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1.  Variable severity and Ia antigen expression in streptococcal-cell-wall-induced hepatic granulomas in rats. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(3):674-679.
We have previously reported that a single intraperitoneal injection of an aqueous suspension of group A streptococcal cell wall (SCW) fragments induces extensive hepatic granulomas in LEW/N female rats, but not in F344/N female rats. To further understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, we compared granuloma development and class II major histocompatibility complex antigen (Ia) expression in histocompatible LEW/N, F344/N, and CAR/N female rats in response to SCW fragments of four different average molecular sizes. In LEW/N female rats, the smallest fragments (less than 5 megadaltons) induced the most severe hepatic inflammatory disease, with development of widespread granulomas composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, and a peripheral rim of fibroblasts. The largest fragments (greater than 500 megadaltons) induced equivocal disease. Fragments of intermediate size induced granulomas of intermediate severity. The extent of granuloma development, the intensity of Ia antigen expression, and the amount of SCW antigen deposited in the liver qualitatively paralleled each other. In contrast, injection of the most granulomagenic SCW fragments into F344/N and CAR/N rats did not induce granulomas. Although these rat strains are histocompatible with the LEW/N (i.e., RTL.1) strain, hepatic Ia antigen expression in these strains was not increased significantly above basal levels. The amount of SCW antigen in the livers of the resistant rat strains appeared similar to the amount in the susceptible LEW/N strain. These data indicate that granuloma development is dependent on the size of the SCW fragment and host genetic background and that Ia expression directly parallels the severity of the hepatic disease. In addition, the data suggest that non-major histocompatibility complex genetic loci play a major role in regulating the development of the hepatic disease.
PMCID: PMC260392  PMID: 3546135
2.  Measurement of streptococcal cell wall in tissues of rats resistant or susceptible to cell wall-induced chronic erosive arthritis. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;49(3):836-837.
The quantity of streptococcal cell wall localized in the joints of rats of strains which are either susceptible (Sprague-Dawley, LEW/N, M520/N) or resistant (Buffalo, WKY/N, F344/N) to cell wall-induced chronic erosive arthritis was measured after intraperitoneal injection of group A streptococcal cell wall fragments. Susceptibility or resistance was not associated with a difference in the amount of cell wall localized in limbs or other tissues. It is concluded that although localization of cell wall in joint tissue is essential for development of arthritis, the relative resistance of certain rat strains reflects genetic regulation of inflammatory response rather than a quantitative difference in localization of cell wall in joints.
PMCID: PMC261291  PMID: 3897066
3.  Cutaneous inflammatory reactions to group A streptococcal cell wall fragments in Fisher and Lewis inbred rats. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;42(2):796-801.
Systemic administration of an aqueous suspension of group A streptococcal cell wall fragments induces severe, chronic erosive polyarthritis in LEW/N female rats, but rarely in F344/N female rats. In the present study, we attempted to exclude unresponsiveness to the cell walls as a mechanism for arthritis resistance in F344/N females. Cutaneous inflammatory reactions were assessed in both strains at various time points after direct injection of cell wall fragments of three different average molecular weights. Fragments of all sizes induced an acute inflammatory reaction, with infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a few mononuclear cells. Small fragments (approximately 5 megadaltons) induced a transient response which resolved by day 14. Large fragments (approximately 500 megadaltons) induced severe inflammation characterized by prominent mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, whereas the intermediate-sized fragments (approximately 50 megadaltons) induced inflammation of intermediate intensity and duration. The intensity and severity of the lesions paralleled the persistence of cell wall antigens at the site of deposition. F344/N female rats responded acutely to the cell walls, with an intensity equal to or greater than that of LEW/N female rats, but the lesions tended to resolve more rapidly. These findings indicate that severity and chronicity of streptococcal cell wall-induced inflammation are dependent on the size of the fragment and provide evidence that arthritis resistance in F344/N female rats does not result from a completely unresponsive state to the proinflammatory effects of the cell walls.
PMCID: PMC264500  PMID: 6358033
4.  Thymus-dependent and -independent regulation of Ia antigen expression in situ by cells in the synovium of rats with streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis. Differences in site and intensity of expression in euthymic, athymic, and cyclosporin A-treated LEW and F344 rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1987;79(4):1160-1171.
