IDAWG (Isotopic Detection of Aminosugars With Glutamine) is a newly reported, in vivo, stable isotopic labeling strategy for quantitative glycomics of cultured cells. Detailed procedures are provided for glycan analysis using IDAWG including labeling, release of both N- and O-linked glycans, permethylation, and mass spectrometry analysis. The methods for data processing and calculations are also introduced here but have not yet been automated.
IDAWG; stable isotopic labeling; quantitative glycomics; cell culture; glycan analysis
Post-translational modification of polypeptides with glycans increases the diversity of the structures of proteins and imparts increased functional diversity. Here, we review the current literature on a relatively new O-glycosylation pathway, the mammalian O-mannosylation pathway. The importance of O-mannosylation is illustrated by the fact that O-mannose glycan structures play roles in a variety of processes including viral entry into cells, metastasis, cell adhesion, and neuronal development. Furthermore, mutations in the enzymes of this pathway are causal for a variety of congenital muscular dystrophies. Here we highlight the protein substrates, glycan structures, and enzymes involved in O-mannosylation as well as our gaps in understanding structure/function relationships in this biosynthetic pathway.
Aberrant glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) results in loss of interactions with the extracellular matrix and is central to the pathogenesis of several disorders. To examine protein glycosylation of α-DG, a facile synthetic approach has been developed for the preparation of unusual phosphorylated O-mannosyl glycopeptides derived from α-DG by a strategy in which properly protected phospho-mannosides are coupled with a Fmoc protected threonine derivative, followed by the use of the resulting derivatives in automated solid phase glycopeptide synthesis using hyper-acid sensitive Sieber amide resin. Synthetic efforts also provided a reduced phospho-trisaccharide and the NMR data of this derivative confirmed the proper structural assignment of the unusual phospho-glycan structure. The glycopeptides made it possible to explore factors that regulate the elaboration of critical glycans. It was established that a glycopeptide having a 6-phospho-O-mannosyl residue is not an acceptor for action by the enzyme POMGnT1, which attaches β(1,2)-GlcNAc to O-mannosyl moietes, whereas the unphosphorylated derivate was readily extended by the enzyme. This finding implies a specific sequence of events in determining the structural fate of the O-glycan. It has also been found that the activity of POMGnT1 is dependent on the location of the acceptor site in the context of the underlying polypeptide/glycopeptide sequence. Conformational analysis by NMR has shown that the O-mannosyl modification does not exert major conformational effect on the peptide backbone. It is, however, proposed that these residues, introduced at the early stages of glycoprotein glycosylation, have an ability to regulate the loci of subsequent O-GalNAc additions, which do exert conformational effects. The studies show that through access to discrete glycopeptide structures, it is possible to reveal complex regulation of O-glycan processing on α-DG that has significant implications both for its normal post-translational maturation, and the mechanisms of the pathologies associated with hypoglycosylated α-DG.
Mass spectrometry-based studies of proteins that are post-translationally modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are challenged in effectively identifying the sites of modification while simultaneously sequencing the peptides. Here we tested the hypothesis that a combination of high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) could specifically target the O-GlcNAc modified peptides and elucidate the amino acid sequence while preserving the attached GlcNAc residue for accurate site assignment. By taking advantage of the recently characterized O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies and the combination of HCD and ETD fragmentation techniques, O-GlcNAc modified proteins were enriched from HEK293T cells and subsequently characterized using the LTQ Orbitrap Velos™ ETD (Thermo Fisher Scientific) mass spectrometer. In our dataset, 83 sites of O-GlcNAc modification are reported with high confidence confirming that the HCD/ETD combined approach is amenable to the detection and site assignment of O-GlcNAc modified peptides. Realizing HCD triggered ETD fragmentation on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap platform for more in-depth analysis and application of this technique to other post-translationally modified proteins are currently underway. Furthermore, this report illustrates that the O-GlcNAc transferase appears to demonstrate promiscuity with regards to the hydroxyl-containing amino acid modified in short stretches of primary sequence of the glycosylated polypeptides.
O-GlcNAc; HCD; ETD; tandem mass spectrometry; site assignment; post-translational modification; glycosylation
Background: Genetic alteration of muscle cell glycosylation in muscular dystrophy models has ameliorated disease.
Results: A high throughput screen identified a small molecule, lobeline, which altered muscle cell glycosylation and improved laminin binding.
