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1.  Decreased mortality of weaned pigs with Streptococcus suis with the use of in-water potassium penicillin G 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2011;52(3):272-276.
This study evaluated the efficacy of potassium penicillin G in drinking water of weaned pigs to reduce mortality and spread of infection caused by Streptococcus suis. A total of 896 18-day-old weaned pigs were randomly assigned to either treatment with potassium penicillin G in-water (Treated), or no treatment (Control). The outcomes analyzed were total mortality, mortality due to S. suis, and overall counts of S. suis colonies. The risk of mortality due to S. suis and total mortality were significantly increased in the Control group compared with Treated pigs (P < 0.05). Bacterial culture of posterior pharyngeal swabs indicated that Control pigs were significantly more likely to have ≥ 1000 colonies of S. suis per plate than were Treated pigs (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that potassium penicillin G administered in drinking water is effective in reducing mortality associated with S. suis infection and reducing tonsillar carriage of S. suis.
PMCID: PMC3039896  PMID: 21629419
2.  Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in different swine populations in 3 provinces in Canada 
Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an important enteric disease in swine throughout the world. Information regarding the distribution of this pathogen in Canadian swine herds would be beneficial for the creation of control protocols. Pigs from Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were tested by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to L. intracellularis. Pig seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion of pigs positive from total pigs tested in the targeted population. Seroprevalence (± standard error [sχ̄]) in market hogs in Ontario from farrow-finish (FF) farms and finishing (FIN) farms were significantly different at 77% (sχ̄ = 7%) and 29% (sχ̄ = 15%), respectively. Seroprevalence for sows and gilts in FF and farrowing and nursery (FAR + NUR) farms in Ontario were 90% (sχ̄ = 3%) and 93% (sχ̄ = 6%), respectively. Seroprevalence in breeding females in Quebec from FF and FAR farms was 82% (sχ̄ = 5%) and 87% (sχ̄ = 3%), respectively. Seroprevalence (57%, sχ̄ = 8%) in finishing pigs in Alberta from FF farms was significantly different from that of multisite (MS) farms and FIN farms, 6% (sχ̄ = 6%) and 9% (sχ̄ = 5%), respectively. Lawsonia intracellularis appears to be widespread in Canada and the seroprevalence on FF farms is higher than that on FIN and MS farms, possibly due to the presence of breeding females or management differences.
PMCID: PMC1716739  PMID: 17310623
3.  Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Canadian infants and children younger than five years of age: Recommendations and expected benefits 
Introduction
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection may result in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), such as bacteremia, meningitis and bacteremic pneumonia, or in non-IPD, such as pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media. In June 2001, a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (Prevnar, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Canada) was approved for use in children in Canada. The objective of the present paper is to review S pneumoniae-induced disease incidence and vaccine recommendations in Canadian infants and children younger than five years of age. Particular attention is given to the expected benefits of vaccination in Canada based on postmarketing data and economic modelling.
Methods
Searches were performed on PubMed and Web of Science databases and specific Canadian journals using the key words 'pneumococc*', 'vaccine', 'conjugate', 'infant' and 'Canadian'.
Results and Discussion
PCV7 appears to be safe and effective against IPD and non-IPD in children younger than five years of age and, more importantly, in children younger than two years of age (who are at highest risk for IPD). An examination of postmarketing data showed a reduction in incidence of pneumococcal disease in age groups that were vaccinated and in older age groups, indicating the likelihood of herd protection. Concurrently, there was a reduction in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant isolates.
Conclusions
The results from the present review suggest that PCV7 is currently benefiting Canadian children and society by lowering S pneumoniae-associated disease. Additional gains from herd protection and further reductions in antimicrobial resistance will be achieved as more Canadian children younger than five years of age are routinely vaccinated with PCV7.
PMCID: PMC2095050  PMID: 18418479
Conjugate; Economic; Infant; Pneumococcus; Post-marketing; Prevnar; Streptococcus pneumoniae
4.  Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin 
Abstract
Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 μg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Lactating cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 μg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Results of this study confirm that food products derived from lactating dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.
PMCID: PMC1176296  PMID: 16187547
5.  A descriptive study of human Salmonella serotype typhimurium infections reported in Ontario from 1990 to 1998 
BACKGROUND:
Salmonella infections cause gastrointestinal and systemic diseases worldwide and are the leading causes of food-borne illnesses in North America (1-4). Salmonella serotype typhimurium (ST), in particular, is increasingly becoming a major public health concern because of its ability to acquire multiple resistant genes (5,6).
OBJECTIVE:
To describe demographic, temporal and geographical distributions, and reported risk factors of nonoutbreak cases of ST reported to a surveillance system in Ontario.
METHODOLOGY:
Descriptive analyses were performed on data on salmonellosis cases reported in Ontario between 1990 and 1998. Direct age- and sex-standardized rates were computed, and temporal trend analyses were performed using simple linear regression and a general additive model with a locally weighted regression (LOESS) smoother.
RESULTS:
The mean annual rates of infections with all Salmonella serotypes and with ST were 27 cases per 100,000 persons and 3.7 cases per 100,000 persons, respectively. Males and children under five years of age had significantly higher rates of both ST and ST definitive type 104 (DT104) infections. There was also evidence of temporal clustering of all strains of Salmonella, with significantly more cases being reported during the summer. Significantly higher rates of ST DT104 were observed in urban areas compared with rural areas, suggesting potential differences in the geographical distribution of risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS:
Information on demographic, temporal and geographical distributions, and risk factors is critical in planning disease control strategies. Further prospective analytical observation studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of ST and ST DT104 in Ontario, which will better guide disease control decisions.
PMCID: PMC2094948  PMID: 18159468
Ontario; Spatial distribution; Surveillance; Salmonella typhimurium; Salmonella typhimurium DT104; Salmonella serotype typhimurium
6.  Surveillance for porcine proliferative enteropathy in Alberta by using routine diagnostic laboratory data 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2002;43(8):604-606.
Data from the Food Safety Division, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development were analyzed to determine the frequency of diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) relative to the diagnosis of other porcine enteric infections between 1993 and 1997. Next to colibacillosis, PPE was the most commonly diagnosed enteric disease among those reported.
PMCID: PMC339393  PMID: 12170835

Results 1-6 (6)