The NaV1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel is critical for pain signaling in humans. Gain-of-function mutations are associated with several pain syndromes including inherited erythromelalgia (IEM). Most IEM patients with NaV1.7 mutations are resistant to pharmacotherapy, but carbamazepine (CBZ) normalizes activation of NaV1.7-V400M mutant channels from a family with CBZ-responsive IEM. Here we show that structural modeling and mutant cycle analysis predict pharmacoresponsiveness to CBZ of a NaV1.7 mutant channel that substitutes a residue 159 amino acids distant from V400M in the channel peptide. Structural modeling reveals that this IEM mutation (S241T) is only 2.4-angstrom (Å) apart from V400M in the folded NaV1.7 channel and mutant cycle analysis demonstrates that V400M is energetically coupled to S241T during channel activation. We further show that the atomic proximity and energetic coupling of V400M and S241T are paralleled by pharmacological coupling, as CBZ at therapeutic concentration (30 μM) causes a depolarizing shift of S214T mutant channel activation curve, similar to that previously reported for V400M mutant channel. This pharmacoresponsiveness of S241T to CBZ was further evident at a cellular level, where CBZ normalized the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons expressing S241T mutant channel. We suggest that a similar approach might facilitate screening for amino acid variants of a variety of channels that confer enhanced pharmacoresponsiveness on the channel.
Neurons are highly polarized cells with functionally distinct axonal and somatodendritic compartments. Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 are highly enriched at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier, where they are necessary for generation and propagation of action potentials. Previous studies using reporter proteins in unmyelinated cultured neurons suggest that an ankyrinG-binding motif within intracellular loop 2 (L2) of sodium channels is sufficient for targeting these channels to the AIS, but mechanisms of channel targeting to nodes remain poorly understood. Using a CD4-Nav1.2/L2 reporter protein in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron-Schwann cell myelinating co-cultures, we show that the ankyrinG-binding motif is sufficient for protein targeting to nodes of Ranvier. However, reporter proteins cannot capture the complexity of full-length channels. To determine how native, full-length sodium channels are clustered in axons, and to show the feasibility of studying these channels in vivo, we constructed fluorescently-tagged and functional mouse Nav1.6 channels for in vivo analysis using in utero brain electroporation. We show here that wild-type tagged-Nav1.6 channels are efficiently clustered at nodes and AIS in vivo. Furthermore, we show that mutation of a single invariant glutamic acid residue (E1100) within the ankyrinG-binding motif blocked Nav1.6 targeting in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we show that caseine kinase phosphorylation sites within this motif, while not essential for targeting, can modulate clustering at the AIS. Thus, the ankyrinG- binding motif is both necessary and sufficient for the clustering of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier and the AIS.
Ion Channel; Axon Initial Segment; Nodes of Ranvier; cytoskeleton; in utero electroporation
Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn.
Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF), exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals.
The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.
Dorsal root ganglia; Dorsal horn; Intraepidermal nerve fiber; Pain pathway; Sodium channel; Spinal cord
Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells has been shown to reduce infarct size and improve functional outcome in animal models of stroke. Here, we report a study designed to assess feasibility and safety of transplantation of autologous human mesenchymal stem cells expanded in autologous human serum in stroke patients. We report an unblinded study on 12 patients with ischaemic grey matter, white matter and mixed lesions, in contrast to a prior study on autologous mesenchymal stem cells expanded in foetal calf serum that focused on grey matter lesions. Cells cultured in human serum expanded more rapidly than in foetal calf serum, reducing cell preparation time and risk of transmissible disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalomyelitis. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were delivered intravenously 36–133 days post-stroke. All patients had magnetic resonance angiography to identify vascular lesions, and magnetic resonance imaging prior to cell infusion and at intervals up to 1 year after. Magnetic resonance perfusion-imaging and 3D-tractography were carried out in some patients. Neurological status was scored using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. We did not observe any central nervous system tumours, abnormal cell growths or neurological deterioration, and there was no evidence for venous thromboembolism, systemic malignancy or systemic infection in any of the patients following stem cell infusion. The median daily rate of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change was 0.36 during the first week post-infusion, compared with a median daily rate of change of 0.04 from the first day of testing to immediately before infusion. Daily rates of change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores during longer post-infusion intervals that more closely matched the interval between initial scoring and cell infusion also showed an increase following cell infusion. Mean lesion volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging was reduced by >20% at 1 week post-cell infusion. While we would emphasize that the current study was unblinded, did not assess overall function or relative functional importance of different types of deficits, and does not exclude placebo effects or a contribution of recovery as a result of the natural history of stroke, our observations provide evidence supporting the feasibility and safety of delivery of a relatively large dose of autologous mesenchymal human stem cells, cultured in autologous human serum, into human subjects with stroke and support the need for additional blinded, placebo-controlled studies on autologous mesenchymal human stem cell infusion in stroke.
