miR-612 suppresses local invasion and distant colonization by directly inhibiting AKT2 in HCC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in tumor metastasis. In this study, we identified a set of 32 miRNAs involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. Among them, miR-612 was shown for the first time to have inhibitory effects on HCC proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis. AKT2 was verified to be one of the direct targets of miR-612, through which the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis were inhibited. The level of miR-612 in HCC patients was inversely associated with tumor size, stage, EMT, and metastasis. Of particular importance, miR-612 is involved in both the initial and final steps of the metastatic cascade, by suppressing local invasion and distant colonization. The pleiotropic roles of miR-612 in the HCC metastatic cascade suggest that it could be an effective target for both early and advanced HCC.
We previously interrogated the transcriptome in heart tissue from LmnaH222P/H222P mice, a mouse model of cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene (LMNA) mutation, and found that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Jun N-terminal kinase branches of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway were abnormally hyperactivated prior to the onset of significant cardiac impairment. We have now used an alternative gene expression analysis tool to reanalyze this transcriptome and identify hyperactivation of a third branch of the MAP kinase cascade, p38α signaling. Biochemical analysis of hearts from LmnaH222P/H222P mice showed enhanced p38α activation prior to and after the onset of heart disease as well as in hearts from human subjects with cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations. Treatment of LmnaH222P/H222P mice with the p38α inhibitor ARRY-371797 prevented left ventricular dilatation and deterioration of fractional shortening compared with placebo-treated mice but did not block the expression of collagen genes involved in cardiac fibrosis. These results demonstrate that three different branches of the MAP kinase signaling pathway with overlapping consequences are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations. They further suggest that pharmacological inhibition of p38α may be useful in the treatment of this disease.
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a poor prognostic sign for patients with lung cancer. Tissue factor (TF) is a coagulation factor that participates in angiogenesis and vascular permeability and is abundant in MPE. We previously demonstrated that autocrine IL-6-activated Stat3 contributes to tumor metastasis and upregulation of VEGF, resulting in the generation of MPE in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found IL-6-triggered Stat3 activation also induces TF expression. By using pharmacologic inhibitors, it was shown that JAK2 kinase, but not Src kinase, contributed to autocrine IL-6-induced TF expression. Inhibition of Stat3 activation by dominant negative Stat3 (S3D) in lung adenocarcinoma suppressed TF-induced coagulation, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Consistently, knockdown of TF expression by siRNA resulted in a reduction of anchorage-independent growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of TF expression also decreased the adhesion ability of cancer cells in normal lung tissues. In the nude mouse model, both lung metastasis and MPE generation were decreased when PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells (TF expression was silenced) were intravenously injected. PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells also produced less malignant ascites through inhibition of vascular permeability. In summary, we showed that TF expression plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MPE generation via regulating of tumor metastasis and vascular permeability in lung adenocarcinoma bearing activated Stat3.
In this study, lansoprazole (LSP)/cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes were prepared using a fluid bed coating technique, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) as the host molecules, respectively, to simultaneously improve the dissolution and stability of LSP. The dissolution rate and stability of LSP was dramatically enhanced by inclusion complexation regardless of CD type. LSP/HPCD inclusion complex was more stable under illumination than LSP/β-CD inclusion complex. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry proved the absence of crystallinity in both LSP/CD inclusion complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy together with molecular modeling indicated that the benzimidazole of LSP was included in the cavity of both CDs, while LSP was more deeply included in HPCD than β-CD. The enhanced photostability was due to the inclusion of the sulfinyl moiety into the HPCD cavity. CD inclusion complexation could improve the dissolution and stability of LSP.
cyclodextrin; dissolution; inclusion complex; lansoprazole; molecular modeling; stability
The aims of the present study were to determine oxidative stress and to explore possible reasons of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in human lens epithelial (HLE) B3 cells exposed to low intensity 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields (RF).
The HLE B3 cells were divided into RF exposure and RF sham-exposure groups. The RF exposure intensity was at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2, 3, or 4 W/kg. The ROS levels were measured by a fluorescent probe 2′7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 h. Lipid peroxidation and cellular viability were detected by an MDA test and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, respectively, in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 genes and the expression of SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 proteins was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in the HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz RF for 1 h.