Euthymic LEW rats, when injected with streptococcal cell walls, exhibited rapid onset development of acute exudative arthritis coincident with enhanced synovial expression of Ia antigen. By 21 d after injection, the expression of Ia was markedly increased compared with basal conditions and paralleled the severity of the later developing proliferative and erosive disease. Immunodeficient athymic and cyclosporin A-treated LEW rats developed only the early phase arthritis, which was again paralleled by synovial Ia expression. Chronic expression of high levels of Ia antigen was not observed. Histocompatible F344 rats, both athymic and euthymic, developed minimal, if any, clinically significant arthritis and did not exhibit the enhanced Ia expression demonstrated in the LEW rats. Our results indicate that enhanced synovial Ia expression parallels clinical disease severity and varies by rat strain, and that the rapid onset enhanced synovial Ia expression is thymus independent, whereas the markedly enhanced chronic phase Ia expression is thymus dependent.
PMCID: PMC424298  PMID: 3494045
5.  L-tryptophan implicated in human eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome causes fasciitis and perimyositis in the Lewis rat. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1990;86(5):1757-1763.
Tryptophan-associated eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (L-TRP-EMS) is a newly described syndrome which occurred in epidemic fashion in the United States in the summer and fall of 1989. Epidemiologic data has linked the syndrome to intake of L-tryptophan (L-TRP) from one specific manufacturer, but the precise etiologic compound(s) must be established by replication of the syndrome in an appropriate animal model. In this study, implicated L-TRP, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade L-TRP, or vehicle was administered by gavage in a blinded fashion for 38 d to female Lewis rats at doses comparable with those ingested by patients who developed the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Animals receiving implicated L-TRP, but not those receiving USP grade L-TRP or vehicle, developed histologic signs consistent with fasciitis and perimyositis, specific pathologic features of human L-TRP-EMS. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was not observed. Hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA levels were lower and plasma corticosterone levels tended to be lower in the animals that received implicated L-TRP. Plasma L-kynurenine was higher in both L-TRP-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated animals. The female Lewis rat is known to be susceptible to a wide variety of inflammatory diseases. Identification of specific inflammatory changes in this rat following exposure to implicated L-TRP indicates that this animal model will be important in subsequent investigations into the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of human L-TRP-EMS.
PMCID: PMC296930  PMID: 2243145
6.  Corticotropin releasing hormone in colonic mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. 
Gut  1995;37(4):544-551.
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a key hormone in integrated response to stress, acting as the major regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recently, local production of CRH has been detected in normal human colonic enterochromaffin cells. CRH is locally secreted in granulomatous and arthritic tissues in rats and humans, where it seems to act as a local proinflammatory agent. To find out if CRH is present in colonic tissues of patients with ulcerative colitis, this study examined the expression of this peptide in the large bowel of patients with ulcerative colitis. Colonic tissues of patients with ulcerative colitis obtained by endoscopic biopsy were immunostained with anti-CRH antibody. CRH messenger (m) RNA was also examined in biopsy specimens of ulcerative colitis by the reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction method and by in situ hybridisation. Considerably enhanced expression of immunoreactive CRH was found in mucosal inflammatory cells. Intense staining with anti-CRH antibody was also shown in mucosal macrophages. CRH mRNA was expressed in mucosal epithelial cells. The expression of immunoreactive CRH in colonic mucosal epithelial cells of ulcerative colitis slightly increased, but not significantly, compared with normal colonic mucosal epithelial cells. These results suggest that CRH may play a part in the modulation of intestinal immune and inflammatory system, and as a modulator in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
PMCID: PMC1382908  PMID: 7489943
7.  Transin/stromelysin expression in the synovium of rats with experimental erosive arthritis. In situ localization and kinetics of expression of the transformation-associated metalloproteinase in euthymic and athymic Lewis rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1989;84(6):1731-1740.
Transin is a neutral metalloproteinase initially isolated from malignantly transformed rat fibroblasts and subsequently shown to be homologous to human stromelysin. We performed Northern blot analysis on synovial tissue specimens from Lewis rats with proliferative and invasive streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis. Transin mRNA was present in abundance, as was the mRNA of the c-myc oncogene, which is associated with cellular proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of synovia from rats with chronic SCW arthritis showed high-level transin expression in the cells of the lining layer and underlying stroma, as well as in chondrocytes and osteoclasts in subchondral bone. Intense nuclear staining for the Myc oncoprotein was also detected with a cross-reactive antibody to v-Myc. Transin stained similarly in the early, rapid-onset, thymus-independent, acute phase of SCW arthritis. In the T cell-dependent adjuvant arthritis, transin expression was noted by day 4, 6 d before the influx of mononuclear cells and the onset of clinical disease. Athymic rats did not express transin. We concluded that transin is a marker of proliferative, invasive arthritis in rats and appears early in the course of disease development, but requires a competent immune system to sustain its expression in these model arthropathies.
