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1.  College/School of Pharmacy Affiliation and Community Pharmacies' Involvement in Public Health Activities 
To examine the relationship between pharmacy college/school affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness activities.
Telephone interviews were completed with 1,704 community pharmacies randomly sampled from 17 states to determine the pharmacies' involvement in immunization promotion, vaccine distribution, in-house immunization delivery, and health emergency preparedness and response, affiliation with college/school of pharmacy, and selected pharmacy and public health-related characteristics.
Pharmacy college/school-affiliated community pharmacies were more likely than non-affiliated pharmacies to participate in immunization and emergency preparedness when controlling for pharmacy characteristics. College/school affiliation generally became nonsignificant, however, when public health-related characteristics were included in the analysis.
Affiliation with a college/school of pharmacy was related to community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness.
PMCID: PMC2779635  PMID: 19960082
experiential learning; public health; school of pharmacy; college of pharmacy; community pharmacy; immunization
2.  Factors Influencing Pharmacy Students' Attendance Decisions in Large Lectures 
To identify reasons for pharmacy student attendance and absenteeism in large lectures and to determine whether certain student characteristics affect student absenteeism.
Pharmacy students' reasons to attend and not attend 3 large lecture courses were identified. Using a Web-based survey instrument, second-year pharmacy students were asked to rate to what degree various reasons affected their decision to attend or not attend classes for 3 courses. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the relationships between student characteristics and degree of absenteeism.
Ninety-eight students (75%) completed the survey instrument. The degree of student absenteeism differed among the 3 courses. Most student demographic characteristics examined were not related to the degree of absenteeism. Different reasons to attend and not to attend class were identified for each of the 3 courses, suggesting that attendance decisions were complex.
Respondents wanted to take their own notes and the instructor highlighted what was important to know were the top 2 common reasons for pharmacy students to attend classes. Better understanding of factors influencing student absenteeism may help pharmacy educators design effective interventions to facilitate student attendance.
PMCID: PMC2739066  PMID: 19777098
absenteeism; attendance; professionalism
3.  Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists 
Objective. To identify sleep patterns and frequency of daytime sleepiness and to assess the association between sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists.
Methods. A cross-sectional design was used. An anonymous self-administered paper questionnaire was administered to first-year through third-year students at a pharmacy school.
Results. Questionnaires were completed by 364 student pharmacists (79.4% response rate and 93.8% cooperation rate). More than half of student pharmacists obtained less than 7 hours of sleep at night during a typical school week (54.7%) and a large majority on the night prior to an examination (81.7%). Almost half (47.8%) felt daytime sleepiness almost every day. Longer sleep duration the night prior to an examination was associated with higher course grades and semester grade point averages (GPAs).
Conclusion. A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.
PMCID: PMC4571043  PMID: 26396272
sleep; academic performance; students; pharmacy; grade
4.  Alcohol Use Behaviors Among Pharmacy Students 
Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students.
Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar.
Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use.
Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
PMCID: PMC3965138  PMID: 24672063
pharmacy students; alcohol abuse; drinking; substance abuse
5.  Incorporating Hypertensive Patient Education on Salt Intake Into an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objective. To evaluate the impact of the Salt Education Program for hypertensive adults on student pharmacists' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sodium consumption.
Design. As part of the introductory pharmacy practice experience program in community pharmacies, student pharmacists assessed patients' sodium intake knowledge and behaviors, taught them how to read nutrition labels, and obtained information about their hypertensive conditions. Students completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires in April and August 2012, respectively.
Assessment. One hundred thirty student pharmacists (70% female, 78% white) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Students demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge scores (p<0.001) and perceived benefit of a low-salt diet (p=0.004). Further, there were significant improvements in the self-reported frequency of looking at sodium content of foods when shopping (p<0.001) and purchasing low-salt foods (p=0.004).
Conclusion. Changes in students' knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes after participating in the Salt Education program suggested that the program was effective in improving student knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes.
PMCID: PMC3831410  PMID: 24249861
salt; sodium; patient education; knowledge; dietary behaviors

Results 1-5 (5)