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author:("Wang, zhigui")
1.  Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate Improved Postoperative Insulin Resistance in Rats through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway 
Preoperative oral carbohydrate (OCH) improves postoperative insulin resistance (PIR) and insulin sensitivity. However, the exact mechanisms involved in the improvement of PIR with respect to preoperative OCH are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of preoperative OCH and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in reducing PIR in rats.
Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to PreOp, glucose, saline, and fasting groups. Rats in the PreOp, glucose, and saline groups received OCH, 5% glucose solution, and saline, respectively. Rats in the fasting group did not receive anything but were fasted 3 h before surgery. Blood glucose, insulin and leucine levels, and insulin resistance, secretion, and sensitivity indexes were measured before and after surgery. mRNA and protein (total and phosphorylated) levels of mTOR, IRS-1, PI3K, PKB/AKT, and GlUT4 were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot in skeletal muscles.
In the PIR experiment, blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance, and serum leucine levels were all significantly lower in the PreOp group than in the other 3 groups (P<0.05) after surgery. HOMA-ISI were higher in the PreOp group vs the other 3 groups after surgery (P<0.05), and HOMA-β in the PreOp group was higher than that in the other 3 groups at 30 and 120 min after surgery. Additionally, post-operative phosphorylated IRS-1, PI3K, and AKT protein levels were significantly higher in the PreOp group than in the other 3 groups (P<0.05), but no significant differences were observed in their respective protein levels (P>0.05).
OCH decreases postoperative insulin resistance and improves postoperative insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscles through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
PMCID: PMC4288420  PMID: 25553410
Leucine; Insulin Resistance; Perioperative Care; Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
2.  Distractor Evoked Deviations of Saccade Trajectory Are Modulated by Fixation Activity in the Superior Colliculus: Computational and Behavioral Evidence 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e116382.
Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition) of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC), which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a) saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b) the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1), or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2).
PMCID: PMC4281245  PMID: 25551552
3.  EUS assisted transmural cholecystogastrostomy fistula creation as a bridge for endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy using a novel fully covered metal stent 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14(1):164.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the “gold standard” for treating symptomatic gallstones. Innovative methods, such as a scarless therapeutic procedure through a natural orifice are being introduced, and include transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy. However, before clinical implementation, instruments still need modification, and a more convenient treatment is still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy such as cholecystolithotomy in an animal survival model.
Four pigs underwent endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS)-guided cholecystogastrostomy and the placement of a novel covered mental stent. Four weeks later the stents were removed and an endoscope was advanced into the gallbladder via the fistula, and cholecystolithotomy was performed. Two weeks later the pigs were sacrificed, and the healing of the fistulas was assessed.
EUS-guided cholecystogastrostomy with mental stent deployment was successfully performed in all the animals. Four weeks after the procedure, the fistulas had formed and all the stents were removed. Endoscopic cholecystolithotomy was performed through each fistula. All the animals survived until they were sacrificed 2 weeks later. The fistulas were found to be completely healed.
This study reports the first endoscopic transmural cholecystolithotomy after placement of a novel mental stent in an animal survival model.
PMCID: PMC4189557  PMID: 25249425
Endoscopic-ultrasound; Cholecystectomy; Mental stent
4.  Biomechanical and Histological Evaluation of Roughened Surface Titanium Screws Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e96179.
Various fabrication methods are used to improve the stability and osseointegration of screws within the host bone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether roughened surface titanium screws fabricated by electron beam melting can provide better stability and osseointegration as compared with smooth titanium screws in sheep cervical vertebrae.
Roughened surface titanium screws, fabricated by electron beam melting, and conventional smooth surface titanium screws were implanted into sheep for 6 or 12 weeks (groups A and B, respectively). Bone ingrowth and implant stability were assessed with three-dimensional imaging and reconstruction, as well as histological and biomechanical tests.
No screws in either group showed signs of loosening. Fibrous tissue formation could be seen around the screws at 6 weeks, which was replaced with bone at 12 weeks. Bone volume/total volume, bone surface area/bone volume, and the trabecular number were significantly higher for a define region of interest surrounding the roughened screws than that surrounding the smooth screws at 12 weeks. Indeed, for roughened screws, trabecular number was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks. On mechanical testing, the maximum pullout strength was significantly higher at 12 weeks than at 6 weeks, as expected; however, no significant differences were found between smooth and roughened screws at either time point. The maximum torque to extract the roughened screws was higher than that required for the smooth screws.
Electron beam melting is a simple and effective method for producing a roughened surface on titanium screws. After 12 weeks, roughened titanium screws demonstrated a high degree of osseointegration and increased torsional resistance to extraction over smooth titanium screws.
PMCID: PMC4005762  PMID: 24788866
5.  Switching suppression and enhancement of fluorescence and six-wave mixing by phase modulation 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:3417.
The conversion between enhancement and suppression in six-wave mixing (SWM) and fluorescence signals by phase modulation has demonstrated for the first time. It is observed in our experiment the suppression of SWM and fluorescence is transformed into enhancement in company with the switch from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the transmitted probe with the relative phase changed from 0 to π/2. Our research could be potentially applied in optical communication and quantum information processing.
PMCID: PMC3849641  PMID: 24301522
6.  Cross-Sectional Surveys of Measles Antibodies in the Jiangsu Province of China from 2008 to 2010: The Effect of High Coverage with Two Doses of Measles Vaccine among Children 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66771.
Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of measles since 2007 appeared in the Jiangsu province. Although the reported coverage with two doses of measles vaccine was greater than 95% in most regions of the province, measles incidence remained high across the whole province. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu province of China were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to assess and track population immunity.
Measles-specific IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. GMTs and seroprevalence with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age. ANOVA and χ2 tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups for GMT levels and seroprevalence, respectively.
Seroprevalence showed a significantly increasing trend annually (CMH χ2 = 40.32, p<0.0001). Although the seroprevalence among children aged 2–15 years was consistently over 95%, vaccine-induced measles antibodies may wane over time. Measles seropositivity in the Jiangsu province was 91.7% (95% CI: 90.1–93.2%) in 2010. Among adults aged 15 to 29-year-olds, the seropositivity rate was 88.4% (95% CI: 82.7–92.8%).
Vaccination strategies may need to be adjusted depending on the individual age and regions, particularly individuals between the ages of 8 months-14 years old and 20–29 years old. Additional SIAs are likely required to eliminate measles in China.
PMCID: PMC3692513  PMID: 23825562
7.  catena-Poly[di-μ3-bromido-bis­[(1-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)disilver(I)]] 
The asymmetric unit of the title coordination complex, [Ag2Br2(C5H8N2)2]n, comprises a monodentate 1-ethyl­imida­zole ligand, an Ag+ cation and a μ3-bridging Br− anion, giving a distorted tetra­hedral AgNBr3 stereochemistry about the Ag+ cation [Ag—N = 2.247 (2) Å and Ag—Br = 2.7372 (4)–2.7523 (4) Å]. Two bridging bromide anions generate the dimeric [Ag2Br2(C5H8N)2] repeat unit [Ag⋯Ag = 3.0028 (5) Å], while a third Br− anion links the units through corner sharing in an inversion-related Ag2Br2 association [Ag⋯Ag = 3.0407 (4) Å], generating a one-dimensional ribbon step-polymer structure, extending along the c axis.
PMCID: PMC3772437  PMID: 24046580
8.  Specificity of anti-SSB as a diagnostic marker for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of anti-Sjögren’s syndrome type B (SSB) antibodies for diagnosing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to understand the correlation between anti-SSB antibodies and the clinical manifestations of SLE. A line immunoassay (LIA) was used to detect the presence of serum anti-SSB antibodies in SLE patients. The clinical manifestations of the patients were recorded to enable their correlation with the serum anti-SSB antibodies to be analyzed. In 25.7% of the 74 SLE patients, the serum was positive for anti-SSB antibodies, whereas only 3.3% of the 30 control cases were positive. The specificity of anti-SSB antibodies for detecting SLE was 96.7%. In anti-SSB antibody-positive SLE patients, the incidence of cheek erythema, alopecia, serositis, secondary Sjögren’s syndrome (sSS), leukocytopenia, elevated immunoglobulin (Ig)G and positive presence of anti-Sjögren’s syndrome type A (SSA)60 or anti-SSA52 antibodies was higher than in the anti-SSB antibody-negative group (P<0.05). Anti-SSB antibodies are important for the diagnosis of SLE and are associated with cheek erythema, alopecia, serositis, sSS, leukocytopenia, the elevation of IgG and positive presence of anti-SSA60 or anti-SSA52 antibodies.
PMCID: PMC3702711  PMID: 23837059
anti-Sjögren’s syndrome type B antibody; linear immunoblot assay; systemic lupus erythematosus
9.  MicroRNA-26 governs profibrillatory inward-rectifier potassium current changes in atrial fibrillation 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(5):1939-1951.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent arrhythmia with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1) is believed to be an important regulator of reentrant-spiral dynamics and a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. MicroRNA-26 (miR-26) is predicted to target the gene encoding KIR2.1, KCNJ2. We found that miR-26 was downregulated in atrial samples from AF animals and patients and this downregulation was accompanied by upregulation of IK1/KIR2.1 protein. miR-26 overexpression suppressed expression of KCNJ2/KIR2.1. In contrast, miR-26 knockdown, inhibition, or binding-site mutation enhanced KCNJ2/KIR2.1 expression, establishing KCNJ2 as a miR-26 target. Knockdown of endogenous miR-26 promoted AF in mice, whereas adenovirus-mediated expression of miR-26 reduced AF vulnerability. Kcnj2-specific miR-masks eliminated miR-26–mediated reductions in Kcnj2, abolishing miR-26’s protective effects, while coinjection of a Kcnj2-specific miR-mimic prevented miR-26 knockdown-associated AF in mice. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a known actor in AF-associated remodeling, was found to negatively regulate miR-26 transcription. Our results demonstrate that miR-26 controls the expression of KCNJ2 and suggest that this downregulation may promote AF.
PMCID: PMC3635715  PMID: 23543060
10.  Overexpression of microRNA-1 Causes Atrioventricular Block in Rodents 
The present study was designed to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in atrioventricular block (AVB) in the setting of myocardial ischemia (MI). A cardiac-specific miR-1 transgenic (Tg) mouse model was successfully established for the first time in this study using microinjection. miR-1 level was measured by real-time qRT-PCR. Whole-cell patch clamp was employed to record L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and inward rectifier K+ current (IK1). Expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) protein was determined by western blot analysis. Alternations of [Ca2+]i was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy in ventricular myocytes. The incidence of AVB was higher in miR-1 Tg mice than that in wild-type (WT) mice. The normalized peak current amplitude of ICa,L was lower in ventricular myocytes from miR-1 Tg mice as compared with WT mice. Similarly, the current density of IK1 was decreased in miR-1 Tg mice than that in WT mice. Compared with WT mice, miR-1 Tg mice exhibited a significant decrease of the systolic [Ca2+]i in ventricular myocytes but a prominent increase of the resting [Ca2+]i. Moreover, Cx43 protein was downregulated in miR-1 Tg mice compared to that in WT mice. Administration of LNA-modified antimiR-1 reversed all the above changes. miR-1 overexpression may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the heart to AVB, which provides us novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying ischemic cardiac arrhythmias.
PMCID: PMC3654494  PMID: 23678295
atrioventricular block (AVB); miR-1; L-type calcium current ICa,L; inward rectifier K+ current IK1; connexin 43.
11.  Dissociable Spatial and Temporal Effects of Inhibition of Return 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44290.
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the relative suppression of processing at locations that have recently been attended. It is frequently explored using a spatial cueing paradigm and is characterized by slower responses to cued than to uncued locations. The current study investigates the impact of IOR on overt visual orienting involving saccadic eye movements. Using a spatial cueing paradigm, our experiments have demonstrated that at a cue-target onset asynchrony (CTOA) of 400 ms saccades to the vicinity of cued locations are not only delayed (temporal cost) but also biased away (spatial effect). Both of these effects are basically no longer present at a CTOA of 1200 ms. At a shorter 200 ms CTOA, the spatial effect becomes stronger while the temporal cost is replaced by a temporal benefit. These findings suggest that IOR has a spatial effect that is dissociable from its temporal effect. Simulations using a neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC) revealed that a theory relying on short-term depression (STD) of the input pathway can explain most, but not all, temporal and spatial effects of IOR.
PMCID: PMC3432092  PMID: 22952949
12.  Correction: Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms for Oncogenic Overexpression of Ether À Go-Go K+ Channel 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):10.1371/annotation/45b3e6bc-1065-4357-b215-465176dcc269.
PMCID: PMC3223119
13.  Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms for Oncogenic Overexpression of Ether À Go-Go K+ Channel 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e20362.
The human ether-à-go-go-1 (h-eag1) K+ channel is expressed in a variety of cell lines derived from human malignant tumors and in clinical samples of several different cancers, but is otherwise absent in normal tissues. It was found to be necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Specific inhibition of h-eag1 expression leads to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. We report here that h-eag1 expression is controlled by the p53−miR-34−E2F1 pathway through a negative feed-forward mechanism. We first established E2F1 as a transactivator of h-eag1 gene through characterizing its promoter region. We then revealed that miR-34, a known transcriptional target of p53, is an important negative regulator of h-eag1 through dual mechanisms by directly repressing h-eag1 at the post-transcriptional level and indirectly silencing h-eag1 at the transcriptional level via repressing E2F1. There is a strong inverse relationship between the expression levels of miR-34 and h-eag1 protein. H-eag1antisense antagonized the growth-stimulating effects and the upregulation of h-eag1 expression in SHSY5Y cells, induced by knockdown of miR-34, E2F1 overexpression, or inhibition of p53 activity. Therefore, p53 negatively regulates h-eag1 expression by a negative feed-forward mechanism through the p53−miR-34−E2F1 pathway. Inactivation of p53 activity, as is the case in many cancers, can thus cause oncogenic overexpression of h-eag1 by relieving the negative feed-forward regulation. These findings not only help us understand the molecular mechanisms for oncogenic overexpression of h-eag1 in tumorigenesis but also uncover the cell-cycle regulation through the p53−miR-34−E2F1−h-eag1 pathway. Moreover, these findings place h-eag1 in the p53−miR-34−E2F1−h-eag1 pathway with h-eag as a terminal effecter component and with miR-34 (and E2F1) as a linker between p53 and h-eag1. Our study therefore fills the gap between p53 pathway and its cellular function mediated by h-eag1.
PMCID: PMC3105031  PMID: 21655246
14.  Poly[3,3′-diethyl-1,1′-(ethane-1,2-di­yl)diimidazolium [tetra-μ-bromido-­diargentate(I)]] 
The asymmetric unit of the title salt, {(C12H20N4)[Ag2Br4]}n, contains one-half of a substituted imidazolium cation, one Ag+ and two Br− ions. The cation is completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The crystal structure is made up from polymeric sheets of {[AgBr2]−}n anions extending parallel to (100). The basic building unit of the anion is a slightly distorted AgBr4 tetra­hedron. A four- and 12-membered ring system is formed by corner sharing of the AgBr4 tetra­hedra. The imidazolium cations are located between the anionic sheets and partly protrude into the voids defined by the 12-membered rings.
PMCID: PMC3006904  PMID: 21587756
15.  Bis[1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy­benz­yl)-3-isopropyl­imidazolium] penta­chlorido(tetra­hydro­furan)samarate(III)–tetrahydrofuran–toluene (1/1/1) 
The title compound, (C21H33N2O)2[SmCl5(C4H8O)]·C7H8·C4H8O, has a layered structure in which each distorted octa­hedral [SmCl5(THF)]2− unit (THF is tetra­hydro­furan) is capped by two cations. The central metal SmIII atom of the [SmCl5(THF)]2− anionic unit is coordinated by five Cl atoms and one THF O atom, forming a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The crystal structure displays C—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding. The structure exhibits disorder of the solvent.
PMCID: PMC2979468  PMID: 21579323
16.  MicroRNA: A matter of life or death 
Progressive cell loss due to apoptosis is a pathological hallmark implicated in a wide spectrum of degenerative diseases such as heart disease, atherosclerotic arteries and hypertensive vessels, Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Tremendous efforts have been made to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in apoptosistic cell death. Once ignored completely or overlooked as cellular detritus, microRNAs (miRNAs) that were discovered only a decade ago, have recently taken many by surprise. The importance of miRNAs has steadily gained appreciation and miRNA biology has exploded into a massive swell of interest with enormous range and potential in almost every biological discipline because of their widespread expression and diverse functions in both animals and humans. It has been established that miRNAs are critical regulators of apoptosis of various cell types. These small molecules act by repressing the expression of either the proapoptotic or antiapoptotic genes to produce antiapoptotic or proapoptotic effects. Appealing evidence has been accumulating for the involvement of miRNAs in human diseases associated with apoptotic cell death and the potential of miRNAs as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of the diseases. This editorial aims to convey this message and to boost up the research interest by providing a timely, comprehensive overview on regulation of apoptosis by miRNAs and a synopsis on the pathophysiologic implications of this novel regulatory network based on the currently available data in the literature. It begins with a brief introduction to apoptosis and miRNAs, followed by the description of the fundamental aspects of miRNA biogenesis and action, and the role of miRNAs in regulating apoptosis of cancer cells and cardiovascular cells. Speculations on the development of miRNAs as potential therapeutic targets are also presented. Remarks are also provided to point out the unanswered questions and to outline the new directions for the future research of the field.
PMCID: PMC3083949  PMID: 21537368
Apoptosis; microRNA; Cancer; Cardiomyocytes; Vascular
17.  A single anti-microRNA antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (AMO) targeting multiple microRNAs offers an improved approach for microRNA interference 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(3):e24.
Anti-miRNA antisense inhibitors (AMOs) have demonstrated their utility in miRNA research and potential in miRNA therapy. Here we report a modified AMO approach in which multiple antisense units are engineered into a single unit that is able to simultaneously silence multiple-target miRNAs, the multiple-target AMO or MTg-AMO. We validated the technique with two separate MTg-AMOs: anti-miR-21/anti-miR-155/anti-miR-17-5p and anti-miR-1/anti-miR-133. We first verified the ability of the MTg-AMOs to antagonize the repressive actions of their target miRNAs using luciferase reporter activity assays and to specifically knock down the levels of their target miRNAs using real-time RT-PCR methods. We then used the MTg-AMO approach to identify several tumor suppressors—TGFBI, APC and BCL2L11 as the target genes for oncogenic miR-21, miR-155 and miR-17-5p, respectively, and two cardiac ion channel genes HCN2 (encoding a subunit of cardiac pacemaker channel) and CACNA1C (encoding the α-subunit of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel) for the muscle-specific miR-1 and miR-133. We further demonstrated that the MTg-AMO targeting miR-21, miR-155 and miR-17-5p produced a greater inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth, compared with the regular single-target AMOs. Moreover, while using the regular single-target AMOs excluded HCN2 as a target gene for either miR-1 or miR-133, the MTg-AMO approach is able to reveal HCN2 as the target for both miR-1 and miR-133. Our findings suggest the MTg-AMO as an improved approach for miRNA target finding and for studying function of miRNAs. This approach may find its broad application for exploring biological processes involving multiple miRNAs and multiple genes.
