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1.  Epidemiological and clinical features of hepatitis B virus related liver failure in China 
AIM: To examine the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver failure in patients in China.
METHODS: This study was conducted with a retrospective design to examine 1066 patients with HBV-related liver failure in the southwest of China.
RESULTS: There were more male than female patients. Young and middle-aged people comprised most of the patients. Farmers and laborers comprised the largest proportion (63.09%). Han Chinese accounted for 98.12%, while minority ethnic groups only accounted for 0.88% of patients. A total of 43.47% patients had a family history of HBV-related liver failure and 56.66% patients had a history of drinking alcohol. A total of 42.59% patients with HBV-related liver failure had definite causes. With regard to the clinical manifestation of HBV-related liver failure, the symptoms were: hypodynamia, anorexia and abdominal distension. Total bilirubin (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were altered in 46.23% of patients with evident damage of the liver. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patients’ prognoses were correlated with ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, TBIL, prothrombin activity (PTA), and alpha-fetoprotein levels, and drinking alcohol, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, infection and ≥ 2 complications. Multifactor logistic regression analysis showed that the activity of thrombinogen and the number of complications were related to the prognosis.
CONCLUSION: Alcohol influences the patients’ prognosis and condition. PTA and complications are independent factors that can be used for estimating the prognosis of HBV-related liver failure.
PMCID: PMC3132258  PMID: 21799653
Hepatitis B virus related liver failure; Chronic hepatitis B; Epidemiology; Prognosis
2.  HMGB1 gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection 
AIM: To characterize high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) polymorphisms in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and determine the different patterns in patient subgroups.
METHODS: A total of 1495 unrelated Han Chinese HBV carriers were recruited in this hospital-based case-control study. The HMGB1 1176 G/C polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.
RESULTS: A significant association was observed between HMGB1 1176 G/C polymorphism and outcome of HBV infection. The subjects bearing 1176G/G genotype had an increased risk of susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and severe hepatitis B when compared with those bearing at least one 1176C allele.
CONCLUSION: Patients with 1176G/G genotype of HMGB1 gene are more likely to have a progressive status in HBV infection.
PMCID: PMC3746388  PMID: 23964150
High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1; Hepatitis B virus; Polymorphism; Intron
3.  Relationship between HLA-DR gene polymorphisms and outcomes of hepatitis B viral infections: A meta-analysis 
AIM: To assess the rigorous relationship between human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR alleles and outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections by means of meta-analysis.
METHODS: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were pooled using Stata 11.0. Subgroup analyses were performed by ethnicity. Heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were performed to validate the credibility.
RESULTS: A total of 2609 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 2606 controls spontaneously recovering from prior HBV infection were included. Meta-analysis showed that HLA-DR*04 (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.85) and DR*13 (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.19-0.37) alleles were significantly associated with HBV clearance while patients carrying HLA-DR*03 (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16-1.87) or DR*07 (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.24-2.03) alleles had a significantly increased risk of chronic HBV persistence. For the HLA-DR*01 polymorphism, a significantly association with HBV clearance was found in Chinese Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86), but not found in other ethnic groups (P = 0.191). For other polymorphisms, no association with the HBV infection outcome was found.
CONCLUSION: HLA-DR*04 and DR*13 alleles may be the protective factors for HBV clearance and HLA-DR*03, and DR*07 alleles may be the risk factors for HBV persistence.
PMCID: PMC3386326  PMID: 22791948
Hepatitis B virus; Human leukocyte antigens; Meta-analysis; Polymorphism
4.  Proliferation of L02 human hepatocytes in tolerized genetically immunocompetent rats 
AIM: To investigate whether human hepatocytes could proliferate after transplantation to normal immunocompetent rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene or Retrorsine and partial hepatectomy.
METHODS: L02 hepatocyte-tolerant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Retrorsine, 2-acetaminofluorene or normal saline. L02 hepatocytes were then transplanted via the spleen. Human albumin and its mRNA, specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), L02 hepatocyte dynamic distribution, number density and area density of PCNA-positive cells in the liver were determined.
RESULTS: All the examined indicators were not significantly different between the rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene and normal saline, which was not the case with rats treated with Retrorsine. A dynamic distribution of L02 hepatocytes in the rat liver was detected from wk 1 to mo 6 after transplantation in the Retrorsine group and from wk 1 to 10 in the 2-acetaminofluorene group. Human albumin and its mRNA were detected from wk 2 to mo 6 in the Retrorsine group and from wk 1 to 8 in the 2-acetaminofluorene group. Specific human PCNA was detected in the rat liver from wk 2 to mo 6 in the Retrorsine group and from wk 2 to 6 in the 2-acetaminofluorene group. Human albumin and its mRNA contents as well as the number of PCNA positive cells reached a peak at wk 4.