The ROS and MDA levels significantly increased (P<0.05) in the RF exposure group and that the cellular viability, mRNA expression of four genes, and expression of four proteins significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with the RF sham-exposure group.
Oxidative stress is present in HLE B3 cells exposed to 1.8 GHz low-intensity RF and that the increased production of ROS may be related to down-regulation of four antioxidant enzyme genes induced by RF exposure.
Whilst data recognise both myeloid cell accumulation during choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) as well as complement activation, none of the data has presented a clear explanation for the angiogenic drive that promotes pathological angiogenesis. One possibility that is a pre-eminent drive is a specific and early conditioning and activation of the myeloid cell infiltrate. Using a laser-induced CNV murine model, we have identified that disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch’s membrane resulted in an early recruitment of macrophages derived from monocytes and microglia, prior to angiogenesis and contemporaneous with lesional complement activation. Early recruited CD11b+ cells expressed a definitive gene signature of selective inflammatory mediators particularly a pronounced Arg-1 expression. Accumulating macrophages from retina and peripheral blood were activated at the site of injury, displaying enhanced VEGF expression, and notably prior to exaggerated VEGF expression from RPE, or earliest stages of angiogenesis. All of these initial events, including distinct VEGF + Arg-1+ myeloid cells, subsided when CNV was established and at the time RPE-VEGF expression was maximal. Depletion of inflammatory CCR2-positive monocytes confirmed origin of infiltrating monocyte Arg-1 expression, as following depletion Arg-1 signal was lost and CNV suppressed. Furthermore, our in vitro data supported a myeloid cell uptake of damaged RPE or its derivatives as a mechanism generating VEGF + Arg-1+ phenotype in vivo. Our results reveal a potential early driver initiating angiogenesis via myeloid-derived VEGF drive following uptake of damaged RPE and deliver an explanation of why CNV develops during any of the stages of macular degeneration and can be explored further for therapeutic gain.
Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology.
Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated.
The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much faster than that of the raw crystals.
Fluid-bed coating technology has potential for use in the solidification of drug nanosuspensions.
nanocrystals; nanosuspensions; food proteins; poorly water-soluble drugs; indomethacin; fluid-bed coating
Par-1 regulates the Hippo signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster by modifying the phosphorylation status of Hippo and also by inhibiting the interaction of Hippo and Salvador.
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network.
An organism's organ size is determined by cell number, the size of each cell, and the distance between cells. All of these factors are controlled by the coordination of different cell signaling pathways and other mechanisms. The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by restricting the number of cells that make up the organ. Malfunction of this pathway leads to abnormal overgrowth, and is involved in a large number of human diseases and cancers. We identify here a component of the Hippo pathway, Par-1, which controls tissue growth by negatively regulating the Hippo pathway. We show that overexpression or depletion of Par-1 influences tissue growth in fruit flies via Hippo signaling. Then, by genetic and biochemical experiments, we show that Par-1 interacts with Hippo, regulating the Hippo Ser30 phosphorylation status to alter Hippo activity. In addition, we found that Par-1 regulates Hippo signaling via inhibition of the Hippo-Salvador association in a kinase-dependent fashion. We predict that Par-1 is a potential oncogene and that its regulatory role in Hippo signaling could be conserved.
A Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) was constructed and its bioactivity was studied. The modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) was fused with the anchor protein (AGα1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant strain harboring the fusion gene bmace-AGα1 was induced to display BmAChE on the P. pastoris cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays revealed that the BmAChE was successfully displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115. The enzyme activity of the displayed BmAChE was detected by the Ellman method at 787.7 U/g (wet cell weight). In addition, bioactivity of the displayed BmAChE was verified by inhibition tests conducted with eserine, and with carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. The displayed BmAChE had an IC50 of 4.17×10−8 M and was highly sensitive to eserine and five carbamate pesticides, as well as seven organophosphorus pesticides. Results suggest that the displayed BmAChE had good bioactivity.
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/9, also known as collagenases IV and gelatinases A/B, play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the clinical trials of the MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) ended up with disappointing results. In this paper, we synthesized a gelatinase-responsive copolymer (mPEG-PCL) by inserting a gelatinase cleavable peptide (PVGLIG) between mPEG and PCL blocks of mPEG-PCL for anticancer drug delivery to make use of MMP2/9 as an intelligent target for drug delivery.
