While asthma has emerged as a major contributor to disease and disability in American children, the burden of this disease is unevenly distributed within the population. This paper provides a brief overview of social status variables that predict variation in asthma risks and social exposures such as stress and violence that are emerging as important risk factors. However, the central focus of the paper is on the distal social variables that have given rise to unhealthy residential environments in which the risk factors for asthma and other diseases are clustered. Effective initiatives for the prevention and treatment of childhood asthma need to address these non-medical determinants of the prevalence of asthma.
childhood asthma prevalence; low-income population; poverty; race; risk factors
This paper provides an overview of the contribution of sociologists to the study of racial and ethnic inequalities in health in the U.S. It argues that sociologists have made four principal contributions. First, they have challenged and problematized the biological understanding of race. Second, they have emphasized the primacy of social structure and context as determinants of racial differences in disease. Third, they have contributed to our understanding of the multiple ways in which racism affects health. Finally, sociologists have enhanced our understanding of the ways in which migration history and status can affect health. Sociological insights on racial disparities in health have important implications for the development of effective approaches to improve health and reduce health inequities.
Carriers of blue cone monochromacy have fewer cone photoreceptors than normal. Here we examine how this disruption at the level of the retina affects visual function and cortical organization in these individuals. Visual resolution and contrast sensitivity was measured at the preferred retinal locus of fixation and visual resolution was tested at two eccentric locations (2.5° and 8°) with spectacle correction only. Adaptive optics corrected resolution acuity and cone spacing were simultaneously measured at several locations within the central fovea with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Fixation stability was assessed by extracting eye motion data from AOSLO videos. Retinotopic mapping using fMRI was carried out to estimate the area of early cortical regions, including that of the foveal confluence. Without adaptive optics correction, BCM carriers appeared to have normal visual function, with normal contrast sensitivity and visual resolution, but with AO-correction, visual resolution was significantly worse than normal. This resolution deficit is not explained by cone loss alone and is suggestive of an associated loss of retinal ganglion cells. However, despite evidence suggesting a reduction in the number of retinal ganglion cells, retinotopic mapping showed no reduction in the cortical area of the foveal confluence. These results suggest that ganglion cell density may not govern the foveal overrepresentation in the cortex. We propose that it is not the number of afferents, but rather the content of the information relayed to the cortex from the retina across the visual field that governs cortical magnification, as under normal viewing conditions this information is similar in both BCM carriers and normal controls.
This study compared the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Chicago, Illinois and Detroit, Michigan to that of the general United States population (aged ≥ 25 years) for the period 2001–2003. We examined whether and how much 1) urban populations have less favorable hypertension-related outcomes and 2) the rates of racial/ethnic minorities lag behind those of Whites in order to determine if the national data understate the magnitude of hypertension-related outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities in two large cities in the Midwestern region of the United States and perhaps others.
Unstandardized and standardized hypertension-related outcome rates were estimated.
The hypertension-related outcomes among Chicago and Detroit residents lag behind the United States by 8%–14% and 10%–18% points, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights the complexity of the racial/ethnic differences in hypertension-related outcomes, where within each population, Blacks were more likely to have hypertension and to be aware of their hypertension status than Whites, and no less likely to be treated. Conversely, Hispanics were less likely to have hypertension and also less likely to be aware of their status when they do have hypertension when compared to Whites.
At a time when efficacious treatment for hypertension has been available for more than 50 years, continued racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension is among public health’s greatest challenges. To achieve the proposed national hypertension-related goals, future policies must consider the social context of hypertension within central cities of urban areas. (Ethn Dis. 2012;22:391–397)
Hypertension; Minority Health; Population; Urban Health
This study uses two national probability samples of adults, the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) to systematically assess how the levels of perceived racial and non-racial discrimination and their effects on self-esteem and mastery in the U.S. compares to those in South Africa. Levels of perceived racial discrimination are higher in the U.S. than South Africa. In the U.S. both African Americans and Caribbean blacks have comparable or higher levels of self-esteem and mastery than whites. In contrast, South African Whites have higher levels of both self-esteem and mastery than blacks, Coloureds and Indians. Perceived discrimination, especially chronic everyday discrimination, is inversely related to self-esteem and mastery in both societies. In South Africa, stress and socioeconomic status (SES) but not discrimination are important determinants of racial differences in self-esteem and mastery. Our main findings indicate that in two racialized societies, perceived discrimination acts independent of demographic factors, other stressors, social desirability, racial identity and SES to negatively affect psychological functioning.