CONCLUSION: L02 human hepatocytes could not proliferate significiantly after transplantation to the normal, immunocompetent rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene. L02 human hepatocytes can survive for 10 wk after transplantation and express human albumin for 8 wk. L02 human hepatocytes can proliferate and express human albumin for 6 mo after transplantation to the rats treated with Retrorsine. The chimeric L02 human hepatocytes, which then underwent transplantation into tolerant rats, were normal in morphogenesis, biochemistry and function.
PMCID: PMC2705086  PMID: 18416458
Hepatocyte; Chimerism; Rat; Transplantation; Proliferation
5.  Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Survival in Patients with Brain Metastasis: A Preliminary Report 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:503421.
Impaired heart rate variability (HRV) has been demonstrated as a negative survival prognosticator in various diseases. We conducted this prospective study to evaluate how HRV affects brain metastasis (BM) patients. Fifty-one BM patients who had not undergone previous brain operation or radiotherapy (RT) were recruited from January 2010 to July 2012, and 40 patients were included in the final analysis. A 5-minute electrocardiogram was obtained before whole brain radiotherapy. Time domain indices of HRV were compared with other clinical factors on overall survival (OS). In the univariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) <70 (P = 0.002) and standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN) <10 ms (P = 0.004) significantly predict poor survival. The multivariate analysis revealed that KPS <70 and SDNN <10 ms were independent negative prognosticators for survival in BM patients with hazard ratios of 2.657 and 2.204, respectively. In conclusion, HRV is associated with survival and may be a novel prognostic factor for BM patients.
PMCID: PMC3786541  PMID: 24102056
6.  Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus E1 protein in membrane fusion 
Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). E1 glycoprotein mediation of viral membrane fusion during CHIKV infection is a crucial step in the release of viral genome into the host cytoplasm for replication. How the E1 structure determines membrane fusion and whether other CHIKV structural proteins participate in E1 fusion activity remain largely unexplored.
A bicistronic baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant baculoviruses for cell-based assay was used. Sf21 insect cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses bearing wild type or single-amino-acid substitution of CHIKV E1 and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) were employed to investigate the roles of four E1 amino acid residues (G91, V178, A226, and H230) in membrane fusion activity.
Western blot analysis revealed that the E1 expression level and surface features in wild type and mutant substituted cells were similar. However, cell fusion assay found that those cells infected by CHIKV E1-H230A mutant baculovirus showed little fusion activity, and those bearing CHIKV E1-G91D mutant completely lost the ability to induce cell-cell fusion. Cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses of CHIKV E1-A226V and E1-V178A mutants exhibited the same membrane fusion capability as wild type. Although the E1 expression level of cells bearing monomeric-E1-based constructs (expressing E1 only) was greater than that of cells bearing 26S-based constructs (expressing all structural proteins), the sizes of syncytial cells induced by infection of baculoviruses containing 26S-based constructs were larger than those from infections having monomeric-E1 constructs, suggesting that other viral structure proteins participate or regulate E1 fusion activity. Furthermore, membrane fusion in cells infected by baculovirus bearing the A226V mutation constructs exhibited increased cholesterol-dependences and lower pH thresholds. Cells bearing the V178A mutation exhibited a slight decrease in cholesterol-dependence and a higher-pH threshold for fusion.
Cells expressing amino acid substitutions of conserved protein E1 residues of E1-G91 and E1-H230 lost most of the CHIKV E1-mediated membrane fusion activity. Cells expressing mutations of less-conserved amino acids, E1-V178A and E1-A226V, retained membrane fusion activity to levels similar to those expressing wild type E1, but their fusion properties of pH threshold and cholesterol dependence were slightly altered.
PMCID: PMC3384457  PMID: 22520648
Alphavirus; Bicistronic baculovirus expression system; Chikungunya virus; Class II fusion protein; Fusion peptide; Membrane fusion
7.  Ds-echinoside A, a new triterpene glycoside derived from sea cucumber, exhibits antimetastatic activity via the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and VEGF expressions*  
Ds-echinoside A (DSEA), a non-sulfated triterpene glycoside, was isolated from the sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei. In vitro and in vivo investigations were conducted on the effects of DSEA on tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In this study, we found that DSEA inhibited the proliferation of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells Hep G2, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.65 μmol/L, and suppressed Hep G2 cell adhesion, migration, and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. DSEA also reduced tube formation of human endothelial cells ECV-304 on matrigel in vitro and attenuated neovascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that DSEA significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which plays an important role in the degradation of basement membrane in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. DSEA also increased the protein expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), an important regulator of MMP-9 activation. From the results of Western blotting, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were found to be remarkably reduced by DSEA. These findings suggest that DSEA exhibits a significant anti-metastatic activity through the specific inhibition of NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 and VEGF expressions.
