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author:("wender, Andy")
1.  Transcriptional control by two leucine-responsive regulatory proteins in Halobacterium salinarum R1 
BMC Molecular Biology  2010;11:40.
Background
Archaea combine bacterial-as well as eukaryotic-like features to regulate cellular processes. Halobacterium salinarum R1 encodes eight leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp)-homologues. The function of two of them, Irp (OE3923F) and lrpA1 (OE2621R), were analyzed by gene deletion and overexpression, including genome scale impacts using microarrays.
Results
It was shown that Lrp affects the transcription of multiple target genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis, central metabolism, transport processes and other regulators of transcription. In contrast, LrpA1 regulates transcription in a more specific manner. The aspB3 gene, coding for an aspartate transaminase, was repressed by LrpA1 in the presence of L-aspartate. Analytical DNA-affinity chromatography was adapted to high salt, and demonstrated binding of LrpA1 to its own promoter, as well as L-aspartate dependent binding to the aspB3 promoter.
Conclusion
The gene expression profiles of two archaeal Lrp-homologues report in detail their role in H. salinarum R1. LrpA1 and Lrp show similar functions to those already described in bacteria, but in addition they play a key role in regulatory networks, such as controlling the transcription of other regulators. In a more detailed analysis ligand dependent binding of LrpA1 was demonstrated to its target gene aspB3.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-11-40
PMCID: PMC2894021  PMID: 20509863
2.  Phosphate-Dependent Behavior of the Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum Strain R1▿ † 
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(12):3852-3860.
Phosphate is essential for life on earth, since it is an integral part of important biomolecules. The mechanisms applied by bacteria and eukarya to combat phosphate limitation are fairly well understood. However, it is not known how archaea sense phosphate limitation or which genes are regulated upon limitation. We conducted a microarray analysis to explore the phosphate-dependent gene expression of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1. We identified a set of 17 genes whose transcript levels increased up to several hundredfold upon phosphate limitation. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that this set of genes, the PHO stimulon, is very likely independent of signaling via two-component systems. Our experiments further indicate that PHO stimulon induction might be dependent on the intracellular phosphate concentration, which turned out to be subject to substantial changes. Finally, the study revealed that H. salinarum exhibits a phosphate-directed chemotaxis, which is induced by phosphate starvation.
doi:10.1128/JB.01642-08
PMCID: PMC2698381  PMID: 19363117
3.  Microarray Analysis in the Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum Strain R1 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(10):e1064.
Background
Phototrophy of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was explored for decades. The research was mainly focused on the expression of bacteriorhodopsin and its functional properties. In contrast, less is known about genome wide transcriptional changes and their impact on the physiological adaptation to phototrophy. The tool of choice to record transcriptional profiles is the DNA microarray technique. However, the technique is still rarely used for transcriptome analysis in archaea.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We developed a whole-genome DNA microarray based on our sequence data of the Hbt. salinarum strain R1 genome. The potential of our tool is exemplified by the comparison of cells growing under aerobic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. We processed the raw fluorescence data by several stringent filtering steps and a subsequent MAANOVA analysis. The study revealed a lot of transcriptional differences between the two cell states. We found that the transcriptional changes were relatively weak, though significant. Finally, the DNA microarray data were independently verified by a real-time PCR analysis.
Conclusion/Significance
This is the first DNA microarray analysis of Hbt. salinarum cells that were actually grown under phototrophic conditions. By comparing the transcriptomics data with current knowledge we could show that our DNA microarray tool is well applicable for transcriptome analysis in the extremely halophilic archaeon Hbt. salinarum. The reliability of our tool is based on both the high-quality array of DNA probes and the stringent data handling including MAANOVA analysis. Among the regulated genes more than 50% had unknown functions. This underlines the fact that haloarchaeal phototrophy is still far away from being completely understood. Hence, the data recorded in this study will be subject to future systems biology analysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001064
PMCID: PMC2020435  PMID: 17957248
4.  The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity 
BMC Genomics  2006;7:169.
Background
The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl-saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were carried out in order to reveal how H. walsbyi has specialized into its narrow and hostile ecological niche and found ways to cope with the desiccation stress.
Results
A rich repertoire of proteins involved in phosphate metabolism, phototrophic growth and extracellular protective polymers, including the largest archaeal protein (9159 amino acids), a homolog to eukaryotic mucins, are amongst the most outstanding features. A relatively low GC content (47.9%), 15–20% less than in other halophilic archaea, and one of the lowest coding densities (76.5%) known for prokaryotes might be an indication for the specialization in its unique environment
Conclusion
Although no direct genetic indication was found that can explain how this peculiar organism retains its square shape, the genome revealed several unique adaptive traits that allow this organism to thrive in its specific and extreme niche.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-7-169
PMCID: PMC1544339  PMID: 16820047
5.  Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis Heat Shock Gene htpG Is under Positive Control 
Journal of Bacteriology  2003;185(2):466-474.
The heat shock genes of Bacillus subtilis are assigned to four classes on the basis of their regulation mechanisms. While classes I and III are negatively controlled by two different transcriptional repressors, class II is regulated by the alternative sigma factor σB. All heat shock genes with unidentified regulatory mechanisms, among them htpG, constitute class IV. Here, we show that expression of htpG is under positive control. We identified a DNA sequence (GAAAAGG) located downstream of the σA-dependent promoter of htpG. The heat inducibility of the promoter could be destroyed by inversion, nucleotide replacements, or removal of this DNA sequence. Fusion of this sequence to the vegetative lepA promoter conferred heat inducibility. Furthermore, we were able to show that the heat induction factor is dependent on the absolute temperature rather than the temperature increment and that nonnative proteins within the cytoplasm fail to induce htpG.
doi:10.1128/JB.185.2.466-474.2003
PMCID: PMC145321  PMID: 12511492

Results 1-5 (5)