Materials and Methods
mPEG-pep-PCL copolymer was synthesized via ring-opening copolymerization and double-amidation. To evaluate whether Nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from this copolymer are superior to NPs prepared from mPEG-PCL, NPs prepared from mPEG-PCL copolymer were used as positive control. Docetaxel-loading NPs using mPEG-pep-PCL and mPEG-PCL were prepared by nano-precipitation method, mentioned as Gel-NPs and Con-NPs, respectively. The morphologic changes of the NPs after treatment with gelatinases were observed macroscopically by spectrophotometer and microscopically by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cellular uptake amount and cytotoxicity of Gel-NPs and Con-NPs, respectively, in cell lines with different levels of gelatinase expression were studied. Moreover, the cytotoxicity study on the primary cancer cells isolated from pericardial fluids from a patient with late-stage lung cancer was conducted.
The Gel-NPs aggregated in response to gelatinases, which was confirmed macroscopically and microscopically. The cellular uptake amount of Gel-NPs was correlated with the level of gelatinases. The in vitro antitumor effect of Gel-NPs was also correlated with the level of gelatinases and was superior to Taxotere (commercially available docetaxel) as well as the Con-NPs. The cytotoxicity study on the primary lung cancer cells also confirmed the effectiveness of Gel-NPs.
The results in this study preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of gelatinase-responsive targeting strategy and the prospect of this intelligent nano-drug delivery system though further studies are needed.
Transverse myelitis is a rare inflammatory myelopathy characterized by loss of motor and sensory function below the affected level of the spinal cord, and causes neurogenic bowel and bladder. Occasionally, it also causes neuropathic pain with spasticity. Traditional therapies for neuropathic pain are multiple, including multimodal analgesic regimens, antiepileptic or antidepressant medications, opioids, sympathetic blocks, and spinal cord stimulation. Persistent neuropathic pain can cause emotional distress by affecting sleep, work, recreation, and emotional well-being. Here we report the case of a patient suffering from intractable neuropathic pain following acute transverse myelitis that was not relieved by combinations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, antidepressant, and opioid medications, or by acupuncture. Implantation of an intrathecal morphine pump controlled the pain successfully without side effects, and enabled the patient to embark on intensive rehabilitation. The patient’s muscle strength has improved significantly and the patient may soon be able to use a walker with minimal assistance.
intrathecal morphine pump; neuropathic pain; rehabilitation; transverse myelitis
This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time.
Schistosomiasis; Malaria; Echinococcosis; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Chemotherapy; Research capacity building
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and aggressive cancer, and the treatment options are limited for patients with advanced HCC. Bufalin, the major digoxin-like component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chansu, exhibits significant anti-tumor activities in many tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the effect of bufalin on the inhibition of an AKT-related signaling pathway, and examined the relationship between regulatory proteins and anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cells.
Proliferation, wound healing, transwell-migration/invasion and adhesion assays were performed in HCCLM3 and HepG2 cell lines. The protein levels of pAKT, AKT, pGSK3β, GSK3β, pβ-catenin, β-catenin, E-cadherin, MMP-9, and MMP-2 were measured by western blot analysis. E-Cadherin and β-catenin expression levels were also evaluated by immunofluorescence.
Bufalin inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion. In addition, treatment with bufalin significantly decreased the levels of pAKT, pGSK3β, MMP-9, and MMP-2, while increasing the levels of GSK3β and E-cadherin and suppressing the nuclear translocation of β-catenin.
Bufalin is a potential anti-HCC therapeutic candidate through its inhibition of the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling pathway. Further studies with bufalin are warranted in patients with HCC, especially those with the disease at advanced stages.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Bufalin; Proliferation; Invasion; AKT signaling pathway
State space methods have proven indispensable in neural data analysis. However, common methods for performing inference in state-space models with non-Gaussian observations rely on certain approximations which are not always accurate. Here we review direct optimization methods that avoid these approximations, but that nonetheless retain the computational efficiency of the approximate methods. We discuss a variety of examples, applying these direct optimization techniques to problems in spike train smoothing, stimulus decoding, parameter estimation, and inference of synaptic properties. Along the way, we point out connections to some related standard statistical methods, including spline smoothing and isotonic regression. Finally, we note that the computational methods reviewed here do not in fact depend on the state-space setting at all; instead, the key property we are exploiting involves the bandedness of certain matrices. We close by discussing some applications of this more general point of view, including Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for neural decoding and efficient estimation of spatially-varying firing rates.