Deprotonation of 2-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3-oxazole (1) readily provides a useful C-5 carbanion which is reactive with a variety of electrophiles. Aldehydes and ketones are useful substrates, and the formation of 5-iodo- and 5-tri-n-butylstannyl oxazoles affords access to cross-coupling reactions. Subsequent nucleophilic displacement of the 2-phenylsulfonyl group provides a general route for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3-oxazoles.
The preparation of (Z)-1-fluoro-2-bromostyrenes provides a general route for the formation of (Z)-1-fluorostilbene derivatives as configurationally stable spacial linkers for the design of conformationally restricted peptidomimetics. Palladium-catalyzed aryl Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions have been surveyed to proceed with complete retention of fluoroalkene geometry, and permit the direct incorporation of a variety of aryl and heteroaromatic substituents.
We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness.
Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators.
Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups.
The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity.
religion and mental health; race; ethnicity
The photoreceptor/RPE complex must maintain a delicate balance between maximizing the absorption of photons for vision and retinal image quality while simultaneously minimizing the risk of photodamage when exposed to bright light. We review the recent discovery of two new effects of light exposure on the photoreceptor/RPE complex in the context of current thinking about the causes of retinal phototoxicity. These effects are autofluorescence photobleaching in which exposure to bright light reduces lipofuscin autofluorescence and, at higher light levels, RPE disruption in which the pattern of autofluorescence is permanently altered following light exposure. Both effects occur following exposure to visible light at irradiances that were previously thought to be safe. Photopigment, retinoids involved in the visual cycle, and bisretinoids in lipofuscin have been implicated as possible photosensitizers for photochemical damage. The mechanism of RPE disruption may follow either of these paths. On the other hand, autofluorescence photobleaching is likely an indicator of photooxidation of lipofuscin. The permanent changes inherent in RPE disruption might require modification of the light safety standards. AF photobleaching recovers after several hours although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet clear. Understanding the mechanisms of phototoxicity is all the more important given the potential for increased susceptibility in the presence of ocular diseases that affect either the visual cycle and/or lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, knowledge of photochemical mechanisms can improve our understanding of some disease processes that may be influenced by light exposure, such as some forms of Leber’s congenital amaurosis, and aid in the development of new therapies. Such treatment prior to intentional light exposures, as in ophthalmic examinations or surgeries, could provide an effective preventative strategy.
Phototoxicity; Photochemical; Retina; Retinal pigment epithelium; Autofluorescence; Visual cycle; Lipofuscin; Bisretinoids
To understand molecular mechanisms underlying photobleaching of the RPE fluorophores responsible for fundus autofluorescence.
ARPE-19 cells were allowed to accumulate the bisretinoid, A2E, and were irradiated at 430 nm. For some experiments, the cells were pretreated with vitamin E or sulforaphane and N-acetylcysteine; samples included A2E-free cells. The cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and ultra–performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. A2E free cells were also irradiated and analyzed. Cell death was quantified by double labeling with a membrane impermeable dye and 4′,6′-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).
A2E that had accumulated in ARPE-19 cells exhibited irradiation-associated autofluorescence bleaching despite the absence of appreciable cell death. Chromatographic analysis with absorbance, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry detection revealed that irradiation of A2E was associated with A2E photoisomerization, photooxidation, and photodegradation. Pretreatment with vitamin E favored fluorescence recovery; this finding was consistent with a process involving photooxidation. A2E that was not cell-associated underwent irradiation-induced bleaching, but fluorescence recovery was not observed.
Using cell-associated A2E as a model of RPE bisretinoid behavior, photobleaching and autofluorescence recovery was observed; these changes were similar to RPE autofluorescence reduction in vivo. The potential for autofluorescence recovery is dependent on light dose and antioxidant status. Fluorescence bleaching of bisretinoid involves photooxidative and photodegradative processes.
Fundus autofluorescence bleaching involves bisretinoid photooxidation and photodegradation, the extent of which is dependent on light dose.
To characterize the phenotype and investigate the associations of intraretinal crystalline deposits in a large cohort of Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel)
Patients with and without retinal crystals from the Macular Telangiectasia Project, an international multi-centre prospective study of Type 2 MacTel.
Grading of stereoscopic 30° colour fundus (CF), confocal blue light reflectance (CBR), red-free (RF) and infrared (IR) images was performed according to the MacTel Natural History Study protocol and staged using the classification system devised by Gass & Blodi. SD-OCT and adaptive optics imaging were used for a finer analysis of the phenotype. Associations between crystals and other characteristics of the disease as well as potential risk factors were investigated.
