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1.  Hemodynamic effects of peri-operative statin therapy in on-pump cardiac surgery patients 
Background
Peri-operative statin therapy in cardiac surgery cases is reported to reduce the rate of mortality, stroke, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and systemic inflammation. Systemic inflammation could affect the hemodynamic parameters and stability. We set out to study the effect of statin therapy on perioperative hemodynamic parameters and its clinical outcome.
Methods
In a single center study from 2006 to 2007, peri-operative hemodynamic parameters of 478 patients, who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, were measured. Patients were divided into those who received perioperative statin therapy (n = 276; statin group) and those who did not receive statin therapy (n = 202; no-statin group). The two groups were compared together using Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Test, Fisher’s-Exact-Test, and Student’s-T-test. A p value < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results
There was no significant difference in the preoperative risk factors. Onset of postoperative atrial fibrillation was not affected by statin therapy. Extended hemodynamic measurements revealed no significant difference between the two groups, apart from Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI) . The no-statin group had a significantly higher SVRI (882 ± 206 vs. 1050 ± 501 dyn s/cm5/m2, p = 0.022). Inotropic support was the same in both groups and no significant difference in the mortality rate was noticed. Also, hemodynamic parameters were not affected by different types and doses of statins.
Conclusions
Perioperative statin therapy for patients undergoing on-pump coronary bypass grafting or valvular surgery, does not affect the hemodynamic parameters and its clinical outcome.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-7-39
PMCID: PMC3398842  PMID: 22533985
Cardiac surgery; Statin therapy; Hemodynamic; Outcome
2.  Daptomycin as a possible new treatment option for surgical management of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery 
We present a case of a 77-year old female who had undergone a coronary artery bypass grafting with an aortic valve replacement and developed three month later a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sternal wound infection which was successful treated with Daptomycin combined with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC).
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-5-57
PMCID: PMC2922106  PMID: 20691034
3.  Bentall procedure 39 years after implantation of a Starr-Edwards Aortic Caged- Ball-Valve Prosthesis 
We report a case of a male patient who received an implantation of a Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis in 1967. The surgery and postoperative course were without complications and the patient recovered well after the operation. For the next four decades, the patient remained asymptomatic - no restrictions on his lifestyle and without any complications. In 2006, 39 years after the initial operation, we performed a Bentall-Procedure to treat an aortic ascendens aneurysm with diameters of 6.0 × 6.5 cm: we explanted the old Starr-Edwards-aortic-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis and replaced the ascending aorta with a 29 mm St.Jude Medical aortic-valve-composite-graft and re-implanted the coronary arteries.
This case represents the longest time period between Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prothesis-implantation and Bentall-reoperation, thereby confirming the excellent durability of this valve.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-5-12
PMCID: PMC2848035  PMID: 20298579
4.  Prehospital emergency treatment of palliative care patients with cardiac arrest: a retrolective investigation 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2009;18(10):1287-1292.
Background
Today, prehospital emergency medical teams (EMTs) are confronted with emergent situations of cardiac arrest in palliative care patients. However, little is known about the out-of-hospital approach in this situation and the long-term survival rate of this specific patient type. The aim of the present investigation was to provide information about the strategic and therapeutic approach employed by EMTs in outpatient palliative care patients in cardiac arrest.
Methods
During a period of 2 years, we retrolectively analysed emergency medical calls with regard to palliative care emergency situations dealing with cardiac arrest. We evaluated the numbers of patients who were resuscitated, the prevalence of an advance directive or other end-of-life protocol, the first responder on cardiac arrest, the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the survival rate.
Results
Eighty-eight palliative care patients in cardiac arrest were analysed. In 19 patients (22%), no resuscitation was started. Paramedics and prehospital emergency physicians began resuscitation in 61 cases (69%) and in 8 cases (9%), respectively. A total of 10 patients (11%) showed a ROSC; none survived after 48 h. Advance directives were available in 43% of cases. The start of resuscitation was independent of the presence of an advance directive or other end-of-life protocol.
Conclusions
Strategic and therapeutic approaches in outpatient palliative care patients with cardiac arrest differ depending on medical qualification. Although many of these patients do not wish to be resuscitated, resuscitation was started independent of the presence of advance directive. To reduce legal insecurity and to avoid resuscitation and a possible lengthening of the dying process, advance directives and/or “Do not attempt resuscitation” orders should be more readily available and should be adhered to more closely.
doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0746-8
PMCID: PMC2923330  PMID: 19813029
Emergency medical care; Palliative medical care; Unresponsiveness; Palliative care patient; Cardiac arrest; Resuscitation; End-of-life decision
5.  Quality of out-of-hospital palliative emergency care depends on the expertise of the emergency medical team—a prospective multi-centre analysis 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2009;17(12):1499-1506.
Background
The number of palliative care patients who live at home and have non-curable life-threatening diseases is increasing. This is largely a result of modern palliative care techniques (e.g. specialised out-of-hospital palliative medical care services), changes in healthcare policy and the availability of home care services. Accordingly, pre-hospital emergency physicians today are more likely to be involved in out-of-hospital emergency treatment of palliative care patients with advanced disease.
Methods
In a prospective multi-centre study, we analysed all palliative emergency care calls during a 24-month period across four emergency services in Germany. Participating pre-hospital emergency physicians were rated according to their expertise in emergency and palliative care as follows—group 1: pre-hospital emergency physicians with high experience in emergency and palliative medical care, group 2: pre-hospital emergency physicians with high experience in emergency medical care but less experience in palliative medical care and group 3: pre-hospital emergency physicians with low experience in palliative and emergency medical care.
Results
During the period of interest, the centres received 361 emergency calls requiring a response to palliative care patients (2.8% of all 12,996 emergency calls). Ten percent of all patients were treated by group 1; 42% were treated by group 2 and 47% were treated by group 3. There was a statistically significant difference in the treatment of palliative care patients (e.g. transfer to hospital, symptom control, end-of-life decision) as a result of the level of expertise of the investigated pre-hospital emergency physicians (p< 0.01).
Conclusions
In Germany, out-of-hospital emergency medical treatment of palliative care patients depends on the expertise in palliative medical care of the pre-hospital emergency physicians who respond to the call. In our investigation, best out-of-hospital palliative medical care was given by pre-hospital emergency physicians who had significant expertise in palliative and emergency medical care. Our results suggest that it may be necessary to take the core principles of palliative care into consideration when conducting out-of-hospital emergency medical treatment of palliative care patients.
doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0616-4
PMCID: PMC3085769  PMID: 19319576
Emergency medicine; Palliative medicine; Palliative medical care; Pre-hospital emergency physician; Palliative care team; End-of-life decision

Results 1-5 (5)