Conclusion: Lobeline increased abundance of sarcolemmal glycoproteins and increased laminin binding in an N-glycan-dependent manner.
Significance: A novel approach revealed an unexpected role for N-glycans in muscle cell function.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder characterized by loss of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that connects the actin cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle cells to extracellular matrix. Dystrophin binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein β-dystroglycan (β-DG), which associates with cell surface α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that binds laminin in the extracellular matrix. β-DG can also associate with utrophin, and this differential association correlates with specific glycosylation changes on α-DG. Genetic modification of α-DG glycosylation can promote utrophin binding and rescue dystrophic phenotypes in mouse dystrophy models. We used high throughput screening with the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) to identify compounds that altered muscle cell surface glycosylation, with the goal of finding compounds that increase abundance of α-DG and associated sarcolemmal glycoproteins, increase utrophin usage, and increase laminin binding. We identified one compound, lobeline, from the Prestwick library of Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds that fulfilled these criteria, increasing WFA binding to C2C12 cells and to primary muscle cells from wild type and mdx mice. WFA binding and enhancement by lobeline required complex N-glycans but not O-mannose glycans that bind laminin. However, inhibiting complex N-glycan processing reduced laminin binding to muscle cell glycoproteins, although O-mannosylation was intact. Glycan analysis demonstrated a general increase in N-glycans on lobeline-treated cells rather than specific alterations in cell surface glycosylation, consistent with increased abundance of multiple sarcolemmal glycoproteins. This demonstrates the feasibility of high throughput screening with plant lectins to identify compounds that alter muscle cell glycosylation and identifies a novel role for N-glycans in regulating muscle cell function.
Glycobiology; Glycosylation Inhibitors; Laminin; Lectin; Muscular Dystrophy; Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; N-Glycan; Dystroglycan; Lobeline; Muscle
The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product (pRB) is a classical tumor suppressor. pRB regulates a number of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. One of the essential mechanisms by which pRB, and the related p107 and p130 family members, act is through its interactions with the E2F class of transcription factors. E2F-1 transcription is necessary for entry into S-phase during the cell-cycle. pRB binds E2F-1 and represses transcription via recruitment of a histone deacetylase complex and by preventing co-activator complexes from binding E2F-1. Current dogma suggests that phosphorylation of pRB during mid- to late-G1 leads to release of E2F-1 and E2F-1 dependent transcriptional activation of essential S-phase genes. Here we show that pRB, and the related p107 protein, are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in an in vitro transcription/translation system. Furthermore, we show in vivo that pRB is more heavily glycosylated in G1 of the cell-cycle when pRB is known to be in an active, hypophosphorylated state. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 associated pRB is modified by O-GlcNAc. These studies suggest that regulation of pRB function(s) may be controlled by dynamic O-GlcNAc modification, as well as phosphorylation.
O-GlcNAc; pRB; Cell cycle; E2F
Pluripotent stem cells (PSC s) are maintained by a complex regulatory network orchestrated by transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers and non-coding RNA s. Central to this regulatory network is the Myc family of transcription factors. Defining roles for Myc in PSC s has been problematic, but recently, a number of reports have provided insight in this area. An emerging picture now places Myc as a key regulator of the cell cycle, genomic maintenance and general metabolic activity in PSC s through its ability to directly regulate large numbers of target genes and more indirectly through control of microRNA s. One of Myc's main roles is to repress the activity of genes required for differentiation such as the endoderm master regulator, GATA 6. The general mechanism by which Myc activates target genes is well understood but a remaining major challenge is to understand how it represses gene activity. Here we discuss potential mechanisms for how Myc establishes and maintains the pluripotent state and incorporate proteomics data that supports a model where Myc acts as part of a regulatory network with epigenetic modifiers.
myc; pluripotency; self-renewal; reprogramming; proteomics
The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
O-GlcNAcylated proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and peptide mass fingerprinting. The level of O-GlcNAcylation of these proteins was examined by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).
O-GlcNAcylated proteins that changed significantly in the degree of O-GlcNAcylation were identified as cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, α-actinin 4, myosin) and mitochondrial proteins (ATP synthase β, pyruvate carboxylase). The extent of O-GlcNAcylation of the above proteins increased in the diabetic kidney. Immunofluorescence and in situ PLA studies revealed that the levels of O-GlcNAcylation of actin, α-actinin 4 and myosin were significantly increased in the glomerulus and the proximal tubule of the diabetic kidney. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that immunolabeling of α-actinin 4 is disturbed and increased in the foot process of podocytes of glomerulus and in the microvilli of proximal tubules.
These results suggest that changes in the O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins are closely associated with the morphological changes in the podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus and in microvilli of proximal tubules in the diabetic kidney. This is the first report to show that α-actinin 4 is O-GlcNAcylated. α-Actinin 4 will be a good marker protein to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy.
O-GlcNAc modification; Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; Kidney; Glomerulus; Cytoskeleton; α-actinin; GK Rat; Mass spectrometry; Proximity Ligation Assay
Studies of post-translational modification by β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are hampered by a lack of efficient tools such as O-GlcNAc specific antibodies that can be employed for detection, isolation, and site localization. We have obtained a large panel of O-GlcNAc-specific IgG MAbs having a broad spectrum of binding partners by combining three-component immunogen methodology with hybridoma technology. Immunoprecipitation followed by large-scale shotgun proteomics led to the identification of more than 200 mammalian O-GlcNAc modified proteins, including a large number of novel glycoproteins. A substantial number of the glycoproteins were only enriched by one of the antibodies and this observation combined with results of inhibition ELISAs suggests that the antibodies in addition to their O-GlcNAc-dependence also appear to have different, but overlapping, local peptide determinants. The MAbs made it possible to delineate differentially modified proteins of liver in response to trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation in a rat model.
O-GlcNAc; Immunogen; Glycopeptide; Proteomics; Post-translational Modification
Excess flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in adipocytes is a fundamental cause of “glucose toxicity” and the development of insulin resistance that leads to type II diabetes. Adipose tissue-specific elevation in hexosamine flux in animal models recapitulates whole-body insulin-resistant phenotypes, and increased hexosamine flux in adipocyte cell culture models impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Many studies have been devoted to unveiling the molecular mechanisms in adipocytes in response to excess hexosamine flux-mediated insulin resistance. As a major downstream event consuming and incorporating the final product of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, dynamic and inducible O-GlcNAc modification is emerging as a modulator of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. Given that O-GlcNAc is implicated in both insulin-mediated signal transduction and transcriptional events essential for adipocytokine secretion, direct functional studies to pinpoint the roles of O-GlcNAc in the development of insulin resistance via excess flux through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway are needed.
Hexosamine biosynthesis pathway; O-GlcNAc modification; insulin resistance; adipocyte; adipocytokine
Recent studies highlighted an emerging possibility of using Drosophila as a model system for investigating the mechanisms of human congenital muscular dystrophies, called dystroglycanopathies, resulting from the abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. Several of these diseases are associated with defects in O-mannosylation, one of the most prominent types of α-dystroglycan glycosylation mediated by two protein O-mannosyltransferases. Drosophila appears to possess homologs of all essential components of the mammalian dystroglycan-mediated pathway; however, the glycosylation of Drosophila Dystroglycan (DG) has not yet been explored. In this study, we characterized the glycosylation of Drosophila DG using a combination of glycosidase treatments, lectin blots, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometry analyses. Our results demonstrated that DG extracellular domain is O-mannosylated in vivo. We found that the concurrent in vivo activity of the two Drosophila protein O-mannosyltransferases, Rotated Abdomen and Twisted, is required for O-mannosylation of DG. While our experiments unambiguously determined some O-mannose sites far outside of the mucin-type domain of DG, they also provided evidence that DG bears a significant amount of O-mannosylation within its central region including the mucin-type domain, and that O-mannose can compete with O-GalNAc glycosylation of DG. We found that Rotated Abdomen and Twisted could potentiate in vivo the dominant-negative effect of DG extracellular domain expression on crossvein development, which suggests that O-mannosylation can modulate the ligand-binding activity of DG. Taken together these results demonstrated that O-mannosylation of Dystroglycan is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism conserved between Drosophila and humans, suggesting that Drosophila can be a suitable model system for studying molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying human dystroglycanopathies.
Drosophila; Dystroglycan; dystroglycanopathy; glycosylation; protein O-mannosylation
Compelling evidence indicates that the CRISPR-Cas system protects prokaryotes from viruses and other potential genome invaders. This adaptive prokaryotic immune system arises from the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) found in prokaryotic genomes, which harbor short invader-derived sequences, and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein-coding genes. Here we have identified a CRISPR-Cas effector complex that is comprised of small invader-targeting RNAs from the CRISPR loci (termed prokaryotic silencing (psi)RNAs) and the RAMP module (or Cmr) Cas proteins. The psiRNA-Cmr protein complexes cleave complementary target RNAs at a fixed distance from the 3' end of the integral psiRNAs. In Pyrococcus furiosus, psiRNAs occur in two size forms that share a common 5' sequence tag but have distinct 3' ends that direct cleavage of a given target RNA at two distinct sites. Our results indicate that prokaryotes possess a unique RNA silencing system that functions by homology-dependent cleavage of invader RNAs.
Alpha-dystroglycan is a cell-surface glycoprotein that acts as a receptor for both extracellular matrix proteins containing laminin-G domains and certain arenaviruses. Receptor binding is thought to be mediated by a post-translational modification, and defective binding with laminin underlies a subclass of congenital muscular dystrophy. Here, using mass spectrometry- and NMR-based structural analyses, we identified a phosphorylated O-mannosyl glycan on the mucin-like domain of recombinant alpha-dystroglycan, which was required for laminin binding. We demonstrated that patients with muscle-eye-brain disease and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, as well as mice with myodystrophy, commonly have defects in a post-phosphoryl modification of this phosphorylated O-linked mannose, and that this modification is mediated by the like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE) protein. Our findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie congenital muscular dystrophy.
O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a regulatory, nuclear and cytoplasmic post-translational glycosylation of proteins associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes. Global elevation of O-GlcNAc levels on intracellular proteins can induce insulin resistance, the hallmark of type II diabetes, in mammalian systems. In C. elegans, attenuation of the insulin-like signal transduction pathway increases adult lifespan of the nematode. We demonstrate that the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes OGT and OGA, which add and remove O-GlcNAc respectively, modulate lifespan in C. elegans. Median adult lifespan is increased in an oga-1 deletion strain while median adult life span is decreased upon ogt-1 deletion. The O-GlcNAc-mediated effect on nematode lifespan is dependent on the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16. DAF-16 is a key factor in the insulin-like signal transduction pathway to regulate reproductive development, lifespan, stress tolerance, and dauer formation in C. elegans. Our data indicates that O-GlcNAc cycling selectively influences only a subset of DAF-16 mediated phenotypes, including lifespan and oxidative stress resistance. We performed an affinity purification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and observed that a high percentage of these proteins are regulated by insulin signaling and/or impact insulin pathway functional outcomes, suggesting that the O-GlcNAc modification may control downstream effectors to modulate insulin pathway mediated cellular processes.
C. elegans; lifespan; O-GlcNAc; OGT; OGA
Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, encode proteasomes highly related to those of eukaryotes. In contrast, archaeal ubiquitin-like proteins are less conserved and not known to function in protein conjugation. This has complicated our understanding of the origins of ubiquitination and its connection to proteasomes. Here we report two small archaeal modifier proteins, SAMP1 and SAMP2, with a β-grasp fold and C-terminal diglycine motif similar to ubiquitin, that form protein-conjugates in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii. SAMP-conjugates were altered by nitrogen-limitation and proteasomal gene knockout and spanned various functions including components of the Urm1 pathway. LC-MS/MS-based collision-induced dissociation demonstrated isopeptide bonds between the C-terminal glycine of SAMP2 and the ε-amino group of lysines from a number of protein targets and Lys58 of SAMP2 itself, revealing poly-SAMP chains. The widespread distribution and diversity of pathways modified by SAMPylation suggest this type of protein-conjugation is central to the archaeal lineage.
archaea; ubiquitin; proteasome; protease; AAA ATPases
The Drosophila eggshell provides an in vivo model system for extracellular matrix assembly, in which programmed gene expression, cell migrations, extracellular protein trafficking, proteolytic processing, and cross-linking are all required to generate a multi-layered and regionally complex architecture. While abundant structural components of the eggshell are known and are being characterized, less is known about non-abundant structural, regulatory, and enzymatic components that are likely to play critical roles in eggshell assembly. We have used sensitive mass spectrometry-based analyses of fractionated eggshell matrices to validate six previously predicted eggshell proteins and to identify eleven novel components, and have characterized the expression patterns of many of their mRNAs. Among these are several putative structural or regulatory (non-enzymatic) proteins, most larger in mass than the major eggshell proteins and often showing preferential expression in follicle cells overlying specific structural features of the eggshell. Of particular note are the putative enzymes, some likely to be involved in matrix cross-linking (two yellow family members previously implicated in eggshell integrity, a heme peroxidase, and a small-molecule oxidoreductase) and others possibly involved in matrix proteolysis or adhesion (proteins related to cathepsins B and D). This work provides a framework for future molecular studies of eggshell assembly.
