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1.  Anesthetic experience using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cesarean section in the patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy: a case report 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(5):392-397.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy that is associated with significant mortality. It can cause a cardiac arrest during cesarean section even though the patient does not have any previous symptom and sign. The most important thing of anesthesia in this patient is an optimization of hemodynamic and respiratory status. We report the successful general anesthesia using of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cesarean section in a 34-year-old woman with fulminant peripartum cardiomyopathy.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.5.392
PMCID: PMC4041960  PMID: 24910733
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; General anesthesia; Peripartum cardiomyopathy
2.  Effect of behavioral intervention using smartphone application for preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6):508-518.
Background
Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used.
Methods
A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia was included in this randomized controlled trial. We randomized the patients into three groups, with using intravenous (IV) midazolam sedation (M group), with using smartphone application program (S group), and with using low dose IV midazolam plus smartphone application program (SM group). And the child anxiety was assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) at holding area, 5 min after intervention, entrance to operating room.
Results
In all three groups, mYPAS after intervention were lower than the preoperative holding area (M group 52.8 ± 11.8 vs 41.0 ± 7.0, S group 59.2 ± 17.6 vs 36.4 ± 7.3, SM group 58.3 ± 17.5 vs 26.0 ± 3.4). A comparison of mYPAS scores between each group showed that the S group reduced anxiety lower than M group (P < 0.01), and the SM group exhibited significantly lower anxiety than the two other groups (P < 0.01).
Conclusions
The preoperative preparation program using smartphone application is simple and customized by individual development that effective in the reduction of preoperative anxiety.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.508
PMCID: PMC3888843  PMID: 24427456
Anxiety; Child; Preoperative care
3.  Anesthetic management of a parturient for combined cesarean section and surgical removal of pituitary tumor -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(6):579-583.
A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of bitemporal hemianopsia at 23 weeks of gestation. A brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary tumor having suprasellar extension. At 30 weeks of gestation, she complained of rapidly deteriorating vision and bitemporal hemianopsia in both eyes and the ensuing radiological examination revealed increased tumor size, displaced tumor location and compressed optic chiasm. The cesarean section was performed at 31 weeks and 3 days of gestation and simultaneous surgical removal of pituitary tumor was carried out due to the risk of irreversible blindness. Anesthetic management for combined cesarean section and brain surgery can be more complex and challenging for anesthesiologists, and the aim was to achieve both the control of intracranial pressure and fetal well being at the same time. In this case, maternal outcome was somewhat improved after the procedure, and neonatal complications were not detected.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.6.579
PMCID: PMC3384800  PMID: 22778898
Cesarean section; Pituitary tumor; Pregnancy
4.  Anesthetic experience in patient for single lung transplantation with previous contralateral pneumonectomy -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(5):479-483.
A 48-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and a previous left pneumonectomy had surgery planned for single lung transplantation under general anesthesia. Due to progressive dyspnea and recurrent respiratory infection, she could not maintain her normal daily life without lung transplantation. The anesthetic management and surgical procedure was expected to be difficult because of the left mediastinal shift and an asymmetric thorax after the left pneumonectomy, but the single lung transplantation was successfully done under cardiopulmonary bypass.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.5.479
PMCID: PMC3366317  PMID: 22679547
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Lung transplantation; Pneumonectomy
5.  The effect of the humidifier on sore throat and cough after thyroidectomy 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(6):470-474.
Background
This study was performed to determine the effects of a humidifier with heated wire circuits on the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST) and cough after thyroidectomy.
Methods
A total of 61 patients scheduled for elective thyroid surgery under general anesthesia were included in this prospective study. We randomized the patients in to two groups, "without active warming and humidification" (Group C) and "using a heated humidifier" (Group H). The patients were interviewed to obtain the POST and cough scores at 1, 6, 24 and 48 hours after thyroidectomy.
Results
The incidence of POST was significantly lower in Group H compared to Group C at 6 hours (57% vs 84%, P = 0.041), 24 hours (37% vs 65%, P = 0.045), and 48 hours (10% vs 52%, P = 0.001). Also the incidence of cough was significantly lower in Group H at 6 hours (27% vs 71%, P = 0.001), 24 hours (13% vs 45%, P = 0.015), and 48 hours (7% vs 32%, P = 0.028). The severity of POST was significantly lower in Group H at all times. In addition, the severity of cough was lower in Group H at other times except at 1 hour.
