To describe clinical characteristics and immunotherapy responses in patients with autoimmune epilepsy.
Observational, retrospective case series.
Mayo Clinic Health System.
Thirty-two patients with an exclusive (n=11) or predominant (n = 21) seizure presentation in whom an autoimmune etiology was suspected (on the basis of neural autoantibody [91%], inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid [31%], or magnetic resonance imaging suggesting inflammation [63%]) were studied. All had partial seizures: 81% had failed treatment with 2 or more anti-epileptic drugs and had daily seizures and 38% had seizure semiologies that were multifocal or changed with time. Head magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 15 (47%) at onset. Electroencephalogram abnormalities included interictal epileptiform discharges in 20; electrographic seizures in 15; and focal slowing in 13. Neural autoantibodies included voltage-gated potassium channel complex in 56% (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 specific, 14; contactin-associated proteinlike 2 specific, 1); glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 in 22%; collapsin response-mediator protein 5 in 6%; and Ma2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor in 1 patient each.
Immunotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone; intravenous immune globulin; and combinations of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclo-phosphamide.
Main Outcome Measure
After a median interval of 17 months (range, 3–72 months), 22 of 27 (81%) reported improvement postimmunotherapy; 18 were seizure free. The median time from seizure onset to initiating immunotherapy was 4 months for responders and 22 months for nonresponders (P<.05). All voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patients reported initial or lasting benefit (P<.05). One voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patient was seizure free after thyroid cancer resection; another responded to antiepileptic drug change alone.
When clinical and serological clues suggest an autoimmune basis for medically intractable epilepsy, early-initiated immunotherapy may improve seizure outcome.
The 2012 Varsity Medical Debate between Oxford University and Cambridge University provided a stage for representatives from these famous institutions to debate the motion “This house believes that trainee doctors should be able to use the developing world to gain clinical experience.” This article brings together many of the arguments put forward during the debate, centring around three major points of contention: the potential intrinsic wrong of ‘using’ patients in developing countries; the effects on the elective participant; and the effects on the host community. The article goes on to critically appraise overseas elective programmes, offering a number of solutions that would help optimise their effectiveness in the developing world.
Elective; Education; Clinical experience; Overseas; Developing world
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: ‘is water washout more effective than normal saline washout after lobectomy in preventing local recurrence?’ Altogether more than 48 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Tumour cell ‘spillage’ after cancer resection is linked to a worse prognosis, so washout to minimize contamination is an established surgical technique. While the mechanical effects of lavage are well validated, the differential cytocidal effects of water versus saline as irrigation fluids are not. There are currently no studies addressing this issue in the thoracic surgery setting, after lung cancer lobectomy. However, the majority of relevant papers describe the use of basic in vitro methods and animal models to produce data that can conceivably be extrapolated to the clinical question in hand. The number of studies is small, and some have technical limitations. While two of the better-designed experiments suggest that water exerts a superior cytocidal effect on tumour cells, data from other studies are somewhat unimpressive, with two studies reporting that water washout controls tumour growth to a lesser extent than saline. This, together with the complete paucity of clinical trials on the subject, leads us to conclude that water is unlikely to represent a superior irrigation fluid in lung cancer patients after lobectomy.
Water; Saline; Washout; Lobectomy; Cancer
GPR39 is a GPCR implicated as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report that GPR39 is expressed by a specific cell population cultured from mouse small intestine muscle layers, which was subsequently identified as fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) that have recently been shown to modulate gut motility. Application of the GPR39 agonist, Zn2+, induced large currents and membrane depolarization in FLCs cultured from wild-type mice, but not Gpr39−/− mice. This Zn2+-induced current could be suppressed by application of a TMEM16A antagonist, CaCCinh-A01, or by silencing Tmem16a expression. These data suggest that GPR39 might modulate gut motility via regulating TMEM16A function in FLCs.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established neurosurgical technique used to treat a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study reports on the use of intraoperative MR imaging during DBS surgery to evaluate acute hemorrhage, intracranial air, brain shift, and accuracy of lead placement.