PMCID: PMC3134607  PMID: 21726060
Triterpene glycoside; Ds-echinoside A (DSEA); Metastasis; Angiogenesis; Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9); Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
8.  Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling 
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats.
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA). After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation.
Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c). Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα), together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC.
According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of β-oxidation via PPARα activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.
PMCID: PMC2846940  PMID: 20211032
9.  The mechanism of dietary cholesterol effects on lipids metabolism in rats 
Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks.
The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively). The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively) and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds) in liver by the cholesterol administration.
The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.
PMCID: PMC2820024  PMID: 20070910
10.  Effect of leptin infusion on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice 
Lipodystrophies are rare acquired and genetic disorders characterized by the complete or partial absence of body fat with a line of metabolic disorders. Previous studies demonstrated that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia through the drastic reduction of adipocytokine levels due to a paucity of adipose tissue in mice and the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities in CLA-fed mice is similar to that in human lipodystrophy. The present study explores the effect of leptin infusion on the pathogenesis of diet-induced lipodystrophy in mice. C57BL/6N mice were assigned to three groups: (1) mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 6% corn oil and infused PBS intraperitoneally (normal group), (2) mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 4% corn oil plus 2% CLA and infused PBS intraperitoneally (lipodystrophy-control group), and (3) mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 4% corn oil plus 2% CLA and infused recombinant murine leptin intraperitoneally (lipodystrophy-leptin group). All mice were fed normal or lipodystrophy model diets for 4 weeks and were infused intrapeneally 0 or 5 μg of leptin per day from third week of the feeding period for 1 week.
The results indicate that leptin infusion can attenuate hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia through the reduction of hepatic triglyceride synthesis and the improvement of insulin sensitivity in diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice.
We expect the use of this model for clarifying the pathophysiology of lipodystrophy-induced metabolic abnormalities and evaluating the efficacy and safety of drug and dietary treatment.
PMCID: PMC2278145  PMID: 18348717
11.  Dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in 9cis, 11trans, 13cis conjugated linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF Rats 
Conjugated fatty acid, the general term of positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds, has attracted considerable attention because of its potentially beneficial biological effects. In the present study, dietary effect of pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid (9cis, 11trans, 13cis-conjugated linolenic acid; 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA) on lipid metabolism was investigated in obese, hyperlipidemic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. After 2 weeks feeding period, OLETF rats revealed obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with their progenitor LETO rats. Feeding of the diet supplemented with 9% safflower oil and 1% pomegranate seed oil (9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet) did not affect abdominal white adipose tissue weights and serum lipid levels compared with the diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil (control diet) in OLETF rats. However, the accumulated hepatic triacylglycerol was markedly decreased by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet in OLETF rats. Activities of hepatic enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid β-oxidation were not altered by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet. Levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), major storage form of fatty acid, in serum triacylglycerol were markedly higher in obese, hyperlipidemic OLETF rats than in lean LETO rats. In addition, 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet significantly decreased MUFA levels in OLETF rats. This is the first study showing that 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA suppresses delta-9 desaturation in vivo, and we suggest that the alleviation of hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation by 9c, 11t, 13c-CLNA diet was, at least in part, attributable to the suppression of delta-9 desaturation in OLETF rats.
PMCID: PMC534798  PMID: 15533261
12.  Hypervariable Region 1 Sequence Stability during Hepatitis C Virus Replication in Chimpanzees 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(7):3058-3066.
The putative envelope 2 (E2) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains a highly variable region referred to as hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). We hypothesized that this genetic variability is driven by immune selection pressure, rather than representing the accumulation of random mutations in a region with relatively little functional constraint. To test this hypothesis, we examined the E2 sequence of a human inoculum that was passaged through eight chimpanzees, which appear to have a replicative rate (opportunity for chance mutation) similar to that of humans. Acute-phase plasma samples from a human (the inoculum) and six of eight serially infected chimpanzees were studied. For each, 33 cloned cDNAs were examined by a combined heteroduplex–single-stranded conformational polymorphism assay to assess quasispecies complexity and optimize selection of clones with unique gel shift patterns (clonotypes) for sequencing. The sequence diversity of HCV was significantly lower in the chimpanzees than in the humans, and during eight serial passages there was no change in the sequence of the majority clonotype from each animal examined. Similarly, the rates of protein sequence altering (nonsynonymous) substitution were lower in the chimpanzees than in the humans. These findings demonstrate that nonsynonymous mutations indicate selection pressure rather than being an incidental result of HCV replication.
PMCID: PMC111804  PMID: 10708420
13.  Acute Hepatitis C Virus Structural Gene Sequences as Predictors of Persistent Viremia: Hypervariable Region 1 as a Decoy 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(4):2938-2946.
We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence is related to the sequence variability of putative envelope genes. This hypothesis was tested by characterizing quasispecies in specimens collected every six months from a cohort of acutely HCV-infected subjects (mean duration of specimen collection, 72 months after seroconversion). We evaluated 5 individuals who spontaneously cleared viremia and 10 individuals with persistent viremia by cloning 33 1-kb amplicons that spanned E1 and the 5′ half of E2, including hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). To assess the quasispecies complexity and to detect variants for sequencing, the first PCR-positive sample was examined by using a previously described method that combines heteroduplex analysis and analysis of single-stranded conformational polymorphisms. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) within each sample was evaluated as an indicator of relative selective pressure. Amino acid sequences were analyzed for signature patterns, glycosylation signals, and charge. Quasispecies complexity was higher and E1 dN/dS ratios (selective pressure) were lower in those with persistent viremia; the association with persistence was strengthened by the presence of a combination of both characteristics. In contrast, a trend toward higher HVR1 dN/dS ratios was detected among those with persistent viremia. We did not detect any such association for factors that may affect complexity such as serum HCV RNA concentration. HVR1 had a lower positive charge in subjects with persistent viremia, although no consistent motifs were detected. Our data suggest that HCV persistence is associated with a complex quasispecies and immune response to HVR1.
PMCID: PMC104053  PMID: 10074143
14.  Assessment of Hepatitis C Virus Sequence Complexity by Electrophoretic Mobilities of Both Single-and Double-Stranded DNAs 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(10):2982-2989.
To assess genetic variation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences accurately, we optimized a method for identifying distinct viral clones without determining the nucleotide sequence of each clone. Twelve serum samples were obtained from seven individuals soon after they acquired HCV during a prospective study, and a 452-bp fragment from the E2 region was amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR and cloned. Thirty-three cloned cDNAs representing each specimen were assessed by a method that combined heteroduplex analysis (HDA) and a single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method to determine the number of clonotypes (electrophoretically indistinguishable cloned cDNAs) as a measure of genetic complexity (this combined method is referred to herein as the HDA+SSCP method). We calculated Shannon entropy, incorporating the number and distribution of clonotypes into a single quantifier of complexity. These measures were evaluated for their correlation with nucleotide sequence diversity. Blinded analysis revealed that the sensitivity (ability to detect variants) and specificity (avoidance of false detection) of the HDA+SSCP method were very high. The genetic distance (mean ± standard deviation) between indistinguishable cloned cDNAs (intraclonotype diversity) was 0.6% ± 0.9%, and 98.7% of cDNAs differed by <2%, while the mean distance between cloned cDNAs with different patterns was 4.0% ± 3.2%. The sensitivity of the HDA+SSCP method compared favorably with either HDA or the SSCP method alone, which resulted in intraclonotype diversities of 1.6% ± 1.8% and 3.5% ± 3.4%, respectively. The number of clonotypes correlated strongly with genetic diversity (R2, 0.93), but this correlation fell off sharply when fewer clones were assessed. This HDA+SSCP method accurately reflected nucleotide sequence diversity among a large number of viral cDNA clones, which should enhance analyses to determine the effects of viral diversity on HCV-associated disease. If sequence diversity becomes recognized as an important parameter for staging or monitoring of HCV infection, this method should be practical enough for use in laboratories that perform nucleic acid testing.
PMCID: PMC105098  PMID: 9738054
15.  Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet 
Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet.
Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain.
At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHA-TG (P < 0.05), DHA-EE (P < 0.05) and DHA-PL (P < 0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group (P < 0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHA-EE and DHA-PL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups (P < 0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level.
The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.
PMCID: PMC3393618  PMID: 22676394
Omega-3 fatty acid; DHA; EPA; Lipid metabolism; Triglycerides; Ethyl ester; Phospholipids

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