The scaling relationship between leaf dry mass and leaf surface area has important implications for understanding the ability of plants to harvest sunlight and grow. Whether and how the scaling relationships vary across environmental gradients are poorly understood. We analyzed the scaling relationships between leaf mass and leaf area of 121 vascular plant species along an altitudinal gradient in a subtropical monsoon forest. The slopes increased significantly with altitude, it varied from less than 1 at low altitude to more than 1 at high altitude. This means that plants growing at high altitude allocate proportionately more biomass to support tissues in larger leaves and less in smaller leaves, whereas the reverse is true at low altitude. This pattern can be explained by different leaf strategies in response to environmental pressure and constrains.
Aromatic essential oils extracted from fresh fruits of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., have diverse medical and economic values. The dominant components in these essential oils are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is essential for improving the yield and quality of terpenes. However, the 40 available L. cubeba nucleotide sequences in the public databases are insufficient for studying the molecular mechanisms. Thus, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. cubeba is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery, especially terpenoid biosynthesis related genes.
Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 23.5 million high-quality reads were generated. De
novo assembly yielded 68,648 unigenes with an average length of 834 bp. A total of 38,439 (56%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, and 35,732 and 25,806 unigenes could be aligned to the GO and COG database, respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 16,130 unigenes were assigned to 297 KEGG pathways, and 61 unigenes, which contained the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathways, could be related to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. Of the 12,963 unigenes, 285 were annotated to the terpenoid pathways using the PlantCyc database. Additionally, 14 terpene synthase genes were identified from the transcriptome. The expression patterns of the 16 genes related to terpenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by RT-qPCR to explore their putative functions.
RNA sequencing was effective in identifying a large quantity of sequence information. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the L. cubeba transcriptome, and the substantial amount of transcripts obtained will accelerate the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of essential oils biosynthesis. The results may help improve future genetic and genomics studies on the molecular mechanisms behind the chemical composition of essential oils in L. cubeba fruits.
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is the most frequent genetic cause of congenital intestinal obstruction with an incidence of 1:5000 live births. In a pathway-based epistasis analysis of data generated by genome-wide association study on HSCR, specific genotype of Patched 1 (PTCH1) has been linked to an increased risk for HSCR. The aim of the present study is to examine the contribution of genetic variants in PTCH1 to the susceptibility to HSCR in Han Chinese. Accordingly, we assessed 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PTCH1 gene in 104 subjects with sporadic HSCR and 151 normal controls of Han Chinese origin by the Sequenom MassArray technology (iPLEX GOLD). Two of the eight genetic markers were found to be significantly associated with Hirschsprung disease (rs357565, allele P = 0.005; rs2236405, allele P = 0.002, genotype P = 0.003). Both the C allele of rs357565 and the A allele of rs2236405 served as risk factors for HSCR. During haplotype analysis, one seven-SNP-based haplotype was the most significant, giving a global P = 0.0036. Our results firstly suggest common variations of PTCH1 may be involved in the altered risk for HSCR in the Han Chinese population, providing potential molecular markers for early diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease.
Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept) on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Methods: Eighteen patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects on activation profiles in MCI patients relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.
Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal) and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.
Conclusion: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.
functional magnetic resonance imaging; mild cognitive impairment; donepezil (Aricept); Alzheimer’s disease; task-related functional connectivity; episodic encoding
Dysfunctional telomeres limit cellular proliferative capacity by activating the p53-p21– and p16INK4a-Rb–dependent DNA damage responses (DDRs). The p16INK4a tumor suppressor accumulates in aging tissues, is a biomarker for cellular senescence, and limits stem cell function in vivo. While the activation of a p53-dependent DDR by dysfunctional telomeres has been well documented in human cells and mouse models, the role for p16INK4a in response to telomere dysfunction remains unclear. Here, we generated protection of telomeres 1b p16–/– mice (Pot1bΔ/Δ;p16–/–) to address the function of p16INK4a in the setting of telomere dysfunction in vivo. We found that deletion of p16INK4a accelerated organ impairment and observed functional defects in highly proliferative organs, including the hematopoietic system, small intestine, and testes. Pot1bΔ/Δ;p16–/– hematopoietic cells exhibited increased telomere loss, increased chromosomal fusions, and telomere replication defects. p16INK4a deletion enhanced the activation of the ATR-dependent DDR in Pot1bΔ/Δ hematopoietic cells, leading to p53 stabilization, increased p21-dependent cell cycle arrest, and elevated p53-dependent apoptosis. In contrast to p16INK4a, deletion of p21 did not activate ATR, rescued proliferative defects in Pot1bΔ/Δ hematopoietic cells, and significantly increased organismal lifespan. Our results provide experimental evidence that p16INK4a exerts protective functions in proliferative cells bearing dysfunctional telomeres.