stroke; cerebrovascular disease; stem cell; mesenchymal stem cells; bone marrow-derived stem cells; cell transplantation
A novel SCN1A mutation was discovered in a patient who clinically fulfilled the criteria for malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy. The full-term female patient had seizure onset at two months, with progression of hemiclonic, apneic, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures leading to recurrent status epilepticus and fatality at nine months of age. The ictal EEG showed migratory seizure foci and evolved until ictal and interictal EEGs became indistinguishable. We further characterize this novel SCN1A mutation in our patient.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood and submitted for commercial testing. The missense mutation was confirmed in brain DNA obtained at autopsy. Genomic DNA from patient brain was analyzed by comparative genome hybridization and the coding exons of SCN9A were amplified. Quantitation studies of the mutant transcript were performed.
The heterozygous missense mutation c.C5006A was identified by sequencing genomic DNA from blood and was confirmed in brain DNA. The resulting amino acid substitution p.A1669E alters an evolutionarily conserved residue in an intracellular linker of domain 4 of the channel protein. The mutant transcript is found to be expressed at levels comparable to the wildtype allele in brain RNA. No variation in copy number was detected in the chromosome region 2q24 containing SCN1A or elsewhere in the genome. No mutations were detected in the linked sodium channel gene SCN9A, which has been reported to act as a modifier of SCN1A mutations.
This report expands the spectrum of SCN1A epileptic channelopathies to include malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy.
Mechanical hyperalgesia is a common and potentially disabling complication of many inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. Activation of the enzyme PKCε in primary afferent nociceptors is a major mechanism that underlies mechanical hyperalgesia, but the PKCε substrates involved downstream are not known. Here, we report that in a proteomic screen we identified the NaV1.8 sodium channel, which is selectively expressed in nociceptors, as a PKCε substrate. PKCε-mediated phosphorylation increased NaV1.8 currents, lowered the threshold voltage for activation, and produced a depolarizing shift in inactivation in wild-type — but not in PKCε-null — sensory neurons. PKCε phosphorylated NaV1.8 at S1452, and alanine substitution at this site blocked PKCε modulation of channel properties. Moreover, a specific PKCε activator peptide, ψεRACK, produced mechanical hyperalgesia in wild-type mice but not in Scn10a–/– mice, which lack NaV1.8 channels. These studies demonstrate that NaV1.8 is an important, direct substrate of PKCε that mediates PKCε-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia.
Current treatments for epilepsy may control seizures, but have no known effects on the underlying disease. We sought to determine whether early treatment in a model of genetic epilepsy would reduce the severity of the epilepsy phenotype in adulthood.
We used Wistar albino Glaxo rats of Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats, an established model of human absence epilepsy. Oral ethosuximide was given from age p21 to 5 months, covering the usual period in which seizures develop in this model (age ~3 months). Two experiments were performed: (1) cortical expression of ion channels Nav1.1, Nav1.6, and HCN1 (previously shown to be dysregulated in WAG/Rij) measured by immunocytochemistry in adult treated rats; and (2) electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to measure seizure severity at serial time points after stopping the treatment.
Early treatment with ethosuximide blocked changes in the expression of ion channels Nav1.1, Nav1.6, and HCN1 normally associated with epilepsy in this model. In addition, the treatment led to a persistent suppression of seizures, even after therapy was discontinued. Thus, animals treated with ethosuximide from age p21 to 5 months still had a marked suppression of seizures at age 8 months.
These findings suggest that early treatment during development may provide a new strategy for preventing epilepsy in susceptible individuals. If confirmed with other drugs and epilepsy paradigms, the availability of a model in which epileptogenesis can be controlled has important implications both for future basic studies, and human therapeutic trials.