PMCID: PMC304049  PMID: 2687329
8.  Inferior petrosal sinus sampling in healthy subjects reveals a unilateral corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced arginine vasopressin release associated with ipsilateral adrenocorticotropin secretion. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(9):2045-2050.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) acts synergistically with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) to stimulate ACTH release from the anterior pituitary. In a previous study of bilateral simultaneous inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling in healthy human subjects, we observed lateralized ACTH secretion, suggesting lateralized secretion of an ACTH-regulating hypothalamic factor. To investigate this possibility, we measured ACTH, CRH, AVP, and oxytocin (OT) levels in the IPS and the peripheral circulation in nine normal volunteers, before and after 1 microgram/kg i.v. bolus ovine CRH (oCRH). At baseline, ACTH, AVP, and OT exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) two to threefold intersinus gradient (ISG), indicating the existence of a dominant petrosal sinus. Endogenous CRH was undetectable in all samples. Despite similar exogenous oCRH levels in both petrosal sinuses, oCRH caused a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the ACTH ISG (15.8 +/- 5.6, mean +/- SEM), suggesting increased responsiveness of one dominant side of the anterior pituitary. This was associated with an ipsilateral CRH-induced AVP release and a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the AVP ISG (8.6 +/- 2.3), suggesting lateralized AVP secretion by the hypothalamus. Furthermore, the increased AVP ISG after oCRH correlated strongly with the ACTH ISG (r = 0.92, P < 0.01). oCRH administration did not affect OT. These findings suggest that there is a dominant petrosal sinus in healthy volunteers that appears to reflect a dominant side of the adenohypophysis, characterized by increased functional activity and/or responsiveness of the pituitary corticotrophs. This may reflect lateralized hypothalamic and/or suprahypothalamic function resulting in CRH-responsive lateralized secretion of AVP from parvocellular and/or magnocellular axons in the median eminence and the posterior pituitary. Although the functional and teleologic significance of these findings remains to be investigated, our data suggest a novel mechanism for CRH-mediated ACTH release, namely CRH-induced release of AVP which then enhances CRH action on the corticotrophs. Furthermore, our data represent the first direct evidence for the concept of brain lateralization with respect to neuroendocrine secretion.
PMCID: PMC507278  PMID: 8621793
9.  In vivo cyclooxygenase expression in synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and rats with adjuvant and streptococcal cell wall arthritis. 
Cyclooxygenase (COX), or prostaglandin (PG) H synthase, plays a role in inflammatory diseases, but very limited data exist on the regulation of COX in vivo. We, therefore, studied the in vivo expression of COX in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), as well as joints of rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW) and adjuvant arthritis. Extensive and intense intracellular COX immunostaining, which correlated with the extent and intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration, was observed in cells throughout RA synovia. Significantly less or equivocal staining was noted in OA and normal human synovia. Similarly, COX immunostaining was equivocal in the joints of normal and arthritis-resistant F344/N rats. In contrast, high level expression developed rapidly in euthymic female Lewis (LEW/N) rats throughout the hindlimb joints and overlying tissues including skin, preceding or paralleling clinically apparent experimental arthritis. COX was expressed in the joints of athymic LEW.rnu/rnu rats 2-4 d after injection of SCW or adjuvant but was not sustained. Physiological doses of antiinflammatory glucocorticoids, but not progesterone, suppressed both arthritis and COX expression in LEW/N rats. These observations suggest that, in vivo, (a) COX expression is upregulated in inflammatory joint diseases, (b) the level of expression is genetically controlled and is a biochemical correlate of disease severity, (c) sustained high level up-regulation is T cell dependent, and (d) expression is down-regulated by antiinflammatory glucocorticoids.
PMCID: PMC442824  PMID: 1729286
10.  Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 expression in rheumatoid synovial tissues. Effects of interleukin-1 beta, phorbol ester, and corticosteroids. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;93(3):1095-1101.