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) encoding A-type lamins cause a diverse range of diseases collectively called laminopathies, the most common of which is dilated cardiomyopathy. Emerging evidence suggests that LMNA mutations cause disease by altering cell signaling pathways but the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we show that AKT-mTOR pathway is hyperactivated in hearts of mice with cardiomyopathy caused by Lmna mutation and that in vivo administration of the rapamycin analog temsirolimus prevents deterioration of cardiac function. We also show defective autophagy in hearts of these mice and that improvement in heart function induced by pharmacological interventions is correlated with enhanced autophagy. These findings provide a rationale for a novel treatment of LMNA cardiomyopathy and implicate defective autophagy as a pathogenic mechanism of cardiomyopathy arising from LMNA mutation.
The phytohormone abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) plays a key role in many processes. The biological and biochemical activities of unnatural (−)-ABA have been extensively investigated since 1960s. However, the recognition mechanism by which only a few members among PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYLs) family can bind (−)-ABA remains largely unknown. Here we systematically characterized the affinity of PYLs binding to the (−)-ABA and reported the crystal structures of apo-PYL5, PYL3-(−)-ABA and PYL9-(+)-ABA. PYL5 showed the strongest binding affinity with (−)-ABA among all the PYLs. PYL9 is a stringently exclusive (+)-ABA receptor with interchangeable disulfide bonds shared by a subclass of PYLs. PYL3 is a dual receptor to both ABA enantiomers. The binding orientation and pocket of (−)-ABA in PYLs are obviously different from those of (+)-ABA. Steric hindrance and hydrophobic interaction are the two key factors in determining the stereospecificity of PYLs binding to (−)-ABA, which is further confirmed by gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutagenesis. Our results provide novel insights of the bioactivity of ABA enantiomers onto PYLs, and shed light on designing the selective ABA receptors agonists.
MinD is a component of the Min system involved in the spatial regulation of cell division. It is an ATPase in the MinD/ParA/Mrp deviant Walker A motif family which is within the P loop GTPase superfamily. Its ATPase activity is stimulated by MinE, however, the mechanism of this activation is unclear. MinD forms a symmetric dimer with two binding sites for MinE, however, a recent model suggested that MinE occupying one site was sufficient for ATP hydrolysis. By generating heterodimers with one binding site for MinE we show that one binding site is sufficient for stimulation of the MinD ATPase. Furthermore, comparison of structures of MinD and related proteins led us to examine the role of N45 in the switch I region. An asparagine at this position is conserved in four of the deviant Walker A motif subfamilies (MinD, chromosomal ParAs, Get3 and FleN) and we find that N45 in MinD is essential for MinE stimulated ATPase activity and suggest that it is a key residue affected by MinE binding.
Microinfusions of the nonselective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into perirhinal cortex impairs performance on visual recognition tasks, indicating that muscarinic receptors in this region play a pivotal role in recognition memory. To assess the mnemonic effects of selective blockade in perirhinal cortex of muscarinic receptor subtypes, we locally infused either the m1-selective antagonist pirenzepine or the m2-selective antagonist methoctramine in animals performing one-trial visual recognition, and compared these scores with those following infusions of equivalent volumes of saline. Compared to these control infusions, injections of pirenzepine, but not of methoctramine, significantly impaired recognition accuracy. Further, similar doses of scopolamine and pirenzepine yielded similar deficits, suggesting that the deficits obtained earlier with scopolamine were due mainly, if not exclusively, to blockade of m1 receptors. The present findings indicate that m1 and m2 receptors have functionally dissociable roles, and that the formation of new visual memories is critically dependent on the cholinergic activation of m1 receptors located on perirhinal cells.
pirenzepine; methoctramine; muscarinic; cholinergic; perirhinal cortex
Autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) encoding A-type nuclear lamins, intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear envelope. Classically, the disease manifests as scapulo-humeroperoneal muscle wasting and weakness, early joint contractures and dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction block; however, move variable skeletal muscle involvement can be present. Previously, we demonstrated increased activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in hearts of LmnaH222P/H222P mice, a model of autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, and that blocking its activation improved cardiac function. We therefore examined the role of ERK1/2 activity in skeletal muscle pathology.