Epileptogenesis; Activity-dependent; Prevention; Idiopathic generalized epilepsy; Sodium channels; HCN1
Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 is preferentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic neurons within the peripheral nervous system. Homozygous or compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene which encodes Nav1.7, cause congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) accompanied by anosmia. Global knock-out of Nav1.7 in mice is neonatal lethal reportedly from starvation, suggesting anosmia. These findings led us to hypothesize that Nav1.7 is the main sodium channel in the peripheral olfactory sensory neurons (OSN, also known as olfactory receptor neurons).
We used multiplex PCR-restriction enzyme polymorphism, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine the identity of sodium channels in rodent OSNs.
We show here that Nav1.7 is the predominant sodium channel transcript, with low abundance of other sodium channel transcripts, in olfactory epithelium from rat and mouse. Our in situ hybridization data show that Nav1.7 transcripts are present in rat OSNs. Immunostaining of Nav1.7 and Nav1.6 channels in rat shows a complementary accumulation pattern with Nav1.7 in peripheral presynaptic OSN axons, and Nav1.6 primarily in postsynaptic cells and their dendrites in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb within the central nervous system.
Our data show that Nav1.7 is the dominant sodium channel in rat and mouse OSN, and may explain anosmia in Nav1.7 null mouse and patients with Nav1.7-related CIP.
Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals.
Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro.
NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.
The Intracellular Fibroblast Growth Factor (iFGF) subfamily includes four members (FGFs 11–14) of the structurally related FGF superfamily. Previous studies showed that the iFGFs interact directly with the pore-forming (α) subunits of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels and regulate the functional properties of sodium channel currents. Sequence heterogeneity among the iFGFs is thought to confer specificity to this regulation. Here, we demonstrate that the two N-terminal alternatively spliced FGF14 variants, FGF14-1a and FGF14-1b, differentially regulate currents produced by Nav1.2-and Nav1.6 channels. FGF14-1b, but not FGF14-1a, attenuates both Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 current densities. In contrast, co-expression of an FGF14 mutant, lacking the N-terminus, increased Nav1.6 current densities. In neurons, both FGF14-1a and FGF14-1b localized at the axonal initial segment, and deletion of the N-terminus abolished this localization. Thus, the FGF14 N-terminus is required for targeting and functional regulation of Nav channels, suggesting an important function for FGF14 alternative splicing in regulating neuronal excitability.
A direct role of sodium channels in pain has recently been confirmed by establishing a monogenic link between SCN9A, the gene which encodes sodium channel Nav1.7, and pain disorders in humans, with gain-of-function mutations causing severe pain syndromes, and loss-of-function mutations causing congenital indifference to pain. Expression of sodium channel Nav1.8 in DRG neurons has also been shown to be essential for the manifestation of mutant Nav1.7-induced neuronal hyperexcitability. These findings have confirmed key roles of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 in pain and identify these channels as novel targets for pain therapeutic development. Ranolazine preferentially blocks cardiac late sodium currents at concentrations that do not significantly reduce peak sodium current. Ranolazine also blocks wild-type Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels in a use-dependent manner. However, ranolazine's effects on gain-of-function mutations of Nav1.7 and on DRG neuron excitability have not been investigated. We used voltage- and current-clamp recordings to evaluate the hypothesis that ranolazine may be effective in regulating Nav1.7-induced DRG neuron hyperexcitability.
We show that ranolazine produces comparable block of peak and ramp currents of wild-type Nav1.7 and mutant Nav1.7 channels linked to Inherited Erythromelalgia and Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder. We also show that ranolazine, at a clinically-relevant concentration, blocks high-frequency firing of DRG neurons expressing wild-type but not mutant channels.
Our data suggest that ranalozine can attenuate hyperexcitability of DRG neurons over-expressing wild-type Nav1.7 channels, as occurs in acquired neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and thus merits further study as an alternative to existing non-selective sodium channel blockers.
Two groups of gain-of-function mutations in sodium channel NaV1.7, which are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, produce two clinically-distinct pain syndromes - inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). IEM is characterized by intermittent burning pain and skin redness in the feet or hands, triggered by warmth or mild exercise, while PEPD is characterized by episodes of rectal, ocular and mandibular pain accompanied with skin flushing, triggered by bowel movement and perianal stimulation. Most of the IEM mutations are located within channel domains I and II, while most of the PEPD mutations are located within domains III and IV. The structural dichotomy parallels the biophysical effects of the two types of mutations, with IEM mutations shifting voltage-dependence of NaV1.7 activation in a hyperpolarized direction, and PEPD mutations shifting fast-inactivation of NaV1.7 in a depolarized direction. While four IEM and four PEPD mutations are located within cytoplasmic linkers joining segments 4 and 5 (S4-S5 linkers) in the different domains (IEM: domains I and II; PEPD: domains III and IV), no S4-S5 linker has been reported to house both IEM and PEPD mutations thus far.
We have identified a new IEM mutation P1308L within the C-terminus of the DIII/S4-S5 linker of NaV1.7, ten amino acids from a known PEPD mutation V1298F which is located within the N-terminus of this linker. We used voltage-clamp to compare the biophysical properties of the two mutant channels and current-clamp to study their effects on DRG neuron excitability. We confirm that P1308L and V1298F behave as prototypical IEM and PEPD mutations, respectively. We also show that DRG neurons expressing either P1308L or V1298F become hyperexcitable, compared to DRG neurons expressing wild-type channels.
Our results provide evidence for differential roles of the DIII/S4-S5 linker N- and C-termini in channel inactivation and activation, and demonstrate the cellular basis for pain in patients carrying these mutations.
Sensory neurons in aging mammals undergo changes in anatomy, physiology and gene expression that correlate with reduced sensory perception. In this study we compared young and aged mice to identify proteins that might contribute to this loss of sensation. We first show using behavioral testing that thermal sensitivity in aged male and female mice is reduced. Expression of sodium channel (Nav1.8 and Nav1.9) and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels in DRG and peripheral nerves of young and old male mice was then examined. Immunoblotting and RT-PCR assays showed reduced Nav1.8 levels in aged mice. No change was measured in TRPV1 mRNA levels in DRG though TRPV1 protein appeared reduced in the DRG and peripheral nerves. The GFRα3 receptor, which binds the growth factor artemin and is expressed by TRPV1-positive neurons, was also decreased in the DRG of aged animals. These findings indicate that loss of thermal sensitivity in aging animals may result from a decreased level of TRPV1 and Nav1.8 and decreased trophic support that inhibits efficient transport of channel proteins to peripheral afferents.
Sensory neuron; Vanilloid receptor; TRPV1; Sodium channel; Behavior; Thermal sensitivity
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) is a member of the MRP/ATP-binding cassette family serving as a transmembrane transporter involved in energy-dependent efflux of anticancer/antiviral nucleotide agents and of physiological substrates, including cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins (PGs). Phenotypic consequences of mrp4 deficiency were investigated using mrp4-knockout mice and derived immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Mrp4 deficiency caused decreased extracellular and increased intracellular levels of cAMP in MEF cells under normal and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Mrp4 deficiency and RNA interference-mediated mrp4 knockdown led to a pronounced reduction in extracellular PGE2 but with no accumulation of intracellular PGE2 in MEF cells. This result was consistent with attenuated cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression in mrp4-deficient MEF cells, suggesting that PG synthesis is restrained along with a lack of PG transport caused by mrp4 deficiency. Mice lacking mrp4 exhibited no outward phenotypes but had a decrease in plasma PGE metabolites and an increase in inflammatory pain threshold compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings imply that mrp4 mediates the efflux of PGE2 and concomitantly modulates cAMP mediated signaling for balanced PG synthesis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mrp4 affects the regulation of peripheral PG levels and consequently alters inflammatory nociceptive responses in vivo.
The ENU-induced neurological mutant ataxia3 was mapped to distal mouse chromosome 15. Sequencing of the positional candidate gene Scn8a encoding the sodium channel Nav1.6 identified a T>C transition in exon 1 resulting in the amino acid substitution p.S21P near the N-terminus of the channel. The cytoplasmic N-terminal region is evolutionarily conserved but its function has not been well characterized. ataxia3 homozygotes exhibit a severe disorder that includes ataxia, tremor, and juvenile lethality. Unlike Scn8a null mice, they retain partial hind limb function. The mutant transcript is stable but protein abundance is reduced and the mutant channel is not detected in its usual site of concentration at nodes of Ranvier. In whole cell patch-clamp studies of transfected ND7/23 cells which were maintained at 37°C, the mutant channel did not produce sodium current, and function was not restored by co-expression of β1 and β2 subunits. However, when tranfected cells were maintained at 30°C, the mutant channel generated voltage-dependent inward sodium currents with an average peak current density comparable to wildtype, demonstrating recovery of channel activity. Immunohistochemistry of primary cerebellar granule cells from ataxia3 mice demonstrated that the mutant protein is retained in the cis-Golgi. This trafficking defect can account for the low level of Nav1.6-S21P at nodes of Ranvier in vivo and at the surface of transfected cells. The data demonstrate that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the sodium channel is required for anterograde transport from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane.
SCN8A; Nav1.6; sodium channel; channelopathy; trafficking; mutant
Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from dissociated mouse lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Recordings were made from control neurons and neurons axotomized by transection of the corresponding spinal nerve 1–2 days prior to dissociation. Medium to large muscle and cutaneous afferent neurons were identified by retrograde transport of True Blue or Fluoro-Gold injected into the corresponding peripheral tissue. Action potentials were classified as non-inflected spikes (A0) and inflected spikes (Ainf). High-frequency, low-amplitude subthreshold membrane potential oscillations were observed in 8% of control A0 neurons, but their incidence increased to 31% in the nerve injury group. Fifty percent of axotomized muscle afferent A0 cells displayed oscillations, while 26% of axotomized cutaneous afferents exhibited oscillations. Lower-frequency oscillations were also observed in a small fraction (4%) of Ainf neurons on strong depolarization. Their numbers were increased after the nerve injury, but the difference was not statistically significant. The oscillations often triggered burst firing in distinct patterns of action potential activity. These results indicate that injury-induced membrane oscillations of DRG neurons, previously observed in whole DRG of rats, are present in dissociated DRG neurons of the adult mouse. Moreover, these observations indicate that both muscle and cutaneous afferents in the Aβ size range give rise to injury-induced membrane oscillations, with muscle afferents being more prone to develop oscillations.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Voltage-dependent Na+ conductances were studied in small (18–25 μm diam) adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with the use of the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Na+ currents were also recorded from larger (44–50 μm diam) neurons and compared with those of the small neurons.The predominant Na+ conductance in the small neurons was selective over tetramethylammonium by at least 10-fold and was resistant to 1 μM external tetrodotoxin (TTX). Na+ conductances in many larger DRG neurons were kinetically faster and, in contrast, were blocked by 1 μM TTX.The Na+ conductance in the small neurons was kinetically slow. Activation half-times were voltage dependent and ranged from 2 ms at −20 mV to 0.7 ms at +50 mV. Approximately 50% of the activation half-time was comprised of an initial delay. Inactivation half-times were voltage dependent and ranged from 11 ms at −20 mV to 2 ms at +50 mV.Peak slow Na+ conductances were near maximal with conditioning potentials negative to −120 mV and were significantly reduced or eliminated with conditioning potentials positive to −40 mV. The slow Na+ conductance increased gradually with test potentials extending from −40 to +40 mV. In some cells the conductance could be saturated at +10 mV. Peak conductance/voltage relationships, although stable in a given neuron, revealed marked variability among neurons, spanning >20- and 50-mV domains for steady-state activation and inactivation (current availability), respectively.Kinetics remained stable within a given neuron over the course of an experiment. However, considerable kinetic variation was exhibited from neuron to neuron, such that the half-times of activation and of inactivation spanned an order of magnitude. In all small neurons studied there appeared to be a singular kinetic component of the current, based on sensitivity to the conditioning potential, voltage dependence of activation, and inactivation half-time.Unique closing properties were exhibited by Na+ channels of the small neurons. Hyperpolarization following a depolarization-induced fully inactivated state resulted in tail currents that appeared to be the consequence of reactivation of the slow Na+ conductance. Tail currents recorded at various times during a fixed level of depolarization revealed that the underlying channels accumulated into a volatile inactivated state over the course of the preceding depolarization.Larger neurons had a different repertoire of Na+ conductances, with either only a TTX-sensitive, kinetically fast type, or a combination of fast TTX-sensitive and slow currents. In larger neurons the kinetically separable fast current had a greater sensitivity to the conditioning potential, i.e., a left-shifted steady-state inactivation curve.The different properties of the slow Na+ conductance in different neurons is likely to reflect heterogeneity of the structure of the underlying channel molecule. Although consistent with what others have found in equivalent preparations, this heterogeneity is far broader in scope than what has so far been described. We suggest that biosynthetic constraints within a given small neuron maintain ion channel uniformity.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Intraaxonal recordings were obtained in vitro from the sural nerve (SN), the muscle branch of the anterior tibial nerve (ATN), or the deefferented ATN (dATN) in 5- to 7-wk-old rats. Whole-nerve sucrose gap recordings were obtained from the SN and the ATN. This allowed study of cutaneous (SN), mixed motor and muscle afferent (ATN), and isolated muscle afferent (dATN) axons.Application of the potassium channel blocking agent 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to ATN or dATN resulted in a slight prolongation of the action potential. In contrast, a distinct delayed depolarization followed the axonal action potential in cutaneous afferents (SN) exposed to 4-AP. The delayed depolarization could be induced by a single whole-nerve stimulus or by injection of constant-current depolarizing pulses into individual axons. The delayed depolarization often gave rise to bursts of action potentials and was followed by a prominent afterhyperpolarization (AHP).In paired-pulse experiments on single SN axons, the recovery time (half-amplitude of the action potential) was 3.06 ± 1.82 (SE) ms (n = 12). After exposure to 4-AP the recovery time of the delayed depolarization was considerably longer (half-recovery time: 99.0 ± 28.3 ms; n = 15) than that of the action potential (18.8 ± 9.1 ms; n = 16).Application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to cutaneous or muscle afferents alone had little effect on single action potential waveform. However, TEA reduced the amplitude of the AHP elicited by a single stimulus in cutaneous afferent axons after exposure to 4-AP and resulted in repetitive spike discharge.The delayed depolarization and spike burst activity induced by 4-AP in SN was present in Ca2+ -free solutions containing 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid and was not blocked by Cd2+ (1.0 mM).We obtained whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to study Na+ currents from either randomly selected dorsal root ganglion neurons or cutaneous afferent neurons identified by retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold. The majority of the randomly selected neurons had a singular kinetically fast Na+ current. In contrast, no identified cutaneous afferent neurons had a singular fast Na+ current. Rather, they had a combination of kinetically separable fast and slow currents or a singular relatively slow Na+ current.These results demonstrate a difference in the sensitivity of myelinated cutaneous and muscle afferent axons to blockade of a 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel. Cutaneous afferent axons give rise to a prominent depolarizing potential after the action potential, which is not present in the muscle afferent or motor axons. We propose that cutaneous afferent axons have kinetically slow Na+ channels not present in muscle afferent and efferent fibers, whose activation underlies the delayed depolarization and multiple spike discharge. The results indicate a difference in the Na+ channel organization of myelinated cutaneous versus muscle afferent axons and their cell bodies.
Although remyelination of demyelinated CNS axons is known to occur after transplantation of exogenous glial cells, previous studies have not determined whether cell transplantation can restore the conduction properties of demyelinated axons in the adult CNS. To examine this issue, the dorsal columns of the adult rat spinal cord were demyelinated by x-irradiation and intraspinal injections of ethidium bromide. Cell suspensions of cultured astrocytes and Schwann cells derived from neonatal rats transfected with the (β-galactosidase) reporter gene were injected into the glial-free lesion site. After 3–4 weeks nearly all of the demyelinated axons were remyelinated by the transplanted Schwann cells. The dorsal columns were removed and maintained in an in vitro recording chamber; conduction properties were studied using field potential and intra-axonal recording techniques. The demyelinated axons exhibited conduction slowing and block, and a reduction in their ability to follow high-frequency stimulation. Axons remyelinated by transplantation of cultured Schwann cells exhibited restoration of conduction through the lesion, with reestablishment of normal conduction velocity. The axons remyelinated after transplantation showed enhanced impulse recovery to paired-pulse stimulation and greater frequency-following capability as compared with both demyelinated and control axons. These results demonstrate the functional repair of demyelinated axons in the adult CNS by transplantation of cultured myelin-forming cells from the peripheral nervous system in combination with astrocytes.
demyelination; remyelination; cell transplantation; Schwann cells; astrocytes; restoration of conduction
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which have properties of both astrocytes and Schwann cells, can remyelinate axons with a Schwann cell-like pattern of myelin. In this study the pattern and extent of remyelination and the electrophysiological properties of dorsal column axons were characterized after transplantation of OECs into a demyelinated rat spinal cord lesion. Dorsal columns of adult rat spinal cords were demyelinated by x-ray irradiation and focal injections of ethidium bromide. Cell suspensions of acutely dissociated OECs from neonatal rats were injected into the lesion 6 d after x-ray irradiation. At 21–25 d after transplantation of OECs, the spinal cords were maintained in an in vitro recording chamber to study the conduction properties of the axons. The remyelinated axons displayed improved conduction velocity and frequency–response properties, and action potentials were conducted a greater distance into the lesion, suggesting that conduction block was overcome. Quantitative histological analysis revealed remyelinated axons near and remote from the cell injection site, indicating extensive migration of OECs within the lesion. These data support the conclusion that transplantation of neonatal OECs results in quantitatively extensive and functional remyelination of demyelinated dorsal column axons.
olfactory ensheathing cell; transplantation; demyelination; remyelination; dorsal column; spinal cord
Differential effects of NGF and BDNF on axotomy-induced changes in GABAA-receptor-mediated conductance and sodium currents in cutaneous afferent neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 31–42, 1997. The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on injury-induced changes in the electrophysiological properties of adult rat cutaneous afferent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were examined. Whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA)-receptor-mediated conductance, voltage-dependent sodium currents, and action potential waveform in cutaneous afferent neurons (35–60 μm diam) cultured from control and axotomized animals. Cutaneous afferent neurons were identified by retrograde labeling with hydroxy-stilbamidine (Fluoro-gold, a fluorescent retrograde axonal tracer); the sciatic nerve was transected 1 wk after Fluoro-gold injection and L4/L5 DRG neurons were cultured 2–3 wk after axotomy. NGF, BDNF, or Ringer (vehicle) solution was delivered in vivo directly to the transected sciatic nerve stump in axotomized rats via an osmotic pump. Recordings were obtained from neurons 5–24 h after culture. Axotomized neurons from rats treated with vehicle solution displayed a twofold increase in GABA-induced conductance and a prominent reduction in the proportion of neurons expressing action potentials that had inflections on the falling phase. The expression of kinetically slow tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium current was markedly reduced and an increased expression of kinetically fast TTX-sensitive current was observed in neurons from vehicle-treated, axotomized rats. Treatment with NGF (0.25 μg/μl at 12 μl/day for 14 days) in axotomized animals resulted in an increase in the proportion of neurons expressing TTX-resistant, slow sodium currents and inflected action potentials, but had no effect on GABA-induced conductance. Treatment with BDNF (0.5 μg/μl at 12 μl/day for 14 days) attenuated the axotomy-induced increase in GABAA-receptor-mediated conductance while minimally affecting action potential waveform. The observed neurotrophin effects occurred independently of cell size changes. These findings indicate a differential regulation of GABAA receptor and sodium channel properties in axotomized rat cutaneous afferent neurons by specific neurotrophic factors.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In situ hybridization with subtype-specific probes was used to ask whether there is a change in the types of sodium channels that are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after axotomy.Types I and II sodium channel mRNA are expressed at moderate-to-high levels in control DRG neurons of adult rat, but type III sodium channel mRNA is not detectable.When adult rat DRG neurons are examined by in situ hybridization 7–9 days following axotomy, type III sodium channel mRNA is expressed at moderate-to-high levels, in addition to types I and II mRNA that are present at relatively high levels.To determine whether the expression of type III sodium channel mRNA following axotomy represents up-regulation of a gene that had been expressed at earlier developmental stages, we also studied DRG neurons from embryonic (E17) rats. In these embryonic DRG neurons, type I sodium channel mRNA is expressed at low levels, type II mRNA at high levels, and type III at high levels.These results demonstrate altered expression of sodium channel mRNA in DRG neurons following axotomy, and suggest that in at least some DRG neurons, there is a de-differentiation after axotomy that includes a reversion to an embryonic mode of sodium channel expression. Different channel characteristics, as well as an altered spatial distribution of sodium channels, may contribute to the electrophysiological changes that are observed in axotomized neurons.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The permeability of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate channels to divalent cations and specifically the entry of Ca2+ and subsequent elevations in cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ signals were investigated in cultured neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells using the whole cell patch-clamp technique and Ca2+ imaging with confocal microscopy. In addition, divalent-permeable non-NMDA receptor channels were studied in retinal slices using a Co2+ staining technique.Using Ca2+ (2.5 mM) as the only permeable cation in the external solution, stimulation with 100 μM kainate produced nondesensitizing, nonselective cation currents with either low or high Ca2+ permeability. Both currents were reversibly blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Neurons with the low divalent-permeable currents (type 1) had reversal potentials of −41.5 ± 4.4 mV (mean ± SD), and neurons with the high divalent-permeable currents (type 2) had reversal potentials of −22.6 ± 5.5 mV. The permeability ratio