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author:("washio, G")
This paper investigates a diffeomorphic point-set registration based on non-stationary mixture models. The goal is to improve the non-linear registration of anatomical structures by representing each point as a general non-stationary kernel that provides information about the shape of that point. Our framework generalizes work done by others that use stationary models. We achieve this by integrating the shape at each point when calculating the point-set similarity and transforming it according to the calculated deformation. We also restrict the non-rigid transform to the space of symmetric diffeomorphisms. Our algorithm is validated in synthetic and human datasets in two different applications: fiber bundle and lung airways registration. Our results shows that non-stationary mixture models are superior to Gaussian mixture models and methods that do not take into account the shape of each point.
PMCID: PMC3886289  PMID: 24419463
This article investigates the suitability of local intensity distributions to analyze six emphysema classes in 342 CT scans obtained from 16 sites hosting scanners by 3 vendors and a total of 9 specific models in subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We propose using kernel density estimation to deal with the inherent sparsity of local intensity histograms obtained from scarcely populated regions of interest. We validate our approach by leave-one-subject-out classification experiments and full-lung analyses. We compare our results with recently published LBP texture-based methodology. We demonstrate the efficacy of using intensity information alone in multi-scanner cohorts, which is a simpler, more intuitive approach.
PMCID: PMC3670097  PMID: 23743800
Emphysema; COPD; Texture analysis; Densitometry; Tissue classification
COPD  2010;7(4):262-268.
Superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) is a major extracellular antioxidant enzyme, and previous studies have indicated a possible role of this gene in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the SOD3 gene would be associated with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes.
We genotyped three SOD3 polymorphisms (rs8192287 (E1), rs8192288 (I1) and rs1799895 (R213G)) in a case-control cohort, with severe COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT, n=389) and smoking controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS, n=472). We examined whether the SNPs were associated with COPD status, lung function variables, and quantitative CT measurements of emphysema and airway wall thickness. Further, we tried to replicate our initial findings in two family-based studies, the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN, n=3061) and the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study (EOCOPD, n=949).
In NETT COPD cases, the minor alleles of SNPs E1 and I1 were associated with a higher percentage of emphysema (%LAA950) on chest CT scan (p=0.029 and p=0.0058). The association with E1 was replicated in the ICGN family study, where the minor allele was associated with more emphysema (p=0.048). Airway wall thickness was positively associated with the E1 SNP in ICGN; however, this finding was not confirmed in NETT. Quantitative CT data were not available in EOCOPD. The SNPs were not associated with lung function variables or COPD status in any of the populations.
In conclusion, polymorphisms in the SOD3 gene were associated with CT emphysema but not COPD susceptibility, highlighting the importance of phenotype definition in COPD genetics studies.
PMCID: PMC2923920  PMID: 20673035
4.  A pulmonary influenza virus infection in SCID mice can be cured by treatment with hemagglutinin-specific antibodies that display very low virus-neutralizing activity in vitro. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(6):4347-4355.
We have previously shown that a pulmonary influenza virus infection in SCID mice can be cured by treatment with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the viral transmembrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) but not for matrix 2. Since both types of MAbs react with infected cells but only the former neutralizes the virus, it appeared that passive MAbs cured by neutralization of progeny virus rather than reaction with infected host cells. To prove this, we selected a set of four HA-specific MAbs, all of the immunoglobulin G2a isotype, which reacted well with native HA expressed on infected cells yet differed greatly (>10,000-fold) in virus neutralization (VN) activity in vitro, apparently because of differences in antibody avidity and accessibility of the respective determinants on the HA of mature virions. Since the VN activities of these MAbs in vitro were differentially enhanced by serum components, we determined their prophylactic activities in vivo and used them as measures of their actual VN activities in vivo. The comparison of therapeutic and prophylactic activities indicated that these MAbs cured the infection to a greater extent by VN activity (which was greatly enhanced in vivo) and to a lesser extent by reaction with infected host cells. Neither complement- nor NK cell-dependent mechanisms were involved in the MAb-mediated virus clearance.
PMCID: PMC191651  PMID: 9151823
5.  Virus-neutralizing antibodies of immunoglobulin G (IgG) but not of IgM or IgA isotypes can cure influenza virus pneumonia in SCID mice. 
Journal of Virology  1995;69(4):2075-2081.
The ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to passively cure an influenza virus pneumonia in the absence of endogenous T- and B-cell responses was investigated by treating C.B-17 mice, homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation, with individual monoclonal antiviral antibodies 1 day after pulmonary infection with influenza virus PR8 [A/PR/8/34 (H1N1)]. Less than 10% of untreated SCID mice survived the infection. By contrast, 100% of infected SCID mice that had been treated with a single intraperitoneal inoculation of at least 175 micrograms of a pool of virus-neutralizing (VN+) antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) MAbs survived, even if antibody treatment was delayed up to 7 days after infection. The use of individual MAbs showed that recovery could be achieved by VN+ anti-HA MAbs of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 isotypes but not by VN+ anti-HA MAbs of the IgA and IgM isotypes, even if the latter were used in a chronic treatment protocol to compensate for their shorter half-lives in vivo. Both IgA and IgM, although ineffective therapeutically, protected against infection when given prophylactically, i.e., before exposure to virus. An Fc gamma-specific effector mechanism was not an absolute requirement for antibody-mediated recovery, as F(ab')2 preparations of IgGs could cure the disease, although with lesser efficacy, than intact IgG. An anti-M2 MAb of the IgG1 isotype, which was VN- but bound well to infected cells and inhibited virus growth in vitro, failed to cure. These observations are consistent with the idea that MAbs of the IgG isotype cure the disease by neutralizing all progeny virus until all productively infected host cells have died. VN+ MAbs of the IgA and IgM isotypes may be ineffective therapeutically because they do not have sufficient access to all tissue sites in which virus is produced during influenza virus pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC188873  PMID: 7884853

Results 1-5 (5)