Sections of skeletal muscle from LmnaH222P/H222P mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and histological analysis performed using light microscopy. ERK1/2 activity was assessed in mouse tissue and cultured cells by immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure expression of downstream target genes. LmnaH222P/H222P mice were treated with selumetinib, which blocks mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 that activates ERK1/2, from 16 to 20 weeks of age to assess the effects of treatment on muscle histology, ERK1/2 activity and limb grip strength.
We detected enhanced activation of ERK1/2 in skeletal muscle of LmnaH222P/H222P mice. Treatment with selumetinib ameliorated skeletal muscle histopathology and reduced serum creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Selumetinib treatment also improved muscle function as assessed by in vivo grip strength testing.
Our results show that ERK1/2 plays a role in the development of skeletal muscle pathology in LmnaH222/H222P mice. They further provide the first evidence that a small molecule drug may be beneficial for skeletal muscle in autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
Muscular dystrophy; Nuclear envelope; Lamin; Selumetinib; Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Baculoviruses are one of the largest viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. During infection, the rod-shape, 250-nm long nucleocapsid delivers its genome into the nucleus. Electron microscopy evidence suggests that baculoviruses, specifically the Alphabaculoviruses (nucleopolyhedroviruses) and the Betabaculoviruses (granuloviruses), have evolved two very distinct modes for doing this. Here we review historical and current experimental results of baculovirus nuclear import studies, with an emphasis on electron microscopy studies employing the prototypical baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting cultured cells. We also discuss the implications of recent studies towards theories of nuclear transport mechanisms.
baculovirus; AcMNPV; nuclear import; nuclear pore complex; viruses
AIM: To investigate the effects of Annexin A2 (ANXA2) silencing on invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells.
METHODS: Human hepatoma cell lines [HepG2, SMMC-7721, SMMC-7402, and MHCC97-H, a novel human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line with high metastasis potential] and a normal hepatocyte cell line (LO2) were used in this study. The protein and mRNA expression levels of ANXA2 were analysed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The intracellular distribution profile of ANXA2 expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Short hairpin RNA targeting ANXA2 was designed and stably transfected into MHCC97-H cells. Cells were cultured for in vitro analyses or subcutaneously injected as xenografts in mice for in vivo analyses. Effects of ANXA2 silencing on cell growth were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay (in vitro) and tumour-growth assay (in vivo), on cell cycling was assessed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining (in vitro), and on invasion and migration potential were assessed by transwell assay and wound-healing assay, respectively (both in vitro).
RESULTS: The MHCC97-H cells, which are known to have high metastasis potential, showed the highest level of ANXA2 expression among the four HCC cell types examined; compared to the LO2 cells, the MHCC97-H expression level was 8-times higher. The ANXA2 expression was effectively inhibited (about 80%) by ANXA2-speciﬁc small hairpin RNA (shRNA). ANXA2 expression in the MHCC97-H cells was mainly localized to the cellular membrane and cytoplasm, and some localization was detected in the nucleus. Moreover, the proliferation of MHCC97-H cells was obviously suppressed by shRNA-mediated ANXA2 silencing in vitro, and the tumour growth inhibition rate was 38.24% in vivo. The percentage of MHCC97-H cells in S phase dramatically decreased (to 27.76%) under ANXA2-silenced conditions. Furthermore, ANXA2-silenced MHCC97-H cells showed lower invasiveness (percentage of invading cells decreased to 52.16%) and suppressed migratory capacity (migration distance decreased to 63.49%). It is also worth noting that shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 in the MHCC97-H cells led to abnormal apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 suppresses the invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells, and may represent a useful target of future molecular therapies.
Annexin A2; Small hairpin RNA; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Invasion; Migration; Tumorigenic potential
Many studies have shown that high temperatures or heat waves were associated with mortality and morbidity. However, few studies have examined whether temperature changes between neighboring days have any significant impact on human health.
