant metastasis. ARTN regulated TWIST1 expression in ER-MC cells and ARTN expression was significantly correlated to TWIST1 expression in a panel of mammary carcinoma cell lines and in a cohort of patients with ER-MC. Low expression of both ARTN and TWIST1 predicted 100% relapse free and overall survival in patients with ER-MC, whereas high expression of both ARTN and TWIST1 was associated with a poor survival outcome. ARTN stimulated an increase in TWIST1 expression via increased AKT activity. siRNA mediated depletion of TWIST1 abrogated ARTN stimulated cellular behaviour associated with metastasis, and forced expression of TWIST1 abrogated the functional effects of ARTN depletion.
ARTN and TWIST1 synergize to produce a worse outcome in ER-MC and combined inhibition of ARTN and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) may therefore provide a novel therapeutic strategy in this subtype of mammary carcinoma.
We have observed at our clinical work that acute lung injury (ALI) often occurs in patients transplanted with donor livers persevered for long time. So, we conducted this study to investigate the influence of cold preservation time (CPT) of donor liver on ALI induced by liver transplantation (LT), and further study the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the process.
Wistar rats were used as donors and recipients to establish orthotopic rat liver transplantation models. Donor livers were preserved at 4°C for different lengths of time. The effect of NF-κB inhibitor, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), on ALI was detected. All samples were harvested after 3 h reperfusion. The severity of liver injury was evaluated first. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue and liver outflow serum were measured respectively. The severity indexes of ALI, the activity of NF-κB and inhibitor-κBα (I-κBα) in lung/liver were measured accordingly.
With the prolonged liver CPT, the liver damage associated indexes and ALI-related indexes all increased significantly. TNF-α and IL-1β in liver outflow serum increased accordingly, and the activity of NF-κB in liver/lung increased correspondingly. All these ALI-associated indexes could be partially reversed by the use of PDTC.
Extended CPT aggravates the damage of donor liver and induces the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β in liver. These inflammatory factors migrate to lung via liver outflow blood and activate NF-κB in lung, inducing ALI finally. NF-κB may play a critical role in LT-related ALI. Patients with or at risk of ALI may benefit from acute anti-inflammatory treatment with PDTC.
HER-2 plays an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. A number of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and engineered antibody fragments (such as scFvs) against the subdomain II or IV of HER-2 extracellular domain (ECD) have been developed. We investigated the effect of chA21, an engineered anti-HER-2 antibody that bind primarily to subdomain I, on ovarian carcinoma cell invasion in vitro, and explored its possible mechanisms.
Growth inhibition of SK-OV-3 cells was assessed using a Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The invasion ability of SK-OV-3 was determined by a Transwell invasion assay. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its tissue inhibitors (TIMP-2) was detected by immunocytochemical staining, and the expression of p38 and the phosphorylation of p38 were assayed by both immunocytochemistry and Western blot.
After treatment with chA21, the invasion of human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells was inhibited in dose- and time-dependent manners. Simultaneously the expression of p38, phospho-p38, MMP-2 and the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio decreased, while TIMP-2 expression increased. Additionally, the decrease in phospho-p38 was much greater than that of p38.
chA21 may inhibit SK-OV-3 cell invasion via the signal transduction pathway involving MMP-2, TIMP-2, p38 and the activation of p38MAPK.
HER-2; Ovarian neoplasms; Invasion; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; Matrix metalloproteinase-2; Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2
One can manually isolate the giant oocyte nucleus or germinal vesicle (GV) of Xenopus from a living oocyte with nothing more complicated than jewelers’ forceps and a dissecting microscope. Similarly, one can remove the nuclear envelope by hand and allow the lampbrush chromosomes and other nuclear organelles to spread on a microscope slide. After centrifugation, the nuclear contents adhere tightly to the slide, where they can be subjected to immunostaining or fluorescent in situ hybridization for visualization by conventional or confocal microscopy. Preparations of isolated GV contents reveal details of nuclear structure that are almost impossible to attain by more conventional techniques.