High levels of immunoreactive cyclooxygenase (Cox; prostaglandin H synthase) are present in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We now show that the recently identified inducible isoform of Cox, Cox-2, is expressed in synovia from patients with RA. To further explore modulation of the Cox isoforms in RA synovial tissues, we examined the expression and modulation of Cox-1 and -2 in rheumatoid synovial explant cultures and cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblast-like cells (synoviocytes). Immunoprecipitation of in vitro labeled proteins and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of both Cox-1 and -2 under basal conditions in freshly explanted rheumatoid synovial tissues. De novo synthesis of Cox-2 polypeptide was enhanced by IL-1 beta or PMA, and dramatically suppressed by dexamethasone (dex). Cox-1 expression, under the same conditions, showed only minor variation. Since mRNA for Cox-2 is highly unstable, we examined the regulation of Cox-2 transcripts in cultured rheumatoid synoviocytes. Under basal conditions both Cox-1 and -2 mRNAs were present at low levels, but Cox-2 mRNA was markedly increased by treatment with IL-1 beta or PMA. dex markedly suppressed the induction of Cox-2 mRNA. In sharp contrast, Cox-1 transcripts were not modulated by IL-1 beta or dex. These data suggest that modulation of Cox-2 expression by IL-1 beta and corticosteroids may be an important component of the inflammatory process in synovial tissues from patients with RA.
PMCID: PMC294048  PMID: 8132748
11.  Coexpression of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and fibroblast growth factor-1 in situ in synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Lewis rats with adjuvant or streptococcal cell wall arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(2):553-565.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and PDGF-B-like factors have been implicated in the pathobiology of RA and animal models of this disease. Since the receptors for FGF-1 and PDGF are tyrosine kinases, we examined the expression of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (phosphotyrosine, P-Tyr) in synovial tissues from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA), and rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW) and adjuvant arthritis (AA). Synovia from patients with RA and LEW/N rats with SCW and AA arthritis, in contrast to controls, stained intensely with anti-P-Tyr antibody. The staining colocalized with PDGF-B and FGF-1 staining. Comparative immunoblot analysis showed markedly enhanced expression of a 45-kD P-Tyr protein in the inflamed synovia. Treatment with physiological concentrations of dexamethasone suppressed both arthritis and P-Tyr expression in AA. P-Tyr was only transiently expressed in athymic nude Lewis rats and was not detected in relatively arthritis-resistant F344/N rats. These data suggest that (a) FGF-1 and PDGF-B-like factors are upregulated and may induce tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in vivo in inflammatory joint diseases, (b) persistent high level P-Tyr expression is T lymphocyte dependent, correlates with disease severity, and is strain dependent in rats, (c) corticosteroids, in physiological concentrations, downregulate P-Tyr expression in these lesions.
PMCID: PMC287978  PMID: 7679410
12.  Local secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the joints of Lewis rats with inflammatory arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(6):2555-2564.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is also secreted in peripheral inflammatory sites, where it acts as a local proinflammatory agent. Arthritis-susceptible LEW/N rats have profoundly deficient hypothalamic CRH responses to inflammatory stimuli and other stressors. Arthritis-resistant F344/N rats, on the other hand, have a robust increase in hypothalamic CRH in response to the same stimuli. Contrasting with these hypothalamic CRH responses, we now show that CRH expression is markedly increased in the joints and surrounding tissues of LEW/N rats with streptococcal cell wall- and adjuvant-induced arthritis, whereas it is not increased in similarly treated F344/N rats and is only transiently increased in congenitally athymic nude LEW.rnu/rnu rats. Glucocorticoid treatment suppressed, but did not eliminate, CRH immunoreactivity in the joints of LEW/N rats. CRH mRNA was present in inflamed synovia, as well as in spinal cord, and inflamed synovia also expressed specific CRH-binding sites. We compared CRH expression in inflamed joints with another well-characterized proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P (SP), and found that SP immunoreactivity paralleled that of CRH. In summary, although LEW/N rats have deficient hypothalamic CRH responses to inflammatory stimuli compared with F344/N rats, they express relatively high levels of CRH at the site of inflammation. Analogous to SP, CRH may be delivered to the inflammatory site by peripheral nerves and/or synthesized at the inflammatory site. These data provide further support for the concept that CRH not only triggers the pituitary-adrenal antiinflammatory cascade, but also functions as an antithetically active local mediator of acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis. These data also illustrate the complex interrelationships of the nervous, endocrine, immune, and inflammatory systems.
PMCID: PMC443415  PMID: 1281840
13.  Anchorage-independent growth of synoviocytes from arthritic and normal joints. Stimulation by exogenous platelet-derived growth factor and inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta and retinoids. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1989;83(4):1267-1276.