During a 46-month period, 143 patients underwent 152 DBS surgeries including 289 lead placements utilizing intraoperative 1.5-T MR imaging. Imaging was supervised by an MR imaging physicist to maintain the specific absorption rate below the required level of 0.1 W/kg and always included T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo and T2* gradient echo sequences with selected use of T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 fast spin echo (FSE). Retrospective review of the intraoperative MR imaging examinations was performed to quantify the amount of hemorrhage and the amount of air introduced during the DBS surgery.
Intraoperative MR imaging revealed 5 subdural hematomas, 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 1 intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in 9 of the 143 patients. Only 1 patient experiencing a subarachnoid hemorrhage developed clinically apparent symptoms, which included transient severe headache and mild confusion. Brain shift due to intracranial air was identified in 144 separate instances.
Intraoperative MR imaging can be safely performed and may assist in demonstrating acute changes involving intracranial hemorrhage and air during DBS surgery. These findings are rarely clinically significant and typically resolve prior to follow-up imaging. Selective use of T2 FLAIR and T2 FSE imaging can confirm the presence of hemorrhage or air and preclude the need for CT examinations.
deep brain stimulation; intraoperative MR imaging; Parkinson disease; intracranial hemorrhage; functional neurosurgery
This paper discusses the science–policy interface, emphasizing the role of evidence and scientific assessments. It then presents the key findings from the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA), which provided much of the evidence for the Natural Environment White Paper for England as a case study. It also influenced the development of the biodiversity strategy for England. The NEA demonstrates the importance of a multi-disciplinary team of experts to prepare and peer review assessments and the importance of input from funding agencies and relevant stakeholder groups in co-designing and reviewing. Much of the text and all of the figures in the NEA section are taken from the Synthesis Report of the NEA, which I drafted as co-chair of the NEA.1
environment; policy; ecosystem
Purpose. To investigate EEG and SPECT in the surgical outcome of patients with normal MRI (nonlesional) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We retrospectively identified 41 consecutive patients with nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1997 and 2007. The history, noninvasive diagnostic studies (scalp EEG, MRI, and SPECT) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) monitoring was reviewed. Scalp and iEEG ictal onset patterns were defined. The association of preoperative studies and postoperative seizure freedom was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard. Results. Thirty-six of 41 patients had adequate information with a minimum of 1-year followup. Favorable surgical outcome was identified in 49% of patients at 1 year, and 35% at 4-year. On scalp EEG, an ictal onset pattern consisting of focal beta-frequency discharge (>13–125 Hz) was associated with favorable surgical outcome (P = 0.02). Similarly, a focal fast-frequency oscillation (>13–125 Hz) on iEEG at ictal onset was associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.03). Discussion. A focal fast-frequency discharge at ictal onset identifies nonlesional MRI, extratemporal epilepsy patients likely to have a favorable outcome after resective epilepsy surgery.
The integration of host genetics, environmental triggers and the microbiota is a recognised factor in the pathogenesis of barrier function diseases such as IBD. In order to determine how these factors interact to regulate the host immune response and ecological succession of the colon tissue-associated microbiota, we investigated the temporal interaction between the microbiota and the host following disruption of the colonic epithelial barrier.
Oral administration of DSS was applied as a mechanistic model of environmental damage of the colon and the resulting inflammation characterized for various parameters over time in WT and Nod2 KO mice.
In WT mice, DSS damage exposed the host to the commensal flora and led to a migration of the tissue-associated bacteria from the epithelium to mucosal and submucosal layers correlating with changes in proinflammatory cytokine profiles and a progressive transition from acute to chronic inflammation of the colon. Tissue-associated bacteria levels peaked at day 21 post-DSS and declined thereafter, correlating with recruitment of innate immune cells and development of the adaptive immune response. Histological parameters, immune cell infiltration and cytokine biomarkers of inflammation were indistinguishable between Nod2 and WT littermates following DSS, however, Nod2 KO mice demonstrated significantly higher tissue-associated bacterial levels in the colon. DSS damage and Nod2 genotype independently regulated the community structure of the colon microbiota.
The results of these experiments demonstrate the integration of environmental and genetic factors in the ecological succession of the commensal flora in mammalian tissue. The association of Nod2 genotype (and other host polymorphisms) and environmental factors likely combine to influence the ecological succession of the tissue-associated microflora accounting in part for their association with the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Spinal cord injury is a serious and debilitating condition, affecting millions of people worldwide. Long seen as a permanent injury, recent advances in stem cell research have brought closer the possibility of repairing the spinal cord. One such approach involves injecting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, into the injured spinal cord in the hope that they will initiate repair. A phase I clinical trial of this therapy was started in mid 2010 and is currently underway.
The theory underlying this approach is that these myelinating progenitors will phenotypically replace myelin lost during injury whilst helping to promote a repair environment in the lesion. However, the importance of demyelination in the pathogenesis of human spinal cord injury is a contentious issue and a body of literature suggests that it is only a minor factor in the overall injury process.
This review examines the validity of the theory underpinning the on-going clinical trial as well as analysing published data from animal models and finally discussing issues surrounding safety and purity in order to assess the potential of this approach to successfully treat acute human spinal cord injury.
The 2011 Varsity Medical Debate, between Oxford and Cambridge Universities, brought students and faculty together to discuss the waiving of patents for antiretroviral therapies in the developing world. With an estimated 29.5 million infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries and only 5.3 million of those being treated, the effective and equitable distribution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is an issue of great importance. The debate centred around three areas of contention. Firstly, there was disagreement about whether patents were the real barrier to the access of anti-retroviral therapy in the developing world. Secondly, there were differing views on the effectiveness of a patent pool. Thirdly, concerns were raised over the impact of waiving patents on research to produce new and better anti retro-viral drugs.
Photorhabdus are Gram negative bacteria that are pathogenic to insect larvae whilst also having a mutualistic interaction with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Iron is an essential nutrient and bacteria have different mechanisms for obtaining both the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) forms of this metal from their environments. In this study we were interested in analyzing the role of Fe3+ and Fe2+ iron uptake systems in the ability of Photorhabdus to interact with its invertebrate hosts.
We constructed targeted deletion mutants of exbD, feoABC and yfeABCD in P. luminescens TT01. The exbD mutant was predicted to be crippled in its ability to obtain Fe3+ and we show that this mutant does not grow well in iron-limited media. We also show that this mutant was avirulent to the insect but was unaffected in its symbiotic interaction with Heterorhabditis. Furthermore we show that a mutation in feoABC (encoding a predicted Fe2+ permease) was unaffected in both virulence and symbiosis whilst the divalent cation transporter encoded by yfeABCD is required for virulence in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera) but not in the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera). Moreover the Yfe transporter also appears to have a role during colonization of the IJ stage of the nematode.
In this study we show that iron uptake (via the TonB complex and the Yfe transporter) is important for the virulence of P. luminescens to insect larvae. Moreover this study also reveals that the Yfe transporter appears to be involved in Mn2+-uptake during growth in the gut lumen of the IJ nematode. Therefore, the Yfe transporter in P. luminescens TT01 is important during colonization of both the insect and nematode and, moreover, the metal ion transported by this pathway is host-dependent.
To determine the long-term efficacy of anterior temporal lobectomy for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy in patients with nonlesional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
We identified a retrospective cohort of 44 patients with a nonlesional modern “seizure protocol” MRI who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy for treatment of medically refractory partial epilepsy. Postoperative seizure freedom was determined by Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis. Noninvasive preoperative diagnostic factors potentially associated with excellent surgical outcome were examined by univariate analysis in the 40 patients with follow-up of >1 year.
Engel class I outcomes (free of disabling seizures) were observed in 60% (24 of 40) patients. Preoperative factors associated with Engel class I outcome were: (1) absence of contralateral or extratemporal interictal epileptiform discharges, (2) subtraction ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) abnormality localized to the resection site, and (3) subtle nonspecific MRI findings in the mesial temporal lobe concordant to the resection.
