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1.  Potential effects of racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Medicare medication therapy management eligibility criteria 
Medication therapy management (MTM) has the potential to play an instrumental role in reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care. However, previous research has found that Blacks and Hispanics are less likely to be eligible for MTM. The purpose of the current study was to examine the potential effects of MTM eligibility criteria on racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes.
The current study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Cost and Use files for the years 2007 and 2008. A difference-in-differences model was used to compare disparities in outcomes between ineligible and eligible beneficiaries according to MTM eligibility criteria in 2010. This was achieved by including in regression models interaction terms between dummy variables for Blacks/Hispanics and MTM eligibility criteria. Interaction terms were interpreted on both multiplicative and additive terms. Various regression models were used depending on the types of variables.
Key Findings
Whites were more likely to report self-perceived good health status than Blacks and Hispanics among both MTM-eligible and MTM-ineligible populations. Disparities were greater among MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible populations (e.g., on additive term, difference in odds=1.94 and P<0.01 for Whites and Blacks; difference in odds=2.86 and P<0.01 for Whites and Hispanics). A few other measures also exhibited significant patterns.
MTM eligibility criteria may exacerbate racial and ethnic disparities in health status and some measures of health services utilizations and costs and medication utilization. Future research should examine strategies to remediate the effects of MTM eligibility criteria on disparities.
PMCID: PMC4100715  PMID: 25045406
race; ethnicity; medication therapy management services; Medicare; eligibility criteria
2.  Effects of Medicare Part D on Disparity Implications of Medication Therapy Management Eligibility Criteria 
American Health & Drug Benefits  2014;7(6):346-358.
Previous studies have shown that there were greater racial and ethnic disparities among individuals who were ineligible for medication therapy management (MTM) services than among MTM-eligible individuals before the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006.
To determine whether the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006 correlates to changes in racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible beneficiaries.
Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were analyzed in this retrospective observational analysis. To examine potential racial and ethnic disparities, non-Hispanic whites were compared with non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Three aspects of disparities were analyzed, including health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns. A generalized difference-in-differences analysis was used to examine the changes in difference in disparities between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals from 2004–2005 to 2007–2008 relative to changes from 2001–2002 and 2004–2005. Various multivariate regressions were used based on the types of dependent variables. A main analysis and several sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the ranges of MTM eligibility thresholds used by Medicare Part D plans in 2010.
The main analysis showed that Part D implementation was not associated with reductions in greater racial and ethnic disparities among MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible Medicare beneficiaries. The main analysis suggests that after Part D implementation, Medicare MTM eligibility criteria may not consistently improve the existing racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization. By contrast, several sensitivity analyses showed that Part D implementation did correlate with a significant reduction in greater racial disparities among the MTM-ineligible group than the MTM-eligible group in activities of daily living and in instrumental activities of daily living. Part D implementation may be also associated with a reduction in greater ethnic disparities among the MTM-ineligible group than the MTM-eligible groups in the costs of physician visits.
Part D implementation was not associated with consistent reductions in the disparity implications of the Medicare MTM eligibility criteria. The main analysis showed that Part D implementation was not associated with a reduction in disparities associated with MTM eligibility, although several sensitivity analyses did show reductions in disparities in specific aspects. Future research should explore alternative Medicare MTM eligibility criteria to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities among the Medicare population.
PMCID: PMC4280526  PMID: 25558303
3.  Potential Health Implications of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting MTM Eligibility Criteria 
Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP  2013;10(1):10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.007.
Previous studies have found that racial and ethnic minorities would be less likely to meet the Medicare eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services than their non-Hispanic White counterparts.
To examine whether racial and ethnic disparities in health status, health services utilization and costs, and medication utilization patterns among MTM-ineligible individuals differed from MTM-eligible individuals.
This study analyzed Medicare beneficiaries in 2004–2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Various multivariate regressions were employed depending on the nature of dependent variables. Interaction terms between the dummy variables for Blacks (and Hispanics) and MTM eligibility were included to test whether disparity patterns varied between MTM-ineligible and MTM-eligible individuals. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted for MTM eligibility thresholds for 2006 and 2010.
Based on the main analysis for 2006 MTM eligibility criteria, the proportions for self-reported good health status for Whites and Blacks were 82.82% vs. 70.75%, respectively (difference=12.07%; P< .001), among MTM-ineligible population; and 56.98% vs. 52.14%, respectively (difference=4.84%; P= .31), among MTM-eligible population. The difference between these differences was 7.23% (P< .001). In the adjusted logistic regression, the interaction effect for Blacks and MTM eligibility had an OR of 1.57 (95% Confidence Interval, or CI=0.98–2.52) on multiplicative term and difference in odds of 2.38 (95% CI=1.54–3.22) on additive term. Analyses for disparities between Whites and Hispanics found similar disparity patterns. All analyses for 2006 and 2010 eligibility criteria generally reported similar patterns. Analyses of other measures did not find greater racial or ethnic disparities among the MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible individuals.
Disparities in MTM eligibility may aggravate existing racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. However, disparities in MTM eligibility may not aggravate existing disparities in health services utilization and costs and medication utilization patterns. Future studies should examine the effects of Medicare Part D on these disparities.
PMCID: PMC3858402  PMID: 23759673
Health disparities; race; ethnicity; medication therapy management services; eligibility criteria
Journal of Community Health  2012;37(1):253-264.
One in seven American households experience food insecurity at times during the year, lack of money and other resources hinder their ability to maintain consistent access to nutritious foods. Low-income, ethnic minority, and female-headed households exhibit the greatest risk for food insecurity, which often results in higher prevalence of diet-related disease. The food insecurity-obesity paradox is one that researchers have explored to understand the factors that influence food insecurity and its impact on weight change. The aim of this inquiry was to explore new evidence in associations of food insecurity and obesity in youth, adult, and elderly populations. A literature search of publication databases was conducted, using various criteria to identify relevant articles. Among 65 results, 19 studies conducted since 2005 were selected for review. Overall, the review confirmed that food insecurity and obesity continue to be strongly and positively associated in women. Growing evidence of this association was found in adolescents; but among children, results remain mixed. Few studies supported a linear relationship between food insecurity and weight outcomes, as suggested by an earlier review. New mediators were revealed (gender, marital status, stressors, and food stamp participation) that alter the association; in fact, newer studies suggest that food stamp participation may exacerbate obesity outcomes. Continued examination through longitudinal studies, development of tools to distinguish acute and chronic food insecurity, and greater inclusion of food security measurement tools in regional and local studies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3334290  PMID: 21644024
food insecurity; obesity; children; women; mediators
5.  The Economic Impact of a College of Pharmacy 
To quantify the dollar value of economic returns to a community when a college of pharmacy attains its fourfold mission of research, service, patient care, and education.
United States Bureau of Economic Analyses (BEA) RIMS II input/output analysis and data from student and faculty surveys were used to quantify the economic impact of the University of Tennessee's College of Pharmacy (UTCOP).
The UTCOP's revenue of $22.4 million resulted in an indirect output impact of over $29.2 million, for a total impact of nearly $51.6 million in output (production of goods and services), while supporting 617.4 jobs and total earnings of $18.5 million during the 2004-2005 school year.
Demonstrating the economic value of colleges of pharmacy is critical when seeking support from state legislators, foundations, government agencies, professional associations, and industry. Based on this study, UTCOP was able to report that every dollar the state invests in UTCOP yields an estimated net return on investment of $27.90.
PMCID: PMC2254226  PMID: 18322564
economic impact; RIMS II input/output analysis; pharmacy; college of pharmacy

Results 1-5 (5)