Cajal body (CB); germinal vesicle (GV); lampbrush chromosome (LBC); nucleolus; oocyte; Xenopus
Altered expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) has been implicated in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical role of pSTAT3 and SOCS3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well established. Immunohistochemical analysis of pSTAT3, SOCS3, Ki67 and VEGF expression was performed on tissue microarrays from 138 HCC patients. The expression of STAT3 mRNA was further detected by in situ hybridization. The association of pSTAT3 and SOCS3 expression with clinicopathological factors and patient survival was analyzed. Altered expression of pSTAT3 and SOCS3 was observed in HCC specimens, compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. Increased expression of pSTAT3 was correlated with large tumor size, higher clinical stage, Ki67 and VEGF expression, as well as poor patient survival. Decreased expression of SOCS3 was correlated with the expression of Ki67, VEGF and pSTAT3, and poor patient survival. Moreover, the expression of pSTAT3 was conversely correlated with SOCS3 expression in HCC. Our results indicate that deregulated expression of pSTAT3 and SOCS3 may play roles in the development and progression of HCC. PSTAT3 and SOCS3 should be further evaluated as potential novel biomarkers for HCC prognosis.
hepatocellular carcinoma; phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; suppressor of cytokine signaling 3; prognosis
Tectonic lamellar keratoplasty (TLKP) is a primary surgical procedure to improve the condition of the recipient bed in high-risk corneal transplantation. It is usually performed for a secondary optical penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). The present study was undertaken to explore a new strategy for TLKP using acellular corneal stroma (ACS) prepared by decellularization.
ACS for TLKP was prepared from cat cornea by decellularization. The efficiency of the decellularization was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and through DNA content analysis. Twenty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, as recipients, were assigned to one of two groups that had different material for their TLKP. The TLKP was combined with a central optical PKP as a single-stage procedure. Either ACS or fresh cat corneal lamella, 11.25 mm in diameter, was used for the TLKP in these two groups. After TLKP, a 6.5-mm full-thickness cat cornea was placed in the central cornea of each recipient rabbit for PKP. Clinical outcomes and the histology of the transplants were compared post-operatively.
ACS for TLKP prolonged the survival of the transplants. The mean survival time of the transplants in the ACS group (36.4±4.3 days) was longer than for those in the control group (14.0±2.2 days, p<0.05). The ACS group showed a significantly smaller neovascularization area compared to the control group. The areas of corneal neovascularization were 5.3±1.1 mm2 and 45.2±4.9 mm2 (p<0.05), respectively, after two weeks, and 25.1±4.7 mm2 and 105.3±12.4 mm2 (p<0.05), respectively, after four weeks. Histology revealed that fewer inflammatory cells were infiltrating the transplants in the ACS group than those in the control group.
The use of ACS for TLKP prolonged the survival of corneal transplants, reduced corneal neovascularization, and prevented from infiltration of inflammatory cells. It is a feasible and effective strategy to prolong the survival of transplants in high-risk corneal transplantation.
A high-sensitivity mechano-luminescent sensor was fabricated on the basis of piezoelectric/electroluminescent composites. The working principle of this mechano-luminescent sensor was elucidated by analyzing the relationship between the piezoelectric-induced charges and the electroluminescent effects. When a stress is applied on the piezoelectric layer, electrical charges will be induced at both the top and bottom sides of the piezoelectric layer. The induced electrical charges will lead to a light output from the electroluminescent layer, thus producing a mechano-luminescence effect. By increasing the vibration strength or frequency applied, the mechano-luminescence output can be obviously enhanced. Mechano-luminescence sensors have potential in smart stress-to-light devices, such as foot-stress-distribution-diagnosis systems and dynamic-load-monitors for bridge hanging cables.
piezoelectric; mechano-luminescent sensors; composites