A distributed lag non-linear model was employed to investigate the effect of temperature changes on mortality in summer during 2006–2010 in two subtropical Chinese cities. The temperature change was defined as the difference of the current day’s and the previous day’s mean temperature.
We found non-linear effects of temperature changes between neighboring days in summer on mortality in both cities. Temperature increase was associated with increased mortality from non-accidental diseases and cardiovascular diseases, while temperature decrease had a protective effect on non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality in both cities. Significant association between temperature changes and respiratory mortality was only found in Guangzhou.
This study suggests that temperature changes between neighboring days might be an alternative temperature indicator for studying temperature-mortality relationship.
Natalizumab inhibits the influx of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via blockade of alpha-4 subunit of very late activation antigen (VLA)-4. The association of natalizumab therapy with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) suggests a disturbance of CNS immune surveillance in a small percentage of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients exposed to the medication. Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play an important role in modulating the evolution of different phases of this lymphocyte mediated disease, and we investigated the effects of natalizumab on the NK cell phenotype and infiltration in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Our data show that both resting (from naïve mice) and activated (from EAE mice) NK cells express high levels of VLA-4, and anti-VLA-4 antibody treatment significantly decreases NK cells frequency in the CNS of EAE mice. Moreover, we find that anti-VLA-4 possibly impairs NK cells migratory potential, since unblocked VLA-4 expression levels were downregulated on those NK cells that penetrate the CNS. These data suggest that treatment with antibody to VLA-4 may alter immune surveillance of the CNS by impacting NK cell functions and might contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of PML in some MS patients.
Natalizumab; VLA-4; Multiple Sclerosis; EAE; PML; Flow cytometry
To review the long-term outcomes of eyes with secondary pigmentary glaucoma associated with the implantation of foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in the ciliary sulcus.
The study retrospectively reviewed a series of cases who developed secondary pigmentary glaucoma after cataract operations. Data were collected from cases that were referred between 2002 and 2011.
Ten eyes of 10 patients who developed secondary pigmentary glaucoma after foldable IOLs implantation in the sulcus were included in this study.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was present in 2 eyes (20%) within the first 2 weeks following the initial cataract operation. The onset of glaucoma was delayed in the other 8 eyes (80%); the average onset time in these eyes was 21.9 ± 17.1 months after the initial cataract operation. Six eyes (60%) received surgical treatment because of large fluctuations and poor control of IOPs. Only 3 eyes (30%) achieved final visual acuities better than 20/40.
Secondary pigmentary glaucoma accompanying the implantation of a foldable IOL in the ciliary sulcus may present as acute IOP elevation during the early postoperative period or, more commonly, late onset of IOP elevation accompanied by advanced glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Despite treatment, the visual prognosis for these patients can be poor. Placing a foldable IOL in the ciliary sulcus could pose a threat to the vision of the patients and long-term follow-up of IOP in these patients is necessary.
Ciliary sulcus; Foldable intraocular lens; Pigmentary glaucoma
To determine the prevalence and distribution of human enteroviruses (HEVs) among healthy children in Shenzhen, China.
Clinical specimens were obtained from 320 healthy children under 5 years old in Shenzhen, China from 2010 to 2011. The specimens were evaluated using real-time PCR and cell cultures. The positive specimens were further tested using reverse transcription-seminested PCR (RT-snPCR). Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were based on the sequence determined.
Among the 320 samples, 34 were tested positive for HEVs (10.6%) and 22 different serotypes were identified using RT-snPCR. PV1 and PV2 were also detected. The predominant serotype observed was EV71 (17.6%), followed by CV-B4 (14.7%). HEV-B was detected most frequently, with an overall prevalence of 47.1%. HEV-A and HEV-C were found in 32.3% and 20.6% of the samples, respectively. No HEV-D was identified. Molecular phylogeny indicated that all EV71 strains were of C4 genotype.
Although a variety of HEVs was detected in healthy children, HEV-B was relatively more prevalent than other HEV species. Considering HEV-A is more prevalent than HEV-B among patients with hand-foot-mouth disease, additional long-term surveillance of HEV is warranted in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations.