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1.  Psychometric properties of the quality of life scale Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition in a combined analysis of five atomoxetine trials 
Our aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the generic quality of life (QoL) scale Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE) by means of a combined analysis of atomoxetine clinical trials in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individual patient-level data from five clinical trials were included in the combined analysis. Psychometric properties of the CHIP-CE were explored in terms of internal consistency and structure. Patients (n = 794) aged between 6 and 15 years (mean 9.7) with mean baseline ADHD Rating Scale of 41.8 ± 8.04 were included. On average, 0.7 (SD 2.23) items were missing for the whole CHIP-CE. The internal consistency of the CHIP-CE assessed by Cronbach’s alpha was good for all sub-domains at baseline and at endpoint. Considerable ceiling effects were only observed for the “restricted activity” sub-domain. No considerable floor effects were seen. The factor analysis supported the 12-factor solution for the sub-domains, but not the 5-factor solution for the domains. Our analyses were based on a large sample of non-US patients which allowed the measurement of clear changes in QoL over time. The results support that the CHIP-CE scale is psychometrically robust over time in terms of internal consistency and structure.
doi:10.1007/s12402-011-0066-y
PMCID: PMC3220810  PMID: 21986814
Attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Quality of life; Psychometrics; Factor analysis
2.  Differences between children and adolescents in treatment response to atomoxetine and the correlation between health-related quality of life and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder core symptoms: Meta-analysis of five atomoxetine trials 
Objectives
To explore the influence of age on treatment responses to atomoxetine and to assess the relationship between core symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) outcomes.
Data Sources
Data from five similar clinical trials of atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD were included in this meta-analysis.
Study Selection
Atomoxetine studies that used the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and the Child Health and Illness Profile Child Edition (CHIP-CE) as outcome measures were selected.
Interventions
Treatment with atomoxetine.
Main Outcome Measures
Treatment group differences (atomoxetine vs placebo) in terms of total score, domains, and subdomains of the CHIP-CE were compared across age groups, and correlations between ADHD-RS scores and CHIP-CE scores were calculated by age.
Results
Data of 794 subjects (611 children, 183 adolescents) were pooled. At baseline, adolescents showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater impairment compared with children in the Family Involvement, Satisfaction with Self, and Academic Performance subdomains of the CHIP-CE. Treatment effect of atomoxetine was significant in both age groups for the Risk Avoidance domain and its subdomains. There was a significant age-treatment interaction with greater efficacy seen in adolescents in both the Risk Avoidance domain and the Threats to Achievement subdomain. Correlations between ADHD-RS and CHIP-CE scores were generally low at baseline and moderate in change from baseline and were overall similar in adolescents and children.
Conclusions
Atomoxetine was effective in improving some aspects of HR-QoL in both age groups. Correlations between core symptoms of ADHD and HR-QoL were low to moderate.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-4-30
PMCID: PMC3012018  PMID: 21134277
3.  Self-esteem in adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during open-label atomoxetine treatment: psychometric evaluation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and clinical findings 
To report on (1) psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) studied in adolescents with ADHD, (2) correlations of SES with ADHD scale scores, and (3) change in patient-reported self-esteem with atomoxetine treatment. ADHD patients (12–17 years), treated in an open-label study for 24 weeks. Secondary analyses on ADHD symptoms (assessed with ADHD-RS, CGI, GIPD scales) and self-esteem (SES) were performed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated. A dichotomous structure of the SES could be confirmed. Reliability and internal consistency were moderate to excellent. Highest coefficients were found for the correlation between SES and GIPD scores. Self-esteem significantly increased over time, accompanied by an improvement of ADHD symptoms and related perceived difficulties. The Rosenberg SES was shown to be internally consistent, reliable, and sensitive to treatment-related changes of self-esteem. According to these findings, self-esteem may be an important individual patient outcome beyond the core symptoms of ADHD.
doi:10.1007/s12402-009-0011-5
PMCID: PMC2837234  PMID: 20234829
ADHD; Atomoxetine; Self-esteem; Self-confidence; Self-liking
4.  Atomoxetine treatment and ADHD-related difficulties as assessed by adolescent patients, their parents and physicians 
Background
The degree of ADHD-related difficulties – reflecting overall impairment, social functioning, and quality of life – may be perceived differently by adolescent patients, parents and physicians. The primary aim of this study was to investigate ADHD-related difficulties during atomoxetine treatment, as perceived by the three different raters. Secondary objectives focused on effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine treatment in a population of adolescent patients with ADHD.
Methods
Adolescents with ADHD, aged 12–17 years, received open-label atomoxetine (0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day) up to 24 weeks. ADHD-related difficulties at various times of the day were rated using the Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD) instrument. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed using Cohen's Kappa with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and Clinical Global Impression Severity (GGI-S) scores were assessed by the investigator; and spontaneous adverse events, vital signs and laboratory parameters were collected for tolerability assessments.
Results
159 patients received atomoxetine. Patients' baseline mean GIPD total ratings were significantly lower than parents' and physicians' scores (12.5 [95%CI 11.6;13.5] vs. 17.2 [16.2;18.2] and 18.8 [17.8;19.8]). For all raters, GIPD scores significantly improved over time. Changes were greatest within the first two weeks. Kappa coefficients varied between 0.186 [0.112;0.259] and 0.662 [0.529;0.795], with strongest agreements between parent and physician assessments, and significant improvements of patient/physician agreements over time (based on 95% CIs). ADHD-RS and CGI-S scores significantly improved over the course of the study (based on 95% CIs). Tolerability results were consistent with earlier reports.
Conclusion
ADHD-related difficulties were perceived differently by the raters in this open-label trial, but consistently improved during atomoxetine treatment. The GIPD instrument appeared sensitive to treatment-related change. These primarily quantitative findings may guide future studies to more systematically investigate the clinical and practical relevance of the differences observed. Additionally, in order to further validate these results, placebo- and comparator-controlled trials are recommended as well as inclusion of healthy controls and other patient populations.
Trial Registration
Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191737
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-3-21
PMCID: PMC2746185  PMID: 19703299
5.  Morning and evening behavior in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine once daily for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Findings from two 24-week, open-label studies 
Background
The impact of once daily atomoxetine treatment on symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD may vary over the day. In order to capture such variations, two studies were undertaken in children and adolescents with ADHD using two instruments that capture morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties over the day. This secondary measure analysis builds on two primary analyses that were conducted separately for children and adolescents and also published separately.
Methods
In two open-label studies, ADHD patients aged 6–17 years (n = 421), received atomoxetine in the morning (target-dose 0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day) for up to 24 weeks. Morning and evening behavior was assessed using the investigator-rated Weekly Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior (WREMB-R) scale. ADHD-related difficulties at various times of the day (morning, during school, during homework, evening) were assessed using the Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD) scale, rated by patients, parents and physicians. Data from both studies were combined for this secondary measure analysis.
Results
Both WREMB-R subscores decreased significantly over time, the evening subscore from 13.7 (95% CI 13.2;14.2) at baseline to 8.0 (7.4;8.5) at week 2, the morning subscore from 4.3 (4.0;4.5) to 2.4 (2.2;2.6). Scores then remained stable until week 24. All GIPD items improved correspondingly. At all times of the day, patients rated ADHD-related difficulties as less severe than parents and physicians.
Conclusion
These findings from two open-label studies suggest that morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties in the mornings and evenings improve over time with once daily atomoxetine treatment.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-3-5
PMCID: PMC2663547  PMID: 19203355
6.  Change in the direct cost of treatment for children and adolescents with hyperkinetic disorder in Germany over a period of four years 
Background
In many developed countries, the treatment of hyperkinetic disorder (or ADHD) consumes a considerable amount of resources. The primary aim of this study was to determine change in the direct cost of treatment for children and adolescents with hyperkinetic disorder in Germany over time, and compare the cost with the cost of treatment for two physical disorders: epilepsy and asthma.