PMCID: PMC2647303  PMID: 19136465
18.  A polymorph of terephthalaldehyde 
A new ortho­rhom­bic polymorph of terephthalaldehyde, C8H6O2, with a melting point of 372 K, has been obtained by recrystallization from ethanol. At room temperature, the crystals transform into the well known monoclinic form, with a melting point of 389 K. The crystal structure of the monoclinic form involves C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, but no such bonds are observed in the orthorhombic form. The molecule is planar.
PMCID: PMC2962184  PMID: 21203265
19.  miRNAs at the heart of the matter 
Cardiovascular disease is among the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The pathological process of the heart is associated with altered expression profile of genes that are important for cardiac function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as one of the central players of gene expression regulation. The implications of miRNAs in the pathological process of cardiovascular system have recently been recognized, representing the most rapidly evolving research field. Here, we summarize and analyze the currently available data from our own laboratory and other groups, providing a comprehensive overview of miRNA function in the heart, including a brief introduction of miRNA biology, expression profile of miRNAs in cardiac tissue, role of miRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, the arrhythmogenic potential of miRNAs, the involvement of miRNAs in vascular angiogenesis, and regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by miRNAs. The target genes and signaling pathways linking the miRNAs to cardiovascular disease are highlighted. The applications of miRNA interference technologies for manipulating miRNA expression, stability, and function as new strategies for molecular therapy of human disease are evaluated. Finally, some specific issues related to future directions of the research on miRNAs relevant to cardiovascular disease are pinpointed and speculated.
PMCID: PMC2480593  PMID: 18415070
miRNA; Heart; Hypertrophy; Arrhythmias; miRNA mimic; miRNA mask
20.  N,N′-{[Bis(trifluoro­meth­yl)methyl­ene]di-p-phenyl­ene}diphthalimide 
The molecule of the title compound, C31H16F6N2O4, consists of two phthalimide units linked by a [bis­(trifluoro­meth­yl)methyl­ene]di-p-phenyl­ene bridge, with the two halves of the mol­ecule related to each other by a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angle between the planes of the two central benzene rings is 70.5 (3)°. The terminal isoindole groups are approximately planar, with a maximum r.m.s. deviation of 0.006 Å from the mean plane, and they form dihedral angles of 46.03 (3)° to the attached benzene rings. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link neighboring mol­ecules into chains along the c axis.
PMCID: PMC2960178  PMID: 21201418
21.  N,N′-(Oxydi-p-phenyl­ene)diphthalimide 
The title compound, C28H16N2O5, is a bis-imide derivative in which two phthalimide units are linked by an oxydi-p-phenyl­ene bridge. The dihedral angle between the planes of the two central benzene rings is 86.1 (4)°. The isoindole groups make dihedral angles of 46.0 (14) and 77.5 (13)° with the attached benzene rings. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds contribute to the stability of the structure.
PMCID: PMC2915034  PMID: 21200954
22.  In search of a reliable electrophysiological marker of oculomotor inhibition of return 
Psychophysiology  2014;51(10):1037-1045.
Inhibition of return (IOR) operationalizes a behavioral phenomenon characterized by slower responding to cued, relative to uncued, targets. Two independent forms of IOR have been theorized: input-based IOR occurs when the oculomotor system is quiescent, while output-based IOR occurs when the oculomotor system is engaged. EEG studies forbidding eye movements have demonstrated that reductions of target-elicited P1 components are correlated with IOR magnitude, but when eye movements occur, P1 effects bear no relationship to behavior. We expand on this work by adapting the cueing paradigm and recording event-related potentials: IOR is caused by oculomotor responses to central arrows or peripheral onsets and measured by key presses to peripheral targets. Behavioral IOR is observed in both conditions, but P1 reductions are absent in the central arrow condition. By contrast, arrow and peripheral cues enhance Nd, especially over contralateral electrode sites.
PMCID: PMC4286015  PMID: 24976355
Inhibition of return; Cueing; Event-related potentials; Oculomotor activation; Sensory and motor processing; Eye movements

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