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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1)
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Wolters, M (2)
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Year of Publication
Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia
Koehorst-van Putten, H. J. J.
Pereira-Bertram, I. J.
de Vetten, N.
Raemakers, C. J. J. M.
Visser, R. G. F.
The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is difficult (allodiploid, vegetatively propagated, outbreeding species) it is an ideal crop for improvement through genetic modification. We here report on the results of production and field testing of genetically modified low-amylose transformants of commercial cassava variety Adira4 in Indonesia. Twenty four transformants were produced and selected in the Netherlands based on phenotypic and molecular analyses. Nodal cuttings of these plants were sent to Indonesia where they were grown under biosafety conditions. After two screenhouse tests 15 transformants remained for a field trial. The tuberous root yield of 10 transformants was not significantly different from the control. Starch from transformants in which amylose was very low or absent showed all physical and rheological properties as expected from amylose-free cassava starch. The improved functionality of the starch was shown for an adipate acetate starch which was made into a tomato sauce. This is the first account of a field trial with transgenic cassava which shows that by using genetic modification it is possible to obtain low-amylose cassava plants with commercial potential with good root yield and starch quality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11248-011-9507-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Agrobacterium transformation; Cassava; Field trial; Low-amylose starch; RNAi granule-bound starch synthase construct
ramR Mutations in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae with Reduced Susceptibility to Tigecycline▿
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Five Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (MIC, 2 μg/ml) were analyzed. A gene homologous to ramR of Salmonella enterica was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequencing of ramR in the nonsusceptible Klebsiella strains revealed deletions, insertions, and point mutations. Transformation of mutants with wild-type ramR genes, but not with mutant ramR genes, restored susceptibility to tigecycline and repressed overexpression of ramA and acrB. Thus, this study reveals a molecular mechanism for tigecycline resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Sentinel node procedure in Ib cervical cancer: a preliminary series
British Journal of Cancer
The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection using a gamma probe in patients with Figo IB cervical cancer. Between January 1999 and September 2000, 14 patients with cervical cancer, planned for radical hysterectomy were eligible for the study. The day before radical hysterectomy we injected technetium99m-labelled nanocolloid in each quadrant of the cervix. Dynamic and static images were recorded using a gamma camera. SLNs were identified intraoperatively using a handheld gamma-detection probe. After resection of SLNs a standard radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection was performed. Patients and tumour characteristics were compared with sentinel node detection and with final histopathological and immunohistochemical results. Scintigraphy showed focal uptake in 13 of the 14 patients. Intraoperatively we detected 26 sentinel nodes by gamma probe. In 8 of 13 patients, one or more sentinel nodes were identified unilaterally, in 5 women bilaterally. Histologically positive SLNs were found in only 1 patient. We did not find any false-negative SLN in our series. In conclusion identification of sentinel nodes in cervical cancer is feasible with preoperatively administered technetium99m-labelled nanocolloid. A larger series will be required to establish sentinel node detection in cervical cancer for further therapy concepts and planning. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com
sentinel lymph node; cervical cancer; lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping
Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease
van der Linden, C.
Van den Abbeele, D.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
OBJECTIVES—Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation. METHODS—Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample. RESULTS—Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS—Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.
Construction of a 42 base pair double stranded DNA microcircle.
Nucleic Acids Research
A procedure for the construction of double stranded DNA microcircles is described that overcomes the natural limits of established circularization procedures. Starting with two synthetic oligonucleotides which are able to form dumbbell shaped structures, two subsequent ligation reactions yield a microcircle of double stranded DNA of 42 base pairs. This is by far the smallest circle of double stranded DNA yet described. These microcircles can be constructed in quantities required for high resolution structural analyses such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy.
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