Drosophila; eggshell assembly; mass spectrometry; gene expression; vitelline membrane; chorion
The post-translational addition of the monosaccharide O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates the activity of a wide variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. The enzymes O-GlcNAc Transferase (Ogt) and O-GlcNAcase (Oga) catalyze, respectively, the attachment and removal of O-GlcNAc to target proteins. In adult mice, Ogt and Oga attenuate the response to insulin by modifying several components of the signal transduction pathway. Complete loss of ogt function, however, is lethal to mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the enzyme has additional, unstudied roles in development. We have utilized zebrafish as a model to determine role of O-GlcNAc modifications in development. Zebrafish has two ogt genes, encoding six different enzymatic isoforms that are expressed maternally and zygotically.
We manipulated O-GlcNAc levels in zebrafish embryos by overexpressing zebrafish ogt, human oga or by injecting morpholinos against ogt transcripts. Each of these treatments results in embryos with shortened body axes and reduced brains at 24 hpf. The embryos had 23% fewer cells than controls, and displayed increased rates of cell death as early as the mid-gastrula stages. An extensive marker analysis indicates that derivatives of three germ layers are reduced to variable extents, and the embryos are severely disorganized after gastrulation. Overexpression of Ogt and Oga delayed epiboly and caused a severe disorganization of the microtubule and actin based cytoskeleton in the extra-embryonic yolk syncytial layer (YSL). The cytoskeletal defects resemble those previously reported for embryos lacking function of the Pou5f1/Oct4 transcription factor spiel ohne grenzen. Consistent with this, Pou5f1/Oct4 is modified by O-GlcNAc in human embryonic stem cells.
We conclude that O-GlcNAc modifications control the activity of proteins that regulate apoptosis and epiboly movements, but do not seem to regulate germ layer specification. O-GlcNAc modifies the transcription factor Spiel ohne grenzen/Pou5f1 and may regulate its activity.
Strategies to discover circulating protein markers of ovarian cancer are urgently needed. We developed a novel technology that permits us to isolate recombinant antibodies directed against the potential serum biomarkers, to facilitate the further development of affinity reagents necessary to construct diagnostic tests.
This study presents a novel discovery approach based on serum immunoprecipitation with cancer-specific in vivo biotinylated recombinant antibodies (biobodies) derived from differentially selected yeast-display scFv, and analysis of the eluted serum proteins by electrophoresis and/or mass spectrometry.
Using this strategy we identified catabolic fragments of complement factors, EMILIN2, Von Willebrand factor and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1 or RKIP) in patient sera. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a soluble form of PEBP1 in human. Independent evidence for ovarian cancer-specific expression of PEBP1 in patient sera was found by ELISA assays and antibody arrays with anti-PEBP1 antibodies. PEBP1 was detected in 29 out of 30 ascites samples and discriminated ovarian cancer sera from controls (p = 0.02). Finally, we confirmed by western blots the presence of a 21–23 kDa fragment corresponding to the expected size of PEBP1 but we also showed additional bands of 38 kDa and 50–52 kDa in various tissues and cell lines.
We conclude that the novel strategy described here allows the identification of candidate biomarkers that can be variants of normally expressed proteins or that display cancer-specific post-translational modifications.
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Gli-family transcription factor TRA-1 is the terminal effector of the sex determination pathway. TRA-1 activity inhibits male development and allows female fates. Genetic studies have indicated that TRA-1 is negatively regulated by the fem-1, fem-2, and fem-3 genes. However, the mechanism of this regulation has not been understood. Here, we present data that TRA-1 is regulated by degradation mediated by a CUL-2-based ubiquitin ligase complex that contains FEM-1 as the substrate-recognition subunit, and FEM-2 and FEM-3 as cofactors. CUL-2 physically associates with both FEM-1 and TRA-1 in vivo, and cul-2 mutant males share feminization phenotypes with fem mutants. CUL-2 and the FEM proteins negatively regulate TRA-1 protein levels in C. elegans. When expressed in human cells, the FEM proteins interact with human CUL2 and induce the proteasome-dependent degradation of TRA-1. This work demonstrates that the terminal step in C. elegans sex determination is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis.