AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs).
METHODS: Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery.
RESULTS: The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P < 0.001) and Wexner fecal incontinence scores (P = 0.002) after the successful healing of complex RVFs or RUFs. There was no significant difference in SF-36 QOL scores between the initial healing group and irrigation-suction-assisted healing group.
CONCLUSION: Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs.
Rectovaginal fistula; Rectourethral fistula; Gracilis muscle; Quality of life; Therapeutic irrigation
microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN) and non-induction (CON) were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.
Objective: Skin damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a multifactorial process that often occurs in plastic surgery. The mechanisms of I/R injury include hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damage. Hydrogen gas has been reported to alleviate cerebral I/R injury by acting as a free radical scavenger. Here, we assessed the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on skin flap I/R injury. Methods: Abdominal skin flaps of rats were elevated and ischemia was induced for 3 h; subsequently, HRS or physiological saline was administered intraperitoneally 10 min before reperfusion. On postoperative Day 5, flap survival, blood perfusion, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and levels of cytokines were evaluated. Histological examinations were performed to assess inflammatory cell infiltration. Results: Skin flap survival and blood flow perfusion were improved by HRS relative to the controls. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was markedly reduced. A multiplex cytokine assay revealed that HRS reduced the elevation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, with the exception of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) growth factor. HRS treatment also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration induced by I/R injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HRS mitigates I/R injury by decreasing inflammation and, therefore, has the potential for application as a therapy for improving skin flap survival.
Hydrogen-rich saline; Ischemia/reperfusion; Skin flaps; Oxidative damage; Inflammation
This study investigated the role of LOX in promoting invasion and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hypoxic environment and its specific signal transduction pathway. Immunohistochemical detection of HIF-1α and LOX protein expression was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin sections of normal ovary, benign ovarian tumors, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumor paraffin sample, using Mann-Whitney U test for independent comparisons and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for paired comparisons. HIF-1α and LOX were knocked down in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (EOC), and HIF-1α/LOX regulation mechanism and LOX catalytic activity under hypoxia/reoxygenation microenvironment were explored. Cell migration and invasion ability in LOX inhibited HO8910 cells were investigated under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions, using matrigel cell invasion and migration assays. We found that HIF-1α and LOX are highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the expression of both proteins is significantly correlated with the tumor grade, tumor diameter and lymph node metastasis. HIF-1α expression is positively correlated with the expression of LOX. Specifically, the expression of LOX and HIF-1α markedly increases under hypoxic conditions and decreases after reoxygenation. siRNA knockdown of LOX or β-aminoproprionitrile (βAPN), an inhibitor of LOX activity, that attenuates LOX activity, downregulates HIF-1α protein expression and inhibits HO8910 migratory and invasive abilities. LOX catalytic activity is significantly reduced under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, EOC cells display a marked increase in LOX-dependent FAK/AKT activation and cell migration following hypoxia/reoxygenation. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the hypoxia-HIF-1α, LOX-FAK/AKT pathway regulates the migration and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions, thus, promoting metastasis of ovarian cancer.
lysyl oxidase; ovarian cancer; metastasis; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor; reoxygenation
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, was selected to investigate its influence on population growth and inter-specific competition between two species of marine bloom-forming microalgae, Heterosigma akashiwo and Karenia mikimotoi. (1)BDE-209 showed acute toxic effects on both microalgae and H. akashiwo was more sensitive from view of 96 h-EC50 and the ultrastructure variation. (2)The microalgal population growth patterns in mono-culture were density-dependent and the growth of both species in the normal co-culture was significantly depressed by competition (P<0.05) with different initial biomass ratios. BDE-209 exposure significantly changed the growth. (3) Lotka-Volterra competition model was used to simulate the interaction between the microalgae. BDE-209 exposure broke the competitive balance to make competition gradually shift in favor of H. akashiwo. Results suggested BDE-209 did have toxic effects on either microalgal growth or the inter-specific competition, which was quite different from previous reports. Further exploration of the mechanism is needed.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in almost all of the body tissues, where they undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. MSCs derived from different tissues share many similarities but also show some differences in term of biological properties. We aim to search for significant differences among various sources of MSCs and to explore their implications in physiopathology and clinical translation. We compared the phenotype and biological properties among different MSCs isolated from human term placental chorionic villi (CV), umbilical cord (UC), adult bone marrow (BM) and adipose (AD). We found that CD106 (VCAM-1) was expressed highest on the CV-MSCs, moderately on BM-MSCs, lightly on UC-MSCs and absent on AD-MSCs. CV-MSCs also showed unique immune-associated gene expression and immunomodulation. We thus separated CD106+cells and CD106−cells from CV-MSCs and compared their biological activities. Both two subpopulations were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation while CD106+CV-MSCs were more effective to modulate T helper subsets but possessed decreased colony formation capacity. In addition, CD106+CV-MSCs expressed more cytokines than CD106−CV-MSCs. These data demonstrate that CD106 identifies a subpopulation of CV-MSCs with unique immunoregulatory activity and reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying immunomodulation of MSCs.
We reviewed data to determine outcomes for 21 consecutive Vancouver type B1 or type C periprosthetic fractures that we treated between 2001 and 2008 using a nickel–titanium shape-memory sawtooth-arm embracing fixator.
The study participants were 12 men and 9 women (mean age, 70.8 years; range, 42–85 years). The average duration of follow-up monitoring was 39.7 months (range, 1–78 months). In five cases, cables and screws were used for further stabilisation. No bone grafting was performed for any of the patients.
Results were satisfactory, except for one patient who died one month after surgery from a cause unrelated to arthroplasty. Bone union was achieved in the remaining 20 cases within an average of 5.25 months. No implant failures or malunions occurred in any of the patients. The average Harris hip score at the final follow-up examination was 79.3 points.
Our results show that the embracing fixator is a valid alternative treatment for Vancouver type B1 or type C periprosthetic femoral fractures.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes. Because it has been found to be a powerful reproductive and developmental toxicant, a sensor to monitor DBP in some working spaces and the environment is required. In this work polyaniline nanofibers were deposited on the electrode of a quartz crystal oscillator to form a Quartz Crystal Microbalance gas sensor. The coated quartz crystal and a non-coated quartz crystal were mounted in a sealed chamber, and their frequency difference was monitored. When DBP vapor was injected into the chamber, gas adsorption decreased the frequency of the coated quartz crystal oscillator and thereby caused an increase in the frequency difference between the two crystals. The change of the frequency difference was recorded as the sensor response. The sensor was extremely sensitive to DBP and could be easily recovered by N2 purging. A low measurement limit of 20 ppb was achieved. The morphologies of the polyaniline films prepared by different approaches have been studied by SEM and BET. How the nanofiber-structure can improve the sensitivity and stability is discussed, while its selectivity and long-term stability were investigated.
QCM; gas sensor; dibutyl phthalate; nanofiber; polyaniline; PACS 07.07.Df (Gas sensor); 77.65.Fs (Quartz resonator); 82.35.Np (Polymers nanoparticles in); 81.07.-b (Nanoscale materials fabrication and characterization)
Since the KCNB1 encoding Kv2.1 channel accounts for the majority of Kv currents modulating insulin secretion by pancreatic islet beta-cells, we postulated that KCNB1 is a plausible candidate gene for genetic variation contributing to the variable compensatory secretory function of beta-cells in type-2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted two studies, a case-control study and a cross-section study, to investigate the association of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNB1 with T2D and its linking traits. In the case-control study, we first examined the association of 20 tag SNPs of KCNB1 with T2D in a population with 226 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (screening study). We then identified the association in an enlarged population of 412 T2D patients and non-diabetic subjects (replication study). In the cross-sectional study, we investigated the linkage between the candidate SNP rs1051295 and T2D by comparing beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity among rs1051295 genotypes in a general population of 1051 subjects at fasting and after glucose loading (oral glucose tolerance tests, OGTT) in 84 fasting glucose impaired subjects, and several T2D-related traits. We found that among the 19 available tag SNPs, only the KCNB1 rs1051295 was associated with T2D (P = 0.027), with the rs1051295 TT genotype associated with an increased risk of T2D compared with genotypes CC (P = 0.009). At fasting, rs1051295 genotype TT was associated with a 9.8% reduction in insulin sensitivity compared to CC (P = 0.008); along with increased plasma triglycerides (TG) levels (TT/CC: P = 0.046) and increased waist/hip (W/H) ratio (TT/CC: P = 0.013; TT/TC: P = 0.002). OGTT confirmed that genotype TT exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity by 16.3% (P = 0.030) compared with genotype TC+CC in a fasting glucose impaired population. The KCNB1 rs1051295 genotype TT in the Chinese Han population is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased plasma TG and W/H ratio, which together contribute to an increased risk for T2D.
Objective. To compare two internal fixation devices clinically in stabilisation of intertrochanteric femur fractures. Methods. Eighty-seven patients were randomised upon their admission to the hospital using a sealed envelope method. Forty-five were treated with proximal femur nail antirotation (PFNA) and 42 with reverse less invasive stabilisation system (LISS). The perioperative data were recorded and compared in relation to fracture type. Results. In each type of fractures, no significant differences were found with respect to the blood loss, the quality of reduction, the time to bony healing, and the Harris hip score between the 2 groups. The mean duration of surgery was significantly longer in reverse LISS group than in PFNA group. Conclusion. Both the PFNA and the reversed LISS are effective in the treatment of different types of intertrochanteric femur fractures. PFNA is superior to reverse LISS in terms of surgical time, weight-bearing, and perhaps fluoroscopy time.
The centrosymmetric molecule of the title compound, [Zn(C16H11N6)2(H2O)2], contains one Zn2+ ion located on a center of symmetry, two 3-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ide (Ippyt) ligands and two coordinating water molecules. The ZnII ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry by four N atoms from two Ippyt ligands and by two O atoms from two water molecules. Adjacent units are interconnected though O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.
Complicated nano-patterns with linewidth less than 18 nm can be automatically hammered by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip in tapping mode with high speed. In this study, the special sample was thin poly(styrene-ethylene/butylenes-styrene) (SEBS) block copolymer film with hexagonal spherical microstructures. An ordinary silicon tip was used as a nano-hammer, and the entire hammering process is controlled by a computer program. Experimental results demonstrate that such structure-tailored thin films enable AFM tip hammering to be performed on their surfaces. Both imprinted and embossed nano-patterns can be generated by using a vibrating tip with a larger tapping load and by using a predefined program to control the route of tip movement as it passes over the sample’s surface. Specific details for the fabrication of structure-tailored SEBS film and the theory for auto-hammering patterns were presented in detail.
Automatic nanolithography; Atomic force microscopy; Poly(styrene-ethylene/butylenes-styrene)
Yellow Sea green tides have occurred in coastal China almost every year from 2007 to 2011. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the causative macroalgal species. U. intestinalis, however, has been observed in the bloom areas, co-occurring with U. prolifera, but it has not been found to be causative. The Yellow Sea green tide has shown consistent phases of development that match corresponding environmental changes. U. prolifera, not U. intestinalis, is dominant. Our experimental design was based on these observed phenomena, and the results of our field investigation indicated a close relationship between changes in principal environmental factors (irradiance, temperature, and salinity) and the development of each phase of the bloom. These main environmental factors were simulated to allow estimation and comparison of the physiological responses of U. prolifera and U. intestinalis. Ecophysiological differences were found between these two species. (1) More photosynthetic activity and plasticity were detected in U. prolifera. (2) U. prolifera was found to be more sensitive to dynamic environments, especially harsh and changing environmental conditions. U. intestinalis was found to be more stable, probably due to the higher stress tolerance given by its antioxidant system. (3) Markedly higher nutrient absorption activity was observed in U. prolifera. Comparisons of the ecophysiological traits of these two species in this present study may foster understanding of their natural ecological processes. Specifically, U. prolifera seemed to be more engaged with the ephemeral blooms, while U. intestinalis seemed to be directed toward persistence. This also suggests that the ecological success of U. prolifera may be inextricably linked to its higher capacity for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and nutrient assimilation.
The molecule of the title compound, C24H16BrN3OS3, contains three approximately planar fragments, viz. an oxadiazole ring plus two adjacent thiophene groups, and two phenothiazine benzene rings, with largest deviations from the least-squares planes of 0.051 (3), 0.019 (4) and 0.014 (3) Å, respectively. The phenothiazine unit adopts a butterfly conformation, with a dihedral angle of 38.06 (15)° between the terminal benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the 2,5-bis(thiophen-2-yl)oxadiazole unit and the attached benzene ring is 15.35 (11)°. In the crystal, molecules form stacks along the b-axis direction; neighboring molecules within the stack are related by inversion centers, with shortest intercentroid separations of 3.741 (2) and 3.767 (2) Å.
Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish.
Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR.
Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D < molecular weight & diameter < 0.1 μm) and P5 (molecular diameter > 0.1 μm), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4.
The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis.
Angiogenesis; Astragali Radix; Polysaccharide; Ultrafiltration; Zebrafish
In the title compound, C17H15N3OS, the phenothiazine ring system is slightly bent, with a dihedral angle of 13.68 (7)° between the benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the oxadiazole ring and the adjacent benzene ring is 7.72 (7)°. In the crystal, a π–π interaction with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.752 (2) Å is observed between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules.
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. However, no vaccine or immunoglobulin is currently available for the prevention of HCV infection. The standard of care (SOC) involving pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN α) plus ribavirin (RBV) for 48 weeks results in a sustained virologic response in less than 50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, the most prevalent type of HCV in North America and Europe. Recently, reliable in vitro culture systems have been developed for accelerating antiviral therapy research, and many new specifically targeted antiviral therapies for hepatitis C (STAT-C) and treatment strategies are being evaluated in clinical trials. These new antiviral agents are expected to improve present treatment significantly and may potentially shorten treatment duration. The aim of this review is to summarize the current developments in new anti-HCV drugs.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV); Clinical trial; Small molecular compounds; Review
This paper is focused on the template-free synthesis of nanosized ferric oxide (nano-Fe2O3) and its application in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonators to detect dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of Sarin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm that the synthesized samples are made of Fe2O3 and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures show that the samples have ball-like shapes. The DMMP sensors with a sensing film of hollow ball-like and solid ball-like Fe2O3 are fabricated and their sensing characteristics are compared. The sensitivity of the hollow ball-like Fe2O3 sensor is more than 500% higher than the one of the solid ball-like Fe2O3 sensor. The hollow ball-like nano-Fe2O3 can be synthesized by a novel low temperature hydrothermal method. The sensors with the hollow ball-like Fe2O3 film perform well in a range of 1 to 6 ppm, with a sensitivity of 29 Hz/ppm at room temperature, while the appropriate recoverability and selectivity are maintained. In addition, the performance of different thicknesses of the sensing film of the hollow ball-like nano-Fe2O3 is investigated and the optimized relative film thickness of the hollow ball-like nano-Fe2O3 is found to be 20 μg/mm2.
nano-Fe2O3; quartz crystal microbalance (QCM); dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP); gas sensor
Background and Aims
Competition drives self-thinning (density-dependent mortality) in crowded plant populations. Facilitative interactions have been shown to affect many processes in plant populations and communities, but their effects on self-thinning trajectories have not been investigated.
Using an individual-based ‘zone-of-influence’ model, we studied the potential effects of the size symmetry of competition, abiotic stress and facilitation on self-thinning trajectories in plant monocultures. In the model, abiotic stress reduced the growth of all individuals and facilitation ameliorated the effects of stress on interacting individuals.
Abiotic stress made the log biomass – log density relationship during self-thinning steeper, but this effect was reduced by positive interactions among individuals. Size-asymmetric competition also influenced the self-thinning slope.
Although competition drives self-thinning, its course can be affected by abiotic stress, facilitation and competitive symmetry.
Density-dependent mortality; positive interactions; self-thinning; size symmetry competition; abiotic stress; zone of influence model; ZOI
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high incidence of cervical micrometastases and sometimes metastasizes contralaterally because of the rich lymphatic intercommunications relative to submucosal plexus of oral cavity that freely communicate across the midline, and it can facilitate the spread of neoplastic cells to any area of the neck consequently. Clinical and histopathologic factors continue to provide predictive information to contralateral neck metastases (CLNM) in OSCC, which determine prophylactic and adjuvant treatments for an individual patient. This review describes the predictive value of clinical-histopathologic factors, which relate to primary tumor and cervical lymph nodes, and surgical dissection and adjuvant treatments. In addition, the indications for elective contralateral neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) and strategies for follow-up are offered, which is strongly focused by clinicians to prevent later CLNM and poor prognosis subsequently.
oral squamous cell carcinoma; lymph node metastasis; contralateral neck metastasis; neck dissection; head and neck cancer
Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients were important components during the wet season (summer and autumn). The salinity and dissolved oxygen were the main environmental factors in the dry season (winter and spring). According to non-metric multidimensional scaling, there was a shift from the large diatoms in the dry season to the smaller line-chain taxa in the wet season with the condition of a high dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen to phosphorous concentration ratio. Nutrient changes can thus alter the phytoplankton community composition and biomass, especially near the aquaculture farm areas. There was no evidence of an effect of thermal water from the nearby nuclear power plants on the observed changes in phytoplankton community and biomass in 2002.
South China Sea; Daya Bay (DYB); water quality; phytoplankton; multivariate analysis; human activities
The objective is to identify the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrochemical quality of the water column in a subtropical coastal system, Daya Bay, China. Water samples were collected in four seasons at 12 monitoring sites. The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on water quality in Daya Bay. In the spatial pattern, two groups have been identified, with the help of multidimensional scaling analysis and cluster analysis. Cluster I consisted of the sites S3, S8, S10 and S11 in the west and north coastal parts of Daya Bay. Cluster I is mainly related to anthropogenic activities such as fish-farming. Cluster II consisted of the rest of the stations in the center, east and south parts of Daya Bay. Cluster II is mainly related to seawater exchange from South China Sea.
Daya Bay; principal component analysis; multidimensional scaling analysis; statistical techniques; water quality
Accumulating evidence has shown that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human gastric cancer and crucial to tumorigenesis. Herein, we identified the role of miR-148a in gastric cell proliferation. miR-148a knockdown inhibited cell proliferation in gastric cancer cell lines. Conversely, miR-148a overexpression promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. p27, a key inhibitor of cell cycle, was verified as the target of miR-148a, indicating miR-148a might downregulate p27 expression to promote gastric cell proliferation. Moreover, we confirmed that miR-148a expression was frequently and dramatically downregulated in human advanced gastric cancer tissues, and observed a good inverse correlation between miR-148a and p27 expression in tumor samples. Thus, our results demonstrated that miR-148a downregulation might exert some sort of antagonistic function in cell proliferation, rather than promote cell proliferation in gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; cell proliferation; miR-148a; p27
MicroRNAs involved in keratinocyte migration and wound healing are largely unknown. Here, we revealed the indispensable role of miR-21 in keratinocyte migration and in re-epithelialization during wound healing in mice. In HaCaT cell, miR-21 could be upregulated by TGF-β1. Similar to the effect of TGF-β1, miR-21 overexpression promoted keratinocyte migration. Conversely, miR-21 knockdown attenuated TGF-β1-induced keratinocyte migration, suggesting that miR-21 was essential for TGF-β-driven keratinocyte migration. Furthermore, we found that miR-21 was upregulated during wound healing, coincident with the temporal expression pattern of TGF-β1. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous miR-21 using a specific antagomir dramatically delayed re-epithelialization possibly due to the reduced keratinocyte migration. TIMP3 and TIAM1, direct targets of miR-21, were verified to be regulated by miR-21 in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these two molecules might contribute to miR-21-induced keratinocyte migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and boosts re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.
miR-21; keratinocyte; migration; wound healing