Methods
The German Federal Statistical Office provided data on the direct cost of treating hyperkinetic disorder, epilepsy and asthma in Germany for 2002, 2004, and 2006. The direct costs of treatment incurred by hyperkinetic disorder in these years were compared with those incurred by epilepsy and asthma.
Results
The total direct cost of treatment for the hyperkinetic disorder was € 177 million in 2002, € 234 million in 2004, and € 341 million in 2006. The largest proportion of the cost was incurred by the age group < 15 years: € 158 million in 2002, € 205 million in 2004, and € 287 million in 2006. The direct cost of treatment for epilepsy in this age group was a total of € 157 million in 2002, € 155 million in 2004, and € 155 million in 2006. For asthma, the total direct cost of treatment in this age group was € 266 million in 2002, € 257 million in 2004, and € 272 million in 2006.
Conclusion
The direct cost of treatment for hyperkinetic disorder in the age group < 15 years increased considerably between 2002 and 2006. Over the same period of time and for the same age group, expenditure for epilepsy and asthma was more or less constant. The increase in expenditure for the treatment of hyperkinetic disorder may be due to increasing demand for diagnostic and therapeutic services and improved availability of such services. The study is limited by the difficulty of obtaining consistent data on the direct cost of treatment for both physical and psychiatric disorders in Germany.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-3-3
PMCID: PMC2654853  PMID: 19175910
7.  Emotional well-being in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Findings from a patient, parent and physician perspective using items from the pediatric adverse event rating scale (PAERS) 
Background
The objective of this analysis was to measure changes in items on the Pediatric Adverse Event Rating Scale (PAERS) that relate to emotional well-being of children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks from the perspective of the patient, the parent, and the physician.
Methods
Patients aged 6–17 years with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg/day). In the two studies on which this secondary analysis is based the PAERS was used to assess the tolerability of atomoxetine in children and adolescents. This scale has a total of 48 items. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were selected to measure changes over time from a patient, parent, and physician perspective.
Results
421 patients were treated with atomoxetine. 355 patients completed the 8-week treatment period, and 260 patients completed the 24-week treatment period. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were grouped in five dimensions: depressed mood, self-harm, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria. The scores of these dimensions decreased over time, both from a patient as well as from a parent and physician perspective. Only the dimension self-harm was extremely low at baseline and stayed low over time. The mean scores for the ten items depended on the rater perspective.
Conclusion
The emotional well-being of children and adolescents with ADHD improved in terms of depressed mood, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and euphoria during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-2-11
PMCID: PMC2430545  PMID: 18507848
8.  Global impression of perceived difficulties in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Reliability and validity of a new instrument assessing perceived difficulties from a patient, parent and physician perspective over the day 
Background
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a brief scale developed to assess the degree of difficulties in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD) scale reflects overall impairment, psychosocial functioning and Quality of Life (QoL) as rated by patient, parents and physician at various times of the day.
Methods
In two open-label studies, ADHD-patients aged 6–17 years were treated with atomoxetine (target-dose 0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day). ADHD-related difficulties were assessed up to week 24 using the GIPD. Data from both studies were combined to validate the scale.
Results
Overall, 421 patients received atomoxetine. GIPD scores improved over time. All three GIPD-versions (patient, parent, physician) were internally consistent; all items showed at least moderate item-total correlation. The scale showed good test-retest reliability over a two-week period from all three perspectives. Good convergent and discriminant validity was shown.
Conclusion
GIPD is an internally consistent, reliable and valid measure to assess difficulties in children with ADHD at various times of the day and can be used as indicator for psychosocial impairment and QoL. The scale is sensitive to treatment-related change.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-2-10
PMCID: PMC2423352  PMID: 18507847

Results 1-8 (8)