In carefully selected patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a nonlesional MRI, anterior temporal lobectomy can often render patients free of disabling seizures. This favorable rate of surgical success is likely due to the detection of concordant abnormalities that indicate unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy in patients with nonlesional MRI.
Partial seizures; Epilepsy surgery; Temporal lobe; Nonlesional–MRI
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in children. On the basis of evidence of better outcomes, the American College of Surgery Committee on Trauma recommends that children with severe traumatic brain injury receive care at high-level trauma centers. We assessed rates of adherence to these recommendations and factors associated with adherence.
We studied population and hospital discharge data from 2001 from all of the health care referral regions (n = 68) in 6 US states (Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Virginia). We identified children with severe traumatic brain injury by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes and American College of Surgery Committee on Trauma criteria. We defined “high-level centers” as either level I or pediatric trauma centers. We considered an area to be well regionalized if ≥90% of severe traumatic brain injury hospitalizations were in high-level centers. We also explored how use of level II trauma centers affected rates of care at high-level centers.
Of 2117 admissions for severe pediatric traumatic brain injury, 67.3% were in high-level centers, and 87.3% were in either high-level or level II centers. Among states, 56.4% to 93.6% of severe traumatic brain injury admissions were in high-level centers. Only 2 states, Massachusetts and Virginia, were well regionalized. Across health care referral regions, 0% to 100% of severe traumatic brain injury admissions were in high-level centers, and only 19.1% of health care referral regions were well regionalized. Only a weak relationship existed between the distance to the nearest high-level center and regionalization. The age of statewide trauma systems had no relationship to the extent of regionalization.
Despite evidence for improved outcomes of severely injured children admitted to high-level trauma centers, we found that almost one third of the children with severe traumatic brain injury failed to receive care in such centers. Only 2 of 6 states and less than one fifth of 68 health care referral regions were well regionalized. This study highlights problems with current pediatric trauma care that can serve as a basis for additional research and health care policy.
trauma; triage; brain injury; regionalization; pediatric
Ambulatory surgery or outpatient surgery is becoming increasingly common. In 2002, 63% of all operations performed in the United States were ambulatory procedures. Bariatric procedures performed in the United States have increased from 16,200 in 1992 to approximately 205,000 in 2007. In 2002, our center began offering laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) procedures on an outpatient basis for select candidates at an ambulatory surgery center (ASC). We subsequently added laparoscopic adjustable gastric band procedures (LAGB) in 2005.
Between 2002 and 2008, 248 LRYGB and LAGB patients were carefully selected for ASC surgery by the bariatric surgeon and medical director. Extensive preoperative education was mandatory for all surgical candidates.
Since 2002, we have performed 248 bariatric cases at the ASC, including 38 LRYGB and 210 LAGB procedures. In this overall experience, 5 patients (2%) required readmission within 30 days of surgery, and 98.6% of LAGB patients were discharged the same day; 62% were discharged after a 4-hour to 6-hour stay in the ASC. All LRYGB patients remained in the ASC overnight and were discharge within 24 hours of their procedure. Weight loss results have been excellent.
LAGB surgery can be safely performed in an ASC setting in most patients. LRYGB can be performed safely in the ASC setting with careful scrutiny and cautious selection of patient candidates.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB); Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB); Ambulatory surgery; Outpatient surgery; Morbid obesity
Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by promoting translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage compartments to the plasma membrane. In the absence of insulin, Glut4 is retained intracellularly, although the mechanism underlying this process remains uncertain. Using the TC10-interacting protein CIP4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we cloned a RasGAP and VPS9 domain-containing protein, Gapex-5/RME-6. The VPS9 domain is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab31, a Rab5 subfamily GTPase implicated in trans-Golgi Network (TGN)-to-endosome trafficking. Overexpression of Rab31 blocks insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation, whereas knockdown of Rab31 potentiates insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake. Gapex-5 is predominantly cytosolic in untreated cells; its overexpression promotes intracellular retention of Glut4 in adipocytes. Insulin recruits the CIP4/Gapex-5 complex to the plasma membrane, thus reducing Rab31 activity and permitting Glut4 vesicles to translocate to the cell surface, where Glut4 docks and fuses to transport glucose into the cell.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. This bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. We found that C. jejuni is able to survive within intestinal epithelial cells. However, recovery of intracellular bacteria required pre-culturing under oxygen-limiting conditions, suggesting that C. jejuni undergoes significant physiological changes within the intracellular environment. We also found that in epithelial cells the C. jejuni–containing vacuole deviates from the canonical endocytic pathway immediately after a unique caveolae-dependent entry pathway, thus avoiding delivery into lysosomes. In contrast, in macrophages, C. jejuni is delivered to lysosomes and consequently is rapidly killed. Taken together, these studies indicate that C. jejuni has evolved specific adaptations to survive within host cells.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in the United States and a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. After infection through the oral route, this bacterium invades the cells of the intestinal epithelium, a property that is important for its ability to cause disease. Usually, bacteria and other material entering the cell move to compartments called lysosomes, where an acidic mix of enzymes breaks it down. This study shows that C. jejuni can survive within intestinal epithelial cells by avoiding delivery to lysosomes. In contrast, in macrophages, which are specialized cells with the capacity to engulf and kill bacteria, C. jejuni cannot avoid delivery into lysosomes and consequently is rapidly killed. These studies help explain an important virulence attribute of C. jejuni.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major worldwide cause of enteric illnesses. Adult immunocompetent mice are not susceptible to C. jejuni infection. However, we show here that mice deficient in the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is required for signaling through most Toll-like receptors, can be stably colonized by C. jejuni but not by isogenic derivatives carrying mutations in known virulence genes. We also found that Nramp1 deficiency increases the mouse susceptibility to C. jejuni infection when administered systemically. These results indicate that MyD88-deficient mice could be a useful model to study C. jejuni colonization and reveal a potential role for Nramp1 in the control of this bacterial pathogen.
Campylobacter jejuni, a major human enteric pathogen, exhibits significant strain-to-strain differences which result in differences in pathogenic potential. C. jejuni 81-176 is a highly virulent strain that exhibits unique pathogenic features and is used by many research laboratories. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of its genome and compared it to the genomes of other sequenced C. jejuni strains. We identified a number of unique genetic features which may confer specific metabolic and pathogenic properties on this strain. We have also identified regions of the C. jejuni genome that are hot spots for the integration of horizontally acquired genetic material. This information should help the understanding of the pathogenesis of C. jejuni and, in particular, the unique features of this highly pathogenic strain.
This paper discusses key issues in the science–policy interface. It stresses the importance of linking the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity to the Millennium Development Goals and to issues of immediate concern to policy-makers such as the economy, security and human health. It briefly discusses the process of decision-making and how the scientific and policy communities have successfully worked together on global environmental issues such as stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change, and the critical role of international assessments in providing the scientific basis for informed policy at the national and international level. The paper also discusses the drivers of global environmental change, the importance of constructing plausible futures, indicators of change, the biodiversity 2010 target and how environmental issues such as loss of biodiversity, stratospheric ozone depletion, land degradation, water pollution and climate change cannot be addressed in isolation because they are strongly interconnected and there are synergies and trade-offs among the policies, practices and technologies that are used to address these issues individually.
biodiversity; climate change; ozone; assessments; plausible futures; indicators
To examine the structural determinants necessary for TC10 trafficking, localization, and function in adipocytes, we generated a series of point mutations in the carboxyl-terminal targeting domain of TC10. Wild-type TC10 (TC10/WT) localized to secretory membrane compartments and caveolin-positive lipid raft microdomains at the plasma membrane. Expression of a TC10/C206S point mutant resulted in a trafficking and localization pattern that was indistinguishable from that of TC10/WT. In contrast, although TC10/C209S or the double TC10/C206,209S mutant was plasma membrane localized, it was excluded from both the secretory membrane system and the lipid raft compartments. Surprisingly, inhibition of Golgi membrane transport with brefeldin A did not prevent plasma membrane localization of TC10 or H-Ras. Moreover, inhibition of trans-Golgi network exit with a 19°C temperature block did not prevent the trafficking of TC10 or H-Ras to the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that TC10 and H-Ras can both traffic to the plasma membrane by at least two distinct transport mechanisms in adipocytes, one dependent upon intracellular membrane transport and another independent of the classical secretory membrane system. Moreover, the transport through the secretory pathway is necessary for the localization of TC10 to lipid raft microdomains at the plasma membrane.
TC10 is a member of the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins that has previously been implicated in the regulation of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. In a manner similar to Cdc42-stimulated actin-based motility, we have observed that constitutively active TC10 (TC10/Q75L) can induce actin comet tails in Xenopus oocyte extracts in vitro and extensive actin polymerization in the perinuclear region when expressed in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In contrast, expression of TC10/Q75L completely disrupted adipocyte cortical actin, which was specific for TC10, because expression of constitutively active Cdc42 was without effect. The effect of TC10/Q75L to disrupt cortical actin was abrogated after deletion of the amino terminal extension (ΔN-TC10/Q75L), whereas this deletion retained the ability to induce perinuclear actin polymerization. In addition, alteration of perinuclear actin by expression of TC10/Q75L, a dominant-interfering TC10/T31N mutant or a mutant N-WASP protein (N-WASP/ΔVCA) reduced the rate of VSV G protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, TC10 directly bound to Golgi COPI coat proteins through a dilysine motif in the carboxyl terminal domain consistent with a role for TC10 regulating actin polymerization on membrane transport vesicles. Together, these data demonstrate that TC10 can differentially regulate two types of filamentous actin in adipocytes dependent on distinct functional domains and its subcellular compartmentalization.
Recent studies indicate that insulin stimulation of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 translocation requires at least two distinct insulin receptor–mediated signals: one leading to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase and the other to the activation of the small GTP binding protein TC10. We now demonstrate that TC10 is processed through the secretory membrane trafficking system and localizes to caveolin-enriched lipid raft microdomains. Although insulin activated the wild-type TC10 protein and a TC10/H-Ras chimera that were targeted to lipid raft microdomains, it was unable to activate a TC10/K-Ras chimera that was directed to the nonlipid raft domains. Similarly, only the lipid raft–localized TC10/ H-Ras chimera inhibited GLUT4 translocation, whereas the TC10/K-Ras chimera showed no significant inhibitory activity. Furthermore, disruption of lipid raft microdomains by expression of a dominant-interfering caveolin 3 mutant (Cav3/DGV) inhibited the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation and TC10 lipid raft localization and activation without affecting PI-3 kinase signaling. These data demonstrate that the insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes requires the spatial separation and distinct compartmentalization of the PI-3 kinase and TC10 signaling pathways.
TC10; GLUT4; insulin; lipid rafts; compartmentalization
The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many proteins to the cell wall and extracellular environment that contribute to virulence. Rgg regulates the expression of several exoproteins including a cysteine protease (SPE B), a nuclease (MF-1), a putative nuclease (MF-3), and autolysin. The functional heterogeneity of Rgg-regulated exoproteins and the lack of a conserved regulatory motif in the promoter regions of the genes suggested that Rgg interacts with additional regulatory networks to influence gene expression. DNA microarrays were used to test this hypothesis by comparing genomewide transcript profiles of S. pyogenes NZ131 and isogenic derivative NZ131 rgg during the exponential phase of growth. Transcripts of known and putative virulence-associated genes were more abundant in the rgg mutant, including emm, scpA, orfX, scl1, hasAB, slo, sagA, ska, speH, grab, mac, mf-1, and mf-3. Increased transcription of emm, scpA, and orfX in the rgg mutant was associated with increased production of the corresponding proteins. Differences in the expression of virulence-associated genes were associated with changes in the expression of several regulatory genes, including mga, sagA, csrRS, and fasBCA. The results show that Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory networks to coregulate virulence factor expression in S. pyogenes.