Main outcome measures
Presence of crystals, fundus signs of MacTel, clinical characteristics, presence of potential risk factors of MacTel.
Out of 443 probands enrolled in the MacTel study, 203 (46%) had crystalline deposits present; 60% of the cases were bilateral at baseline. Eyes with crystals had a mean letter score of 70.7 (SD=15.9) while those without crystals had a mean of 66.5 letters (SD=15.5, p<0.001). Crystals were present at all stages of the disease and showed high reflectivity within a wide wavelength range. They were located at the anterior surface of the nerve fibre layer, arranged along the nerve fibres, within an annular area centred on the fovea. Significant associations of crystalline deposits were found with a loss of retinal transparency, MPOD loss, fluorescein leakage, retinal thickness and a break in the IS/OS junction line. Associations with environmental risk factors were not found.
Intraretinal crystals are a frequent phenomenon associated with type 2 MacTel, they may appear at all stages and may aid in the early diagnosis of the disease. Their morphology further implicates Müller cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. Insight into their physical and chemical properties may provide clues to the metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Despite lower rates of mortality and some forms of morbidity, Latinos report worse self-rated health (SRH) than Whites. These inconsistencies have raised questions about the validity of SRH for cross-ethnic comparisons and its use as a measure of health disparities. We examine whether the translation of this measure into Spanish helps explain these patterns.
We analyzed levels of SRH under different language conditions using cross-sectional data from the 2002 Chicago Community Adult Health Study and the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Being interviewed in Spanish was associated with significantly higher odds of rating one’s health as fair/poor in both data sets, and adjusting for language of interview substantially reduced the SRH gap between whites and Latinos. Spanish-language interviewees were also more likely to rate their health as “fair” (“regular” in Spanish) than any other response category, after adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, health conditions, and other factors. The association between being interviewed in Spanish and reporting “fair”/“regular” health was strongest when contrasted against response categories representing better health (good, very good, and excellent).
The findings support the hypothesis that the translation of the English word “fair” to “regular” induces Spanish-speaking respondents to report worse levels of health than they otherwise would in English. We recommend caution in interpreting this widely used instrument—especially when making racial/ethnic comparisons—and propose experimental research using different translations of this measure to arrive at one that better equates its meaning in Spanish and English.
The development of measures of self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is an active area of research, but few measures have been validated across multiple racial/ethnic and language groups. Our goal is to develop and evaluate a discrimination measure that is appropriate for use in surveys of racially and ethnically diverse populations.
To develop our measure, we employ a mixed-methods approach for survey research, drawing from both qualitative and quantitative traditions, including literature review, cognitive testing, psychometric analyses, behavior coding as well as two rounds of field testing using a split-sample design. We tested our new measure using two different approaches to elicit self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.
Our new measure captures four dimensions of racial/ethnic discrimination: 1) frequency of encounters with discrimination across several domains (e.g., medical care, school, work, street and other public places); 2) timing of exposure (e.g., recent, lifetime); 3) appraisal of discrimination as stressful; and 4) responses to discrimination.
Because of the growing interest in measurement of racial/ethnic discrimination in health surveys, we think this report on the methods informing the development and testing of the discrimination module that will be used on the California Health Interview Survey would be useful to other researchers. The application of mixed methods to rigorously test the validity and reliability of our instrument proves to be a good roadmap for measuring racial/ethnic discrimination in multicultural and multilingual populations.
Cross-Cultural Comparison; Discrimination; Survey Methods
Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program.
Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA (n = 7, 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg) or a placebo (PL, n = 9, 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg) group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat) and body composition. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were also measured in the vastus lateralis of the subject’s dominant leg.
Subjects ingesting PA demonstrated a 12.7% increase in squat strength and a 2.6% increase in LBM, while subjects consuming PL showed a 9.3% improvement in squat strength and a 0.1% change in LBM. Although parametric analysis was unable to demonstrate significant differences, magnitude based inferences indicated that the Δ change in 1-RM squat showed a likely benefit from PA on increasing lower body strength and a very likely benefit for increasing lean body mass (LBM).
Results of this study suggest that a combination of a daily 750 mg PA ingestion, combined with a 4-day per week resistance training program for 8-weeks appears to have a likely benefit on strength improvement, and a very likely benefit on lean tissue accruement in young, resistance trained individuals.
Nutritional supplement; Muscle architecture; Ergogenic aid; Phospholipid; Resistance training
Progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson’s disease have characteristic clinical and neuropathologic profiles, but also share overlapping clinical features. This study aimed to analyze the gait of people with progressive supranuclear palsy (n=19) and compare it with people with Parkinson’s disease (n=20) and healthy older adults (n=20).