Conclusions
This result suggests that an active humidification of inspired gases may have the appreciable effect on reducing the incidence and severity of sore throat and cough after thyroid surgery using the endotracheal tube.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.6.470
PMCID: PMC3249568  PMID: 22220223
Cough; Endotracheal intubation; Humidification; Sore throat; Thyroidectomy
6.  Epidural hematoma occurred by massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section after combined spinal epidural anesthesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(4):336-340.
We describe a case of acute lumbar epidural hematoma at the L2-3 level complicated by paraplegia, which occurred after coagulation disorder because of massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section. The preoperative coagulation laboratory finding was in normal range and so we tried combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Uterine atony occurred in the operation, and there was persistant bleeding during and after the operation. After the operation, she complained of paresthesia on her both legs and was diagnosed with epidural hematoma (EDH) by radiologic examination. Emergency laminectomy on lumbar spine was carried out for hematoma evacuation and decompression of the epidural space at once. In our experience, massive bleeding during surgery may potentially increase the risk of EDH postoperatively.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.4.336
PMCID: PMC3219782  PMID: 22110889
Blood coagulation disorder; Cesarean section; Epidural anesthesia; Epidural hematoma; Postpartum hemorrhage; Spinal anesthesia
7.  Maintenance of nitric oxide inhalation to a patient with hemoperitonium and acute respiratory distress syndrome during anesthesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;58(5):485-489.
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is occasionally used to treat hypoxemia for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, it is controversial whether or not to maintain inhalation of NO during general anesthesia because of complications, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) production, methemoglobinemia, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In this case, a 67-year-old male fell from a roof and was brought to an emergency care center. During management, he vomited gastric contents and aspirated. In spite of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation with high oxygen therapy, the hypoxia did not improve. NO inhalation with mechanical ventilation was performed to treat hypoxemia due to ARDS in the ICU. We maintained the NO inhalation during the surgery for a hemoperitonium. The surgery was completed without intra-operative hemodynamic instability or any complications.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.58.5.485
PMCID: PMC2881526  PMID: 20532059
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; General anesthesia; Nitric oxide
8.  Resveratrol Inhibits Nicotinic Stimulation-Evoked Catecholamine Release from the Adrenal Medulla 
Resveratrol has been known to possess various potent cardiovascular effects in animal, but there is little information on its functional effect on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the perfused model of the adrenal medulla. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of resveratrol on the CA secretion from the isolated perfused model of the normotensive rat adrenal gland, and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Resveratrol (10~100µM) during perfusion into an adrenal vein for 90 min inhibited the CA secretory responses evoked by ACh (5.32 mM), high K+ (a direct membrane-depolarizer, 56 mM), DMPP (a selective neuronal nicotinic Nn receptor agonist, 100µM) and McN-A-343 (a selective muscarinic M1 receptor agonist, 100µM) in both a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Also, in the presence of resveratrol (30µM), the secretory responses of CA evoked by veratridine 8644 (an activator of voltage-dependent Na+ channels, 100µM), Bay-K-8644 (a L-type dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel activator, 10µM), and cyclopiazonic acid (a cytoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, 10µM) were significantly reduced. In the simultaneous presence of resveratrol (30µM) and L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase, 30µM), the CA secretory evoked by ACh, high K+ , DMPP, McN-A-343, Bay-K-8644 and cyclopiazonic acid were recovered to a considerable extent of the corresponding control secretion compared with the inhibitory effect of resveratrol alone. Interestingly, the amount of nitric oxide (NO) released from the adrenal medulla was greatly increased in comparison to its basal release. Taken together, these experimental results demonstrate that resveratrol can inhibit the CA secretory responses evoked by stimulation of cholinergic nicotinic receptors, as well as by direct membrane-depolarization in the isolated perfused model of the rat adrenal gland. It seems that this inhibitory effect of resveratrol is exerted by inhibiting an influx of both ions through Na+ and Ca2+ channels into the adrenomedullary cells as well as by blocking the release of Ca2+ from the cytoplasmic calcium store, which are mediated at least partly by the increased NO production due to the activation of NO synthase.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2008.12.4.155
PMCID: PMC2788630  PMID: 19967050
Resveratrol; Catecholamine secretion; Adrenal medulla; Cholinergic receptors; Nitric oxide

Results 1-8 (8)