PCa/PCs was 3.3 for the type 1 currents and 8.5 for the type 2 currents, indicating a 2.5-fold greater permeability to Ca2+ for the type 2 non-NMDA glutamate channels.Both types of non-NMDA glutamate channels showed relatively little selectivity between Ca2+ and Co2+. The type 1 neurons had a slightly higher permeability to Co2+ than to Ca2+, whereas the type 2 neurons were equally permeable to both divalent cations. The type 2 neurons had a much higher permeability for both divalent cations compared with the type 1 neurons.Staining for Co2+ uptake through kainate-stimulated non-NMDA glutamate channels in retinal slices provided additional evidence for the presence of the two ganglion cell populations. Activation of the neurons by kainate in conditions isolating the non-NMDA glutamate channel caused differential uptake of Co2+. In contrast, depolarization in the presence of the non-NMDA antagonist CNQX failed to cause Co2+ influx.Imaging experiments using confocal microscopy showed that kainate stimulation induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in both types of retinal ganglion cells, but only the type 2 neurons showed a substantial increase in cytoplasmic and nuclear Ca2+ signals. Kainate-induced Ca2+ signals in the type 2 neurons were almost nine times greater than those of the type 1 neurons.When intracellular Ca2+ stores were depleted by brief treatment with thapsigargin, kainate-induced Ca2+ signals in the type 1 neurons were unchanged. However, in the type 2 neurons kainate no longer induced large Ca2+ signals in the cytoplasm and nucleus, despite normal influx of Ca2+. After thapsigargin treatment, kainate-induced Ca2+ signals in the type 2 neurons were reduced to the levels of the treated or untreated type 1 neurons. Calcium influx via the type 2 receptor channels therefore appears capable of triggering the release of intracellular Ca2+ stores.The two types of non-NMDA glutamate channels described here are likely to contribute to a variety of Ca2+-dependent intracellular processes. Glutamate may differentially affect intracellular Ca2+ in retinal ganglion cells. In particular, it appears that Ca2+ entry via the high divalent-permeable type 2 non-NMDA glutamate channel can trigger Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and thereby amplify intracellular Ca2+ signals.
Myelin-forming glial cells transplanted into the demyelinated spinal cord can form compact myelin and improve conduction properties. However, little is known of the expression and organization of voltage-gated ion channels in the remyelinated central axons or whether the exogenous cells provide appropriate signaling for the maturation of nodes of Ranvier. Here, we transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing donor rats [GFP-olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs)] into a region of spinal cord demyelination and found extensive remyelination, which included the development of mature nodal, paranodal, and juxtaparanodal domains, as assessed by ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological analyses. In remyelinated axons, Nav1.6 was clustered at nodes, whereas Kv1.2 was aggregated in juxtaparanodal regions, recapitulating the distribution of these channels within mature nodes of uninjured axons. Moreover, the recruitment of Nav and Kv channels to specific membrane domains at remyelinated nodes persisted for at least 8 weeks after GFP-OEC transplantation. In vivo electrophysiological recordings demonstrated enhanced conduction along the GFP-OEC-remyelinated axons. These findings indicate that, in addition to forming myelin, engrafted GFP-OECs provide an environment that supports the development and maturation of nodes of Ranvier and the restoration of impulse conduction in central demyelinated axons.
axon; spinal cord injury; potassium channels; olfactory bulb; sodium channel; remyelination; transplantation; demyelination
Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into the damaged rat spinal cord leads to directed elongative axonal regeneration and improved functional outcome. OECs are known to produce a number of neurotrophic molecules. To explore the possibility that OECs are neuroprotective for injured corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, we transplanted OECs into the dorsal transected spinal cord (T9) and examined primary motor cortex (M1) to assess apoptosis and neuronal loss at 1 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. The number of apoptotic cortical neurons was reduced at 1 week, and the extent of neuronal loss was reduced at 4 weeks. Biochemical analysis indicated an increase in BDNF levels in the spinal cord injury zone after OEC transplantation at 1 week. The transplanted OECs associated longitudinally with axons at 4 weeks. Thus, OEC transplantation into the injured spinal cord has distant neuroprotective effects on descending cortical projection neurons.
olfactory ensheathing cells; spinal cord injury; apoptosis; corticospinal neurons; cell transplantation; neuroprotection