Exuberant tumor-like synovial cell proliferation with invasion of periarticular bone is a feature of rheumatoid arthritis in humans and of streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis in rats. These histologic observations prompted us to examine synoviocytes from arthritic joints for phenotypic characteristics of transformed cells. The capacity to grow in vitro under anchorage-independent conditions is a characteristic that correlates closely with potential in vivo tumorigenicity. In medium supplemented with 20% serum or in basal media supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), early passage synoviocytes from both SCW-induced and rheumatoid arthritic joints formed colonies in soft agarose. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) did not support growth, although EGF enhanced PDGF-dependent growth. On the other hand, TGF-beta, as well as all-trans-retinoic acid, inhibited colony growth. Early passage normal rat and human synoviocytes also grew under the same conditions, but lung, skin, and late-gestation embryonic fibroblast-like cells did not. Considered in the context of other published data our findings provide cogent evidence that synoviocytes, but not other types of fibroblast-like cells, readily acquire phenotypic characteristics commonly associated with transformed cells. Expression of the transformed phenotype in the inflammatory site is likely regulated by paracrine growth factors, such as PDGF and TGF-beta.
PMCID: PMC303817  PMID: 2784799
14.  Role of the thymus in streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis and hepatic granuloma formation. Comparative studies of pathology and cell wall distribution in athymic and euthymic rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;76(3):1042-1056.
Systemic administration of an aqueous suspension of group A streptococcal cell wall fragments to susceptible rats induces acute and chronic polyarthritis, as well as noncaseating hepatic granulomas. To gain insight into the role of the thymus in the pathogenesis of this experimental model, pathologic responses and cell wall tissue distribution were compared in congenitally athymic rats (rnu/rnu) and their euthymic littermates (NIH/rnu). Within 24 h, both rat strains developed acute arthritis, characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocytic exudate in the synovium and joint spaces. This acute process was maximal at day 3 and gradually subsided. Beginning 2-3 wk after injection, the euthymic, but not the athymic, rats developed the typical exacerbation of arthritis, characterized by synovial cell hyperplasia with villus formation and T helper/inducer lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cell infiltration. This process eventually resulted in marginal erosions and destruction of periarticular bone and cartilage. Parallel development of acute and chronic hepatic lesions was observed. Bacterial cell wall antigen distribution and persistence were similar in the athymic and euthymic rats. Cell wall antigens were demonstrated in the cytoplasm of cells within subchondral bone marrow, synovium, liver, and spleen, coincident with the development of the acute lesions, and persisted in these sites, although in decreasing amounts, for the duration of the experiment. Our findings provide evidence that the acute and chronic phases of the experimental model are mechanistically distinct. The thymus and functional thymus derived-lymphocytes appear not to be required for the development of the acute exudative disease but are essential for the development of chronic proliferative and erosive disease. Induction of disease is dependent upon cell wall dissemination to and persistence in the affected tissues.
PMCID: PMC423980  PMID: 3876354
15.  Immune function in severe, active rheumatoid arthritis. A relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation to soluble antigens and synovial tissue immunohistologic characteristics. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1984;74(4):1173-1185.
The immunohistology of synovium from a tender, swollen knee and peripheral blood cellular immune function were correlated in 24 clinically similar patients with active, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who were not taking cytotoxic or long-acting antirheumatic drugs. The patients were classified as anergic (n = 6) or nonanergic (n = 18) on the basis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to a battery of soluble recall antigens. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells of anergic patients failed to respond significantly to any soluble recall antigen, whereas cells from nonanergic patients responded to at least one such antigen. Multiple pieces of synovial tissue were obtained from each patient at arthroscopy. To minimize intrajoint variability, all pieces were analyzed and averaged to determine a composite profile of abnormalities. Synovial specimens from all six anergic patients had "high intensity" lymphocytic infiltration (group A). In sharp contrast, synovial specimens from 15 of 18 nonanergic patients had "low intensity" lymphocytic infiltration (group B) (P = 0.002). Group A tissues typically showed higher intensity T cell and plasma cell infiltration, more synovial lining layer hyperplasia, more HLA-DR bearing cells, and a higher ratio of Leu 3A/Leu 2A T cells than did group B. Group B tissues had fewer infiltrating cells (most of which were OKM1 and HLA-DR bearing), more extensive fibrin deposition, and far fewer T and plasma cells. Although these data do not imply that synovium from different joints in an individual patient are immunohistologically identical, they do provide evidence that peripheral blood mononuclear cell immune function reflects immunopathologic events in the biopsied joint. Moreover, the data further support the view that clinically active rheumatoid arthritis is, like certain other chronic inflammatory conditions, a heterogeneous disorder with polar subgroups.
PMCID: PMC425283  PMID: 6384266

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