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1.  A questioned authority meets well-informed pregnant women – a qualitative study examining how midwives perceive their role in dietary counselling 
Background
During pregnancy and afterward, a healthy diet is beneficial for the expecting mother and her foetus. Midwives in antenatal care have an ideal position for promoting healthy diets. Dietary counselling is however complex and recommendations can be controversial. While pregnant women struggle with dietary recommendations, midwives struggle with a lack of authority. The aim of the study was therefore to describe how midwives perceive their role and their significance in dietary counselling of pregnant women.
Methods
An interview study was conducted that involved twenty-one (21) experienced midwives, who worked in the Swedish prenatal health care. A qualitative content analysis was conducted.
Results
Pregnant women were perceived to be well informed, but they needed guidance to interpret information on the Internet. They were described as rigorous and eager information seekers who needed guidance to interpret information as they were worried and emotional. The midwives saw themselves as a questioned authority who lacked support. This meant being informative and directive though not always updated or listened to. Their impact was uncertain and they could also lack sufficient competence to counsel in delicate issues.
Conclusion
The midwives’ directive role may obstruct the women’s needs to manage the dietary recommendations and risk evaluation in a women-centred dialogue. Midwives need to acknowledge pregnant women as both well informed and skilled if they are going to develop woman-centred antenatal care. Ongoing training and self-reflection will be needed to make this change.
doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0523-2
PMCID: PMC4404046  PMID: 25879462
Antenatal care; Midwifery; Dietary counselling; Role change; Qualitative content analysis
2.  Genetic Influences Are Important for Most But Not All Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Population-Based Survey in a Cohort of Adult Swedish Twins 
European urology  2011;59(6):1032-1038.
Background
The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for the occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is poorly understood.
Objective
To (1) estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other LUTS and (2) to assess the heritability of these symptoms.
Design, setting, and participants
Cross-sectional survey of LUTS in a national population-based cohort of Swedish twins 20–46 yr of age (n = 42 582) from the Swedish Twin Registry.
Measurements
Prevalence rates were determined and heritability of LUTS (in female twins) was assessed using indicators of twin similarity.
Results and limitations
A total of 25 364 twins completed the questionnaire (response rate: 59.6%). LUTS were more common in women (UI: 7%; OAB: 9%; nocturia: 61%; micturition frequency: 18%) than in men (UI: 1%; OAB: 5%; nocturia: 40%; micturition frequency: 11%), and prevalence increased with age. The strongest genetic effects were observed for UI, frequency, and nocturia. The lowest estimate for genetic effects was observed for OAB where environmental effects dominated, and more specifically shared family environment accounted for a third or more of the total variation. For stress UI, a fifth of the total variation in susceptibility to the disorder could be attributed to shared environment. Nonshared environmental effects were seen in the range of 45–65% for the various LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS was low in the men, and there were too few male cases to compute measures of similarity or heritability estimates.
Conclusions
This study provides robust evidence of a genetic influence for susceptibility to UI, frequency, and nocturia in women. In contrast, shared environmental factors seem more important for the predisposition to develop OAB, which may reflect familial patterns such as learning from parental behaviours.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.03.007
PMCID: PMC3101479  PMID: 21420232

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