Gait was recorded at self-selected preferred, fast, very fast, slow and very slow speeds. Stride length was normalized to leg length. Linear regression analyses were carried out between cadence and stride length. Other gait variables were compared for each participant’s ‘walk’ which had stride length closest to 1.4.
All groups showed a strong linear relationship between stride length and cadence with no difference between groups (p>0.05). The intercept between cadence and stride length was lowest in the progressive supranuclear palsy group and highest for older adults (p<0.001). The progressive supranuclear palsy group had higher cadence than older adults (p>0.05), and greater step width and greater double support phase compared with the other two groups (p<0.05).
The temporal-spatial gait characteristics of progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson’s disease are largely similar, with similar disruption to scaling of stride length. The additional findings of increased step width and double support percentage suggest increased severity of gait abnormality compared to Parkinson’s disease, despite similar disease duration. The findings are consistent with the clinical features of greater instability and more rapid disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy compared to Parkinson’s disease and implicates the early pathological involvement of brain regions involved in gait control.
Progressive supranuclear palsy; Parkinson’s disease; Gait; Older people
This paper provides an overview of racial variations in health and shows that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across racial groups are a major contributor to racial disparities in health. However, race reflects multiple dimensions of social inequality and individual and household indicators of SES capture relevant but limited aspects of this phenomenon. Research is needed that will comprehensively characterize the critical pathogenic features of social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the life course. Migration history and status are also important predictors of health and research is needed that will enhance understanding of the complex ways in which race, SES, and immigrant status combine to affect health. Fully capturing the role of race in health also requires rigorous examination of the conditions under which medical care and genetic factors can contribute to racial and SES differences in health. The paper identifies research priorities in all of these areas.
Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study sought to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, we examined data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis included (i) demographic factors; (ii) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders); and (iii) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence were high among both genders, women were significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence were similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men were more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women were more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration included exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators were more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators included low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence was witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims were low income and lack of closeness to a primary female caregiver, whereas additional risk factors for female victims were low educational attainment, childhood physical abuse, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence and intermittent explosive disorder. Intimate partner violence is a significant public health issue in South Africa, strongly linked to intergenerational cycling of violence and risk exposure across the life course. These findings indicate that gender differences in risk and common predictive factors, such as alcohol abuse and exposure to childhood violence, should inform the design of future violence-prevention programs and policies.
Gender; Intimate partner violence; South Africa
There is considerable scientific and policy interest in reducing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare and health status. Currently, much of the policy focus around reducing health disparities has been geared towards improving access, coverage, quality and the intensity of healthcare. However, health is more a function of lifestyles linked to living and working conditions than of healthcare. Accordingly, effective efforts to improve health and reduce gaps in health need to pay greater attention to addressing the social determinants of health within and outside of the healthcare system. This paper highlights research evidence documenting that tackling the social determinants of health can lead to reductions in health disparities. It focuses both on interventions within the healthcare system that address some of the social determinants of health, as well as, interventions in upstream factors such as housing, neighborhood conditions and increased socioeconomic status that can lead to improvements in health. The studies reviewed highlight the importance of systematic evaluation of social and economic policies that might have health consequences and the need for policy makers, healthcare providers, and leaders across multiple sectors of society to apply currently available knowledge to improve the underlying conditions that impact the health of populations.
racial disparities; socioeconomic disparities; interventions; healthcare
A quarter century ago, we were limited to a macroscopic view of the retina inside the living eye. Since then, new imaging technologies, including confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics fundus imaging, transformed the eye into a microscope in which individual cells can now be resolved noninvasively. These technologies have enabled a wide range of studies of the retina that were previously impossible.
retinal imaging; confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope; adaptive optics; optical coherence tomography; spatial resolution; ophthalmoscopy
The present investigation examines the prospective associations of religiousness/spirituality with depression and the extent to which various dimensions of forgiveness act as mediating mechanisms of these associations. Data are from a nationally representative sample of United States adults who were first interviewed in 1998 and reinterviewed six months later. Measures of religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness, and various sociodemographics were collected. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by trained interviewers. Results showed that religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness of oneself and others, and feeling forgiven by God were associated, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with depressive status. After controlling for initial depressive status, only forgiveness of oneself and others remained statistically significant predictors of depression. Path analyses revealed that religiousness/spirituality conveyed protective effects, prospectively, on depression by way of an indirect path through forgiveness of others but not forgiveness of oneself. Hence, forgiveness of others acts as a mechanism of the salutary effect of religiousness/spirituality, but forgiveness of oneself is an independent predictor. Conclusions regarding the continued development of this type of research and for the treatment of clients with depression are offered.