Chemoresistance of breast cancer is a worldwide problem for breast cancer and the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents frequently led to the subsequent recurrence and metastasis. In our previous study, we have found that 53BP1 showed a gradual decrease during the progression of breast cancer and loss of 53BP1 was associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Here we aimed to reveal whether 53BP1 could sensitize breast cancer to 5-Fu. We found that ectopic expression of 53BP1 can significantly sensitize breast cancer cells to 5-Fu while knockdown of 53BP1 conferred the resistance. The in vivo experiments confirmed that overexpression of 53BP1 in combination with 5-Fu markedly inhibited growth of xenotransplanted tumors in nude mice when compared to either agent alone. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 53BP1 regulated the sensitivity to 5-Fu through thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD). The present studies provide a new clue that combination of 5-Fu and 53BP1 could be a potential novel targeted strategy for overcoming breast cancer chemoresistance.
Proteins can be modified with eight homogenous ubiquitin chains linked by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminus of one ubiquitin and an amine from one of the seven lysines or the N-terminal methionine of the next ubiquitin. These topologically distinct ubiquitin chains signal for many essential cellular functions, such as protein degradation, cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and signal transduction. The lysine 48 (K48)-linked ubiquitin chain is one of the most abundant chains and a major proteasome-targeting signal in cells. Despite recent advancements in imaging linkage-specific polyubiquitin chains, no tool is available for imaging K48 chains in live cells. Here we report on a ubiquitination-induced fluorescence complementation (UiFC) assay for detecting K48 ubiquitin chains in vitro and in live cells. For this assay, two nonfluorescent fragments of a fluorescent protein were fused to the ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs) of epsin1 protein. Upon simultaneous binding to a ubiquitin chain, the nonfluorescent fragments of the two fusion proteins are brought in close proximity to reconstitute fluorescence. When used in vitro, UiFC preferentially detected K48 ubiquitin chains with excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Time-lapse imaging revealed that UiFC is capable of monitoring increases in polyubiquitination induced by treatment with proteasome inhibitor, by agents that induce stress, and during mitophagy in live cells.
Novel Danshensu derivatives (3–8) were designed and synthesized to improve bioactivity based on the strategy of ‘medicinal chemical hybridization’. Our previous studies indicated that these compounds exhibited noticeable cardioprotective activities. Here, we investigate whether these novel Danshensu derivatives exert neuroprotective activities. An in vitro study revealed that these compounds could increase cell viability and reduce LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) leakage. Moreover, Danshensu-cysteine derivative compounds 6 and 8 could significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation of cell membrane and regulate the expression of apoptosis-related protein (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3). An in vivo study demonstrated that treatment with compound 6 at 30 mg/kg markedly decreased the infarct volume of MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) insulted rat brain. Furthermore, treatment with compound 6 showed the antioxidant capacity by increasing the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the level of MDA (malondialdehyde) and the ROS (reactive oxygen species) production significantly. These results suggested that these novel conjugates exert significant neuroprotective effects as anti-ischaemia agents and those with high potential merit further investigation.
anti-apoptosis; anti-oxidative stress; Danshensu derivatives; ischemic stroke; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); neuroprotective effect; DHE, dihydroethidium; DIPEA, diisopropylethylamine; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; EDC, 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ehylcarbodiimide hydrochloride; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; HOBt, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MCAO, middle cerebral artery occlusion; MDA, malondialdehyde; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide; NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NBS, neuronal bovine serum; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TTC, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride
Burnout has been a major concern in the field of occupational health. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the factors related to burnout among Chinese doctors. Investigation of these factors is important to improve the health of doctors and the quality of healthcare services in China.
The study population consisted of 1,618 registered hospital doctors from Liaoning province of China. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Occupational stress was measured using the Chinese versions of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Data were collected on the respondents’ demographic characteristics and work situations. Of the doctors solicited for enrollment, 1,202 returned the completed questionnaire (555 men, 647 women), giving a response rate of 74.3%. A general linear regression model was applied to analyze the factors associated with burnout.
The burnout mean scores were 11.46 (7.51) for emotional exhaustion, 6.93 (5.15) for cynicism, and 24.07 (9.50) for professional efficacy. In descending order of standardized estimates, variables that predicted a high level of emotional exhaustion included: high extrinsic effort, dissatisfaction with doctor-patient relationship, high overcommitment, working >40 h per week, low reward, and high psychological job demands. Variables that predicted a high level of cynicism included: high extrinsic effort, low reward, dissatisfaction with doctor-patient relationship, high overcommitment, low decision authority, low supervisor support, and low skill discretion. Variables that predicted a low perceived professional efficacy included: high psychological job demands, low coworker support, high extrinsic effort, low decision authority, low reward, and dissatisfaction with doctor-patient relationship.
These findings suggest that occupational stress is strongly related to burnout among hospital doctors in China. Strategies that aim to improve work situations and decrease occupational stress are necessary to reduce burnout, including health education, health promotion, and occupational training programs.
Burnout; Doctors; Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey; Occupational stress
Most human genes produce multiple splicing isoforms with distinct functions. To systematically understand splicing regulation, we conducted an unbiased screen and identified >100 intronic splicing enhancers (ISEs) that were clustered by sequence similarity into six groups. All ISEs functioned in another cell type and heterologous introns, and their distribution and conservation patterns in different pre-mRNA regions are similar to exonic splicing silencers. Consistently all ISEs inhibited use of splice sites from exonic locations. The putative trans-factors of each ISE group were identified and validated. Five distinct ISE motifs were recognized by hnRNP H and F whose C-terminal domains were sufficient to render context-dependent activities of ISEs. The sixth group was controlled by factors that either activate or suppress splicing. This work provided a comprehensive picture of general ISE activities and provided new models of how a single element can function oppositely depending on its locations and binding factors.
splicing regulation; splicing factors; RNA binding protein; context dependent activity
Determining oil migration distances from source rocks to reservoirs can greatly help in the search for new petroleum accumulations. Concentrations and ratios of polar organic compounds are known to change due to preferential sorption of these compounds in migrating oils onto immobile mineral surfaces. However, these compounds cannot be directly used as proxies for oil migration distances because of the influence of source variability. Here we show that for each source facies, the ratio of the concentration of a select polar organic compound to its initial concentration at a reference point is independent of source variability and correlates solely with migration distance from source rock to reservoir. Case studies serve to demonstrate that this new index provides a valid solution for determining source-reservoir distance and could lead to many applications in fundamental and applied petroleum geoscience studies.
A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without.
The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated.
Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR = 7.85, 95% CI = 5.56-11.07, P = 0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 4.36-9.55, P = 0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR = 8.42, 95% CI = 4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR = 6.03, 95% CI = 4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.05-6.36) were lower than in those compared with normal group (Depression: OR = 13.58, 95% CI = 6.26-29.46; Anxiety: OR = 15.47, 95% CI = 10.00-23.95).
We identified high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. The findings support that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adults with cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings.
Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined by 5, 5′, 6, 6′-tetrachloro-1, 1′, 3, 3′-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot. Pretreatment with GSRd (50 mg/kg) significantly augmented rat cardiac function, as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ±dP/dt. GSRd reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic cell death, and blood creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase levels after MI/R. In NRCs, GSRd (10 µM) inhibited SI/R-induced ROS generation (P<0.01), decreased cellular apoptosis, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and attenuated cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. GSRd inhibited activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, increased the phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R–induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia and sepsis. The interaction of S. aureus with the endothelium is central to bloodstream infection pathophysiology yet remains ill-understood. We show herein that staphylococcal α-hemolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin, is required for full virulence in a murine sepsis model. The α-hemolysin binding to its receptor A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) upregulates the receptor’s metalloprotease activity on endothelial cells, causing vascular endothelial–cadherin cleavage and concomitant loss of endothelial barrier function. These cellular injuries and sepsis severity can be mitigated by ADAM10 inhibition. This study therefore provides mechanistic insight into toxin-mediated endothelial injury and suggests new therapeutic approaches for staphylococcal sepsis.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a low-grade inflammatory disease affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Increasing OSA severity reduces T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) in OSA children. Since Tregs modulate endothelial activation, and attenuate insulin resistance, we hypothesized that Tregs are associated with endothelial and metabolic dysfunction in pediatric OSA.
50 consecutively recruited children (ages 4.8–12 years) underwent overnight polysomnography and fasting homeostatic model (HOMA) of insulin resistance was assessed. Percentage of Tregs using flow cytometry, and endothelial function, expressed as the time to peak occlusive hyperemia (Tmax), were examined. In a subgroup of children (n = 21), in vitro Treg suppression tests were performed.
Circulating Tregs were not significantly associated with either BMI z score or HOMA. However, a significant inverse correlation between percentage of Tregs and Tmax emerged (p<0.0001, r = −0.56). A significant negative correlation between Tregs suppression and the sleep pressure score (SPS), a surrogate measure of sleep fragmentation emerged (p = 0.02, r = −0.51) emerged, but was not present with AHI.
Endothelial function, but not insulin resistance, in OSA children is strongly associated with circulating Tregs and their suppressive function, and appears to correlate with sleep fragmentation. Thus, alterations in T cell lymphocytes may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in pediatric OSA.
Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX). Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX). Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL), and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1.
Previous studies have shown that meranzin hydrate (MH) may be beneficial in depressive disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of MH in depression have not previously been investigated. Chronic mild stress (CMS) in rats is used as a model of depression. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of MH in CMS and control rats following the oral administration of Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS). Rats were randomly divided into CMS and control groups and blood samples were obtained following the oral administration of CSS. The quantification of MH levels in the plasma for pharmacokinetic study was achieved using a simple and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method. Following the oral administration of CSS to CMS rats and controls, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of MH was 58.66±6.64 and 57.54±12.67 ng/ml at 108.00±26.83 and 54.00±8.22 min, respectively. Compared with the value of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)0-1440 in control rats (19,896.76±1,041.95 μg·min/l), the AUC0-1440 value was reduced in CMS rats (18,401.32±4332.65 μg·min/l). There were no significant differences in the majority of the pharmacokinetic parameters of MH, including the values for Cmax, AUC0-1440, clearance rate (CL/F) and mean residence time (MRT0-1440), between the CMS rats and the controls. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters showed that CMS accelerated the absorption of MH in rats following the oral administration of CSS.
chronic mild stress; meranzin hydrate; pharmacokinetics; Chaihu-Shugan-San
Structural brain networks were constructed based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of 59 young healthy male adults. The networks had 68 nodes, derived from FreeSurfer parcellation of the cortical surface. By means of streamline tractography, the edge weight was defined as the number of streamlines between two nodes normalized by their mean volume. Specifically, two weighting schemes were adopted by considering various biases from fiber tracking. The weighting schemes were tested for possible bias toward the physical size of the nodes. A novel thresholding method was proposed using the variance of number of streamlines in fiber tracking. The backbone networks were extracted and various network analyses were applied to investigate the features of the binary and weighted backbone networks. For weighted networks, a high correlation was observed between nodal strength and betweenness centrality. Despite similar small-worldness features, binary networks and weighted networks are distinctive in many aspects, such as modularity and nodal betweenness centrality. Inter-subject variability was examined for the weighted networks, along with the test–retest reliability from two repeated scans on 44 of the 59 subjects. The inter-/intra-subject variability of weighted networks was discussed in three levels — edge weights, local metrics, and global metrics. The variance of edge weights can be very large. Although local metrics show less variability than the edge weights, they still have considerable amounts of variability. Weighting scheme one, which scales the number of streamlines by their lengths, demonstrates stable intra-class correlation coefficients against thresholding for global efficiency, clustering coefficient and diversity. The intra-class correlation analysis suggests the current approach of constructing weighted network has a reasonably high reproducibility for most global metrics.
Structural network; Variability; DTI
Studies incorporating direct comparisons across all phases of bipolar (BP) disorder are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, functional neuroimaging studies that differentiate bipolar mood states from each other and from healthy subjects are few and have yielded inconsistent findings.
One hundred five unmedicated adults were recruited: 30 with current bipolar depression (BPD), 30 with current bipolar hypomania or mania (BPM), 15 bipolar euthymic (BPE), and 30 healthy control subjects (HC). All subjects were diagnosed with DSM-IV BP (type I or II) using a structured clinical interview. Groups were age- and gender-ratio matched. In 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, subjects completed a negative facial emotion matching task.
Bipolar euthymic and BPD groups exhibited increased amygdala activation compared with HCs in response to the negative faces; however, in the BPM group, this increase was not seen. Conversely, both BPE and BPM groups had increased activation in the insula relative to HCs, but in the BPD group, this effect was not seen. All three BP groups exhibited increased activation of the putamen compared with HCs. In the cortical areas, the BPM group exhibited decreased left lateral orbitofrontal cortex activation compared with both BPEs and HCs, increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation compared with the BPD group, and increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activation compared with all other groups.
Both state- and trait-related abnormalities in corticolimbic activation were seen in response to the negative facial emotion processing in a large sample of unmedicated adults across BP mood states.
Bipolar disorder; depression; emotion processing; euthymia; fMRI; mania; MRI; neuroimaging
CHRNA5-A3-B4, the gene cluster encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, is associated with lung cancer risk and smoking behaviors in people of European descent. Because cigarette smoking is also a major risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we investigated the associations between variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 and ESCC risk, as well as smoking behaviors, in a Chinese population.
A case-control study of 866 ESCC patients and 952 healthy controls was performed to study the association of polymorphisms (rs667282 and rs3743073) in CHRNA5-A3-B4 with cancer risk using logistic regression models. The relationships between CHRNA5-A3-B4 polymorphisms and smoking behaviors that can be quantified by cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and pack-years of smoking were separately estimated with Kruskal-Wallis tests among all 840 smokers.
CHRNA5-A3-B4 rs667282 TT/TG genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of ESCC [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03 – 1.69, P = 0.029]. The increased ESCC risk was even higher among younger subjects (≤60 years) (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.98, P = 0.024). These effects were not found in another polymorphism rs3743073. No evident association between the two polymorphisms and smoking behaviors was observed.
These results support the hypothesis that CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a susceptibility gene cluster for ESCC. The relationship between CHRNA5-A3-B4 and smoking behaviors in a Chinese population needs further investigation.
Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr is located on conjugative plasmids pW3 (∼75 kb) from E. thailandicus W3, p3-38 (∼72 kb) from E. thailandicus 3-38, and pW9-2 (∼55 kb) from E. faecalis W9-2; these plasmids differed in their sizes, additional resistance genes, and the analysis of the segments encompassing the cfr gene. Sequence analysis revealed that all plasmids harbored a 4,447-bp central region, in which cfr was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa4 located in the same orientation. The sequences flanking the central regions of these plasmids, including the partial tra gene regions and a ω-ε-ζ toxin-antitoxin module, exhibited >95% nucleotide sequence identity to the conjugative plasmid pAMβ1 from E. faecalis. Conjugative plasmids carrying cfr appear to play an important role in the dissemination and maintenance of the multiresistance gene cfr among enterococcal isolates and possibly other species of Gram-positive bacteria.