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author:("Wang, yuefeng")
1.  Protection of Spiral Ganglion Neurons from Degeneration Using Small-Molecule TrkB Receptor Agonists 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2013;33(32):13042-13052.
Neurotrophins (NTs) play essential roles in the development and survival of neurons in PNS and CNS. In the cochlea, NTs [e.g., NT-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] are required for the survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Preservation of SGNs in the cochlea of patients suffering sensorineural deafness caused by loss of hair cells is needed for the optimal performance of the cochlear implant. Directly applying exogenous BDNF into the cochlea prevents secondary degeneration of SGNs when hair cells are lost. However, a common translational barrier for in vivo applications of BDNF is the poor pharmacokinetics, which severely limits the efficacy. Here we report that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and 7,8,3′-trihydroxyflavone, both small-molecule agonists of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), promoted SGN survival with high potency both in vitro and in vivo. These compounds increased the phosphorylated TrkB and downstream MAPK and protected the SGNs in a TrkB-dependent manner. Their applications in the bulla of conditional connexin26 null mice offered significant protection for SGN survival. The function of survived SGNs was assessed by measuring evoked action potentials (APs) in vitro and electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (eABR) thresholds in vivo. APs were reliably evoked in cultured single SGNs treated with the compounds. In addition, eABR thresholds measured from the treated cochleae were significantly lower than untreated controls. Our findings suggest that these novel small-molecule TrkB agonists are promising in vivo therapeutic agents for preventing degeneration of SGNs.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0854-13.2013
PMCID: PMC3735884  PMID: 23926258
2.  Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles 
Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs) were determined. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were prepared according to a complex coacervation method. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 199.5 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 98.37%±0.87%, loading capacity of 36.12%±0.19%, and a zeta potential of +12.11 mV. The in vitro release assay showed that the plasmid DNA was sustainably released from the pFNDV-CS-NPs, up to 82.9%±2.9% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F gene in cells and maintained good bioactivity. Additionally, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-CS-NPs was also tested in vitro by cell cytotoxicity and in vivo by safety test in chickens. In vivo immunization showed that better immune responses of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with the pFNDV-CS-NPs were induced, and prolonged release of the plasmid DNA was achieved compared to the chickens immunized with the control plasmid. This study lays the foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S54226
PMCID: PMC3890423  PMID: 24426783
Newcastle disease; DNA vaccine; chitosan nanoparticles; mucosal immunity delivery system; immune effectiveness
3.  Preparation and Efficacy of Newcastle Disease Virus DNA Vaccine Encapsulated in PLGA Nanoparticles 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82648.
Background
Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND) for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o) DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs) were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5±7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8±0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay.
Conclusions/Significance
The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082648
PMCID: PMC3873271  PMID: 24386106
4.  Effects of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection on Cytokine Production in SPF Chickens 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83918.
Infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a gammaretrovirus in the Retroviridae family, can result in immunosuppression and subsequent increased susceptibility to secondary infections. The effects of REV infection on expression of mRNA for cytokine genes in chickens have not been completely elucidated. In this study, using multiplex branched DNA (bDNA) technology, we identified molecular mediators that participated in the regulation of the immune response during REV infection in chickens. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly up-regulated while interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β,IL-2, IL-3, IL-15, IL-17F, IL-18 and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 were markedly decreased in PBMCs at all stages of infection. Compared with controls, REV infected chickens showed greater expression levels of IL-8 in PBMCs 21 and 28 days post infection. In addition, REV regulates host immunity as a suppressor of T cell proliferative responses. The results in this study will help us to understand the host immune response to virus pathogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083918
PMCID: PMC3865284  PMID: 24358317
5.  Complete Genome Sequence of the First Chinese Virulent Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70154.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The complete genome sequences of five attenuated ILTV vaccine strains and six virulent ILTV strains as well as two Australian ILTV field strains have been published in Australia and the USA so far. To provide the complete genome sequence information of ILTVs from different geographic regions, the whole genome of ILTV LJS09 isolated in China was sequenced. The genome of ILTV LJS09 was 153,201 bp in length, and contained 79 ORFs. Most of the ORFs had high sequence identity with homologous ORFs of reference strains. There was a large fragment deletion within the noncoding region of unique long region (UL) of ILTV LJS09 compared with SA2 and A20 strains. Though the origin binding protein of ILTV LJS09 existed, there was no AT-rich region in strain LJS09. Alignments of the amino acid sequences revealed seven mutations at amino acids 71 (Arg → Lys), 116 (Ala → Val), 207 (Thr → Ile) and 644 (Thr → Ile) on glycoprotein B, 155 (Phe → Ser) and 376 (Arg → His) on glycoprotein D and 8 (Gln→Pro) on glycoprotein L of ILTV LJS09 compared to those of virulent strain (USDA) as ILTV LJS09 did not grow on chicken embryo fibroblasts, suggesting the role of the key seven amino acids in determination of the cell tropism of ILTV LJS09. This is the first complete genome sequence of the virulent strain of ILTV in Asia using the conventional PCR method, which will help to facilitate the future molecular biological research of ILTVs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070154
PMCID: PMC3726392  PMID: 23922947
6.  Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67598.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067598
PMCID: PMC3695875  PMID: 23840745
7.  A Low-Cost Exon Capture Method Suitable for Large-Scale Screening of Genetic Deafness by the Massively-Parallel Sequencing Approach 
Current major barriers for using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in genetic mutation screening on an epidemiological scale appear to be the high accuracy demanded by clinical applications and high per-sample cost. How to achieve high efficiency in enriching targeted disease genes while keeping a low cost/sample is a key technical hurdle to overcome. We validated a cDNA-probe-based approach for capturing exons of a group of genes known to cause deafness. Polymerase chain reaction amplicons were made from cDNA clones of the targeted genes and used as bait probes in hybridization for capturing human genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments. The cDNA library containing the clones of targeted genes provided a readily available, low-cost, and regenerable source for producing capture probes with standard molecular biology equipment. Captured gDNA fragments by our method were sequenced by the Illumina NGS platform. Results demonstrated that targeted exons captured by our approach achieved specificity, multiplexicity, uniformity, and depth of coverage suitable for accurate sequencing applications by the NGS systems. Reliable genotype calls for various homozygous and heterozygous mutations were achieved. The results were confirmed independently by conventional Sanger sequencing. The method validated here could be readily expanded to include all-known deafness genes for applications such as genetic hearing screening in newborns. The high coverage depth and cost benefits of the cDNA-probe-based exon capture approach may also facilitate widespread applications in clinical practices beyond screening mutations in deafness genes.
doi:10.1089/gtmb.2011.0187
PMCID: PMC3378026  PMID: 22480152
8.  Avirulent Marek’s Disease Virus Type 1 Strain 814 Vectored Vaccine Expressing Avian Influenza (AI) Virus H5 Haemagglutinin Induced Better Protection Than Turkey Herpesvirus Vectored AI Vaccine 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53340.
Background
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as a vector to express the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 was developed and its protection against lethal Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) challenges was evaluated previously. It is well-known that avirulemt MDV type 1 vaccines are more effective than HVT in prevention of lethal MDV infection. To further increase protective efficacy against HPAIV and lethal MDV, a recombinant MDV type 1 strain 814 was developed to express HA gene of HPAIV H5N1.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A recombinant MDV-1 strain 814 expressing HA gene of HPAIV H5N1 virus A/goose/Guangdong/3/96 at the US2 site (rMDV-HA) was developed under the control of a human CMV immediate-early promoter. The HA expression in the rMDV-HA was tested by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, and in vitro and in vivo growth properties of rMDV-HA were also analyzed. Furthermore, we evaluated and compared the protective immunity of rMDV-HA and previously constructed rHVT-HA against HPAIV and lethal MDV. Vaccination of chickens with rMDV-HA induced 80% protection against HPAIV, which was better than the protection rate by rHVT-HA (66.7%). In the animal study with MDV challenge, chickens immunized with rMDV-HA were completely protected against virulent MDV strain J-1 whereas rHVT-HA only induced 80% protection with the same challenge dose.
Conclusions/Significance
The rMDV-HA vaccine was more effective than rHVT-HA vaccine for protection against lethal MDV and HPAIV challenges. Therefore, avirulent MDV type 1 vaccine is a better vector than HVT for development of a recombinant live virus vaccine against virulent MDV and HPAIV in poultry.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053340
PMCID: PMC3536743  PMID: 23301062
9.  Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(4):303-310.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0442-9
PMCID: PMC3356469  PMID: 22466285
Anxiety; Cross-sectional study; Depression; Migraine; Risk factor
10.  Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments 
Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.
doi:10.3390/ijms131216668
PMCID: PMC3546714  PMID: 23222636
class IIa bacteriocin; lactic acid bacteria; diversity; genetic organization; discovery
11.  Expression of HA of HPAI H5N1 Virus at US2 Gene Insertion Site of Turkey Herpesvirus Induced Better Protection than That at US10 Gene Insertion Site 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22549.
Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) is being widely used as a vector for development of recombinant vaccines and US2 and US10 genes are often chosen as insertion sites for targeted gene expression. However, the different effects of the two genes for generation of recombinant HVT vaccines were unknown. In order to compare the effects of inserted genes in the two sites on the efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, host-protective haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was inserted into either US2 or US10 gene locus of the HVT. The resulting US2 (rHVT-US2-HA) or US10 (rHVT-US10-HA) recombinant HVT viruses were used to infect chicken embryo fibroblasts. Plaques and the growth kinetics of rHVT-US2-HA-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts were similar to those of parental HVT whereas rHVT-US10-HA infected chicken embryo fibroblasts had different growth kinetics and plaque formation. The viremia levels in rHVT-US10-HA virus-infected chickens were significantly lower than those of rHVT-US2-HA group on 28 days post infection. The vaccine efficacy of the two recombinant viruses against H5N1 HPAIV and virulent Marek's disease virus was also evaluated in 1-day-old vaccinated chickens. rHVT-US2-HA-vaccinated chickens were better protected with reduced mortality than rHVT-US10-HA-vaccinated animals following HPAIV challenge. Furthermore, the overall hemaglutination inhibition antibody titers of rHVT-US2-HA-vaccinated chickens were higher than those of rHVT-US10-HA-vaccinated chickens. Protection levels against Marek's disease virus challenge following vaccination with either rHVT-US2-HA or rHVT-US10-HA, however, were similar to those of the parental HVT virus. These results, for the first time, indicate that US2 gene provides a favorable foreign gene insertion site for generation of recombinant HVT vaccines.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022549
PMCID: PMC3144902  PMID: 21818336
12.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
13.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
14.  The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles 
In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles.
doi:10.1177/0278364909357228
PMCID: PMC2998900  PMID: 21151708
flexible needles; path planning; stochastic model; path-of-probability algorithm; error propagation; port placement; feedback control
15.  Connexin30 null and conditional connexin26 null mice display distinct pattern and time course of cellular degeneration in the cochlea 
Mutations in connexin26 (Cx26) and Cx30 are the most common cause of non-syndromic inherited deafness in humans. To understand underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the pattern and time course of cellular degeneration in the cochlea of conditional Cx26 (cCx26) null and Cx30 null mice. In cCx26 null mice, initial degeneration was observed around postnatal day 14 in outer hair cells (OHCs) and supporting cells surrounding the OHCs. All cells in the middle turn organ of Corti were lost one month after birth and degeneration gradually spread to the basal and apical turns. Most spiral ganglion (SG) neurons in the middle and basal turns disappeared in the first three months, while significant amounts of apical SG neurons survived. In the cochlea of Cx30 null mice, survival of most inner HCs, supporting cells and SG neurons was observed for up to eighteen months. The most severe degeneration was found in apical SG neurons and OHCs. OHC loss followed a slow time course and a base to apex gradient. Gross structures of the endolymphatic space and stria vascularis observed at the light microscope level were unchanged in either Cx null mouse models.
This study revealed that cellular degeneration in the cochlea of cCx26 null mice was dramatically more rapid and widespread than that observed in Cx30 null mice. The radically different pathogenesis processes displayed by cCx26 and Cx30 null mice suggest heterogeneous underlying deafness mechanisms, despite of the coassembly of Cx26 and Cx30 in forming gap junctions in the cochlea.
doi:10.1002/cne.22117
PMCID: PMC2846422  PMID: 19673007
neuronal degeneration; connexin26 mutation; connexin30 mutation; spiral ganglion neuron; hair cells; mouse model; genetic deafness
16.  Targeted connexin26 ablation arrests postnatal development of the organ of Corti 
Mutations in the gene coding for connexin26 (Cx26) is the most common cause of human nonsyndromic hereditary deafness. To investigate deafness mechanisms underlying Cx26 null mutations, we generated three independent lines of conditional Cx26 null mice. Cell differentiation and gross cochlear morphology at birth seemed normal. However, postnatal development of the organ of Corti was stalled as the tunnel of Corti and the Nuel’s space were never opened. Cell degeneration was first observed in the Claudius cells around P8. Outer hair cell loss was initially observed around P13 at middle turn when inner hair cells were still intact. Massive cell death occurred in the middle turn thereafter and gradually spread to the basal turn, resulting in secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the corresponding cochlear locations. These results demonstrated that Cx26 plays essential roles in postnatal maturation and homoeostasis of the organ of Corti before the onset of hearing.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.05.023
PMCID: PMC2713729  PMID: 19433060
connexin26 mutation; cochlear development; cell degeneration; spiral ganglion neuron; hair cells; mouse models; genetic deafness; mechanism of deafness
17.  Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Muscovy duck reovirus σB protein 
Virology Journal  2010;7:133.
Background
The σB protein of Muscovy duck reovirus (DRV), one of the major structural proteins, is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks, but the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against σB protein has never been characterized.
Results
Four hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-DRV σB MAbs were obtained, designated 1E5, 2F7, 4E3 and 5D8. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG2b (1E5 and 4E3) and IgM (2F7 and 5D8). Dot blot and western blotting assays showed that MAbs reacted with His-σB protein in a conformation-independent manner. Competitive binding assay indicated that the MAbs delineated two epitopes, A and B of σB. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the four MAbs could specifically bind to Vero cells infected with DRV and σB was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasma of infected cells. MAbs had universal reactivity to all DRVs tested in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Conclusion
Results of this research provide important information about the four monoclonal antibodies and therefore the MAbs may be useful candidate for the development of a MAb capture ELISA for rapid detection of DRVs. In addition, it showed that the σB protein was located in the cytoplasma of infected cells by immunofluorescence assay with MAbs. Virus isolation and RT-PCR are reliable way for detection of DRV infection, but these procedures are laborious, time consuming, and requiring instruments. These obvious diagnosis problems highlight the ongoing demand of rapid, reproducible, and automatic methods for the sensitive detection of DRV.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-133
PMCID: PMC2907335  PMID: 20569474
18.  Nonparametric Second-Order Theory of Error Propagation on Motion Groups 
Error propagation on the Euclidean motion group arises in a number of areas such as in dead reckoning errors in mobile robot navigation and joint errors that accumulate from the base to the distal end of kinematic chains such as manipulators and biological macromolecules. We address error propagation in rigid-body poses in a coordinate-free way. In this paper we show how errors propagated by convolution on the Euclidean motion group, SE(3), can be approximated to second order using the theory of Lie algebras and Lie groups. We then show how errors that are small (but not so small that linearization is valid) can be propagated by a recursive formula derived here. This formula takes into account errors to second-order, whereas prior efforts only considered the first-order case. Our formulation is nonparametric in the sense that it will work for probability density functions of any form (not only Gaussians). Numerical tests demonstrate the accuracy of this second-order theory in the context of a manipulator arm and a flexible needle with bevel tip.
doi:10.1177/0278364908097583
PMCID: PMC2843106  PMID: 20333324
Recursive error propagation; Euclidean group; spatial uncertainty
19.  A Lie-Theoretic Perspective on O(n) Mass Matrix Inversion for Serial Manipulators and Polypeptide Chains 
Robotica  2007;25(6):739.
Over the past several decades a number of O(n) methods for forward and inverse dynamics computations have been developed in the multi-body dynamics and robotics literature. A method was developed in 1974 by Fixman for O(n) computation of the mass-matrix determinant for a serial polymer chain consisting of point masses. In other recent papers, we extended this method in order to compute the inverse of the mass matrix for serial chains consisting of point masses. In the present paper, we extend these ideas further and address the case of serial chains composed of rigid-bodies. This requires the use of relatively deep mathematics associated with the rotation group, SO(3), and the special Euclidean group, SE(3), and specifically, it requires that one differentiates functions of Lie-group-valued argument.
doi:10.1017/S0263574707003852
PMCID: PMC2822364  PMID: 20165563

Results 1-19 (19)