Studies of thermal IMDA cyclizations of (1E,7E)-1-nitro-deca-1,7,9-trienes and (1E,3Z,7E)-1-nitro-deca-1,3,7,9-tetraenes have been examined. Reactions of these nitroalkenes proceed via transition states featuring characteristics of asymmetric stretch asynchronicity and result in stereoselective formation of trans-fused decalin products. A substantial rate acceleration is observed for IMDA cyclizations exemplified by triene 14 due to steric repulsions of substituents in the tethering chain which promote facile stereocontrolled formation of trans-fused 26.
intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction; 1-nitro-deca-1,3,7,9-tetraenes; 1-nitro-deca-1,7,9-trienes; trans-decalins; asynchronous transition states
We examined mortality patterns across the lifespan of Native Hawaiians and compared mortality disparities across races.
We determined the age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates of Native Hawaiians from 1990 to 2000 by using national census and vital registration data.
Among Native Hawaiians aged younger than 1 year, expected deaths were 15% lower than for Blacks and 50% higher than for Whites. Among older adults, Native Hawaiians had higher rates of mortality compared with the general population, particularly in 1990 and 1995. Crude death rates for Native Hawaiians were similar to those for Blacks in 1990 and 1995 but were 20% lower than those for Blacks by 2000. Crude death rates for Native Hawaiians were 30% higher than for Whites in 1990 and 1995 and more than 40% higher than for Whites in 2000.
Compared with Whites, Native Hawaiians and Blacks face similar challenges regarding infant and early-life mortality and increasing risks of mortality in mid-life and early old age. Our analyses document a need for renewed efforts to identify the determinants of ill health and commitment to address them.
The reasons for racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence in the U.S are poorly understood.
Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we investigated whether individual and neighborhood-level chronic stressors contribute to these disparities in cross-sectional analyses. The sample consisted of 2679 MESA participants (45–84yrs) residing in Baltimore, New York, and North Carolina. Hypertension was defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥140 or 90mmHg, or taking anti-hypertensive medications. Individual-level chronic stress was measured by self-reported chronic burden and perceived major and everyday discrimination. A measure of neighborhood (census tract) chronic stressors (i.e. physical disorder, violence) was developed using data from a telephone survey conducted with other residents of MESA neighborhoods. Binomial regression was used to estimate associations between hypertension and race/ethnicity before and after adjustment for individual and neighborhood stressors.
The prevalence of hypertension was 59.5% in African Americans (AA), 43.9% in Hispanics, and 42.0% in whites. Age and sex adjusted relative prevalences of hypertension (compared to whites) were 1.30 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.22–1.38] for AA and 1.16 [95% CI: 1.04–1.31] for Hispanics. Adjustment for neighborhood stressors reduced these to 1.17 [95% CI: 1.11–1.22] and 1.09 [95% CI: 1.00–1.18] respectively. Additional adjustment for individual-level stressors, acculturation, income, education, and other neighborhood features only slightly reduced these associations.
Neighborhood chronic stressors may contribute to race/ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence in the U.S.
neighborhoods; race; ethnicity; chronic stress; discrimination
This article explores the potential benefits and defined risks associated with prophylactic surgical procedures for astronauts before extended-duration space flight. This includes, but is not limited to, appendectomy and cholecystesctomy. Furthermore, discussion of treatment during space flight, potential impact of an acute illness on a defined mission and the ethical issues surrounding this concept are debated in detail.
We analyze data from the South African Stress and Health Study, a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiologic survey of 4,351 adults conducted as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. All blacks (Africans, Coloreds, and Indians) initially report higher levels of non-specific distress and anger/hostility than whites. Access to socioeconomic resources helps explain differences in non-specific distress between Coloreds and whites and Indians and whites. However, only when social stressors are considered do we find few differences in psychological distress (i.e., non-specific distress and anger/hostility) between Africans and whites. In addition, self-esteem and mastery have independent effects on non-specific distress and anger/hostility, but differences between Coloreds and whites in feelings of anger/hostility are not completely explained by self-esteem and mastery. The findings contribute to the international body of work on social stress theory, challenge underlying assumptions of the minority status perspective, and raise a series of questions regarding mental health disparities among South Africans.
life events; psychological distress; race; South Africa; stress