Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While Hcy has been shown to promote endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide and increasing oxidative stress in the vasculature, the effects of Hcy on cardiomyocytes remain less understood. In this study we explored the effects of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) on myocardial function ex vivo and examined the direct effects of Hcy on cardiomyocyte function and survival in vitro. Studies with isolated hearts from wild type and HHcy mice (heterozygous cystathionine-beta synthase deficient mice) demonstrated that HHcy mouse hearts had more severely impaired cardiac relaxation and contractile function and increased cell death following ischemia reperfusion (I/R). In isolated cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes, exposure to Hcy for 24 hours impaired cardiomyocyte contractility in a concentration-dependent manner, and promoted apoptosis as revealed by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling and cleaved caspase-3 immunoblotting. These effects were associated with activation of p38 MAPK, decreased expression of thioredoxin (TRX) protein, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by the selective inhibitor SB203580 (5 µM) prevented all of these Hcy-induced changes. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of TRX in cardiomyocytes significantly attenuated Hcy-induced ROS generation, apoptosis, and impairment of myocyte contractility. Thus, Hcy may increase the risk for CVD not only by causing endothelial dysfunction, but also by directly exerting detrimental effects on cardiomyocytes.
homocysteine; hyperhomocysteinemia; cardiomyocytes; contractility; apoptosis; antioxidant; ischemia reperfusion injury; oxidative stress
Vitexicarpin (VIT) isolated from the fruits of Vitex rotundifolia has shown antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory properties. This work is designed to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of VIT and address the underlying action mechanism of VIT by a network pharmacology approach. The results validated that VIT can act as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Firstly, VIT can exert good antiangiogenic effects by inhibiting vascular-endothelial-growth-factor- (VEGF-) induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation on matrigel in a dose-dependent manner. Secondly, VIT was also shown to have an antiangiogenic mechanism through inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Thirdly, VIT inhibited chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis as well as tumor angiogenesis in an allograft mouse tumor model. We further addressed VIT's molecular mechanism of antiangiogenic actions using one of our network pharmacology methods named drugCIPHER. Then, we tested some key molecules in the VEGF pathway targeted by VIT and verified the inhibition effects of VIT on AKT and SRC phosphorylation. Taken together, this work not only identifies VIT as a novel potent angiogenesis inhibitor, but also demonstrates that network pharmacology methods can be an effective and promising approach to make discovery and understand the action mechanism of herbal ingredients.
Insulin resistance triggers the developments of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) is involved in insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate whether TRIB3 is implicated in diabetic atherosclerosis. Sixty 3-week-old apolipoprotein E (ApoE−/−)/LDR receptor (LDLR−/−) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin. Mice in both groups were randomly divided into vehicle and TRIB3-silencing groups. After transfection, all mice were killed to evaluate the effects of TRIB3 on atherosclerosis. Silence of TRIB3 markedly decreased insulin resistance (P = 0.039) and glucose (P = 0.019), regardless of diabetes. Ultrasonography-measured parameters were similar in both groups, with and without silence of TRIB3. However, silence of TRIB3 decreased the aortic atherosclerotic burden (P = 1 × 10−13). Further study showed that in brachiocephalic lesions, fibrous cap thickness, cap-to-core ratio, collagen content, and the number of smooth muscle cells were significantly increased (P < 0.01 for all) by silence of TRIB3, whereas lipid and macrophage contents remained unaltered, with the vulnerability index significantly reduced. Moreover, the numbers of apoptotic cells and macrophages in brachiocephalic lesions were both significantly decreased (P < 0.01 for both). Macrophage migration was decreased (P = 4 × 10−4) by knocking down TRIB3, whereas adhesion and phagocytosis were increased (P < 0.05 for both). Silence of TRIB3 would diminish atherosclerotic burden and increase the plaque stability in diabetic mice.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA and induces type I IFN-mediated antiviral immunity against a number of viral infections. Type III IFN (IFN-λ) is a newly identified antiviral cytokine that possess similar biological functions as type I IFNs. We thus investigated the role of IFN-λ in TLR3 activation-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 in human primary astrocytes. Human astrocytes express endogenous IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ receptor complex, interleukine-28 receptor α subunit (IL-28Rα) and IL-10Rβ. The activation of TLR3 by PolyI:C treatment significantly induced the expression of IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2/3 in astrocytes. The induction of IFN-λ contributed to TLR3-mediated HSV-1 inhibition in astrocytes. Investigation of the mechanisms showed that treatment of astrocytes with specific antibody against IFN-λ receptor attenuated the anti-HSV-1 activity of PolyI:C, indicating that endogenous IFN-λ contributes to the anti-HSV-1 effect of TLR3 activation. The anti-HSV-1 effect of endogenous IFN-λ was also confirmed by the finding that recombinant IFN-λ treatment inhibited HSV-1 infection of astrocytes. These results provide direct and compelling evidence that endogenous IFN-λ participates in TLR3-mediated antiviral activity, which may have an important implication in host cell innate immunity against HSV-1 infection in the CNS.
IFN-lambda; PolyI:C; Astrocytes; HSV-1; CNS
To maintain cell lineage, cells develop a mechanism which can transmit the gene activity information to the daughter cells. In mitosis, TBP (TATA-binding protein), a transcription factor which belongs to TFIID was associated with M phase chromosomes and was proved to be a bookmark for cellular memory. Although previous work showed that TBP was dispensable for mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development, exogenous TBP protein was detected in the nuclear of oocytes and early embryos. It is still unknown whether exogenous TBP can associate with condensed chromosomes during meiosis and mouse early embryo development. In present study by the injection of GFP-tagged TBP mRNA we for the first time investigated TBP dynamics in mouse early embryos and confirmed its localization pattern in oocytes. The exogenous TBP enriched at germinal vesicle at GV stage but disappeared from the chromosomes after GVBD. Moreover, exogenous TBP was still dispersed from the chromosomes of somatic donor nuclear in oocytes by nuclear transfer (NT), further proving that oocyte has some mechanism to remove TBP. During mouse embryo development, the exogenous TBP was removed from the chromosomes of M phase zygotes, but was found to express weakly at the M phase of 2-cell. Moreover, in the blastocyst TBP was also detected at the M phase chromosomes. Overexpression of TBP caused the failure of oocyte maturation and embryo development. Our results supported the idea that TBP might be a marker for transmitting cellular memory to daughter cells.
Runx2, a member of the family of runt-related transcription factors, is rhythmically expressed in bone and may be involved in circadian rhythms in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis. Runx2 is also expressed in the brain, but its function is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that in the brain, Runx2 may interact with clock-controlled genes to regulate circadian rhythms in behavior. First, we demonstrated diurnal and circadian rhythms in the expression of Runx2 in the mouse brain. Expression of Runx2 mRNA and protein mirrored that of the core clock genes, Period1 and Period2, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the paraventricular nucleus and the olfactory bulb. The rhythm of Runx2 expression was eliminated in the SCN of Bmal1−/− mice. Moreover, by crossbreeding mPer2Luc mice with Runx2+/− mice and recording bioluminescence rhythms, a significant lengthening of the period of rhythms was detected in cultured SCN of Runx2−/− animals compared to either Runx2+/− or Runx2+/+ mice. Behavioral analyses of Runx2 mutant mice revealed that Runx2+/− animals displayed a significantly lengthened free-running period of running wheel activity compared to Runx2+/+ littermates. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for clock gene-mediated rhythmic expression of Runx2, and its functional role in regulating circadian period at the level of the SCN and behavior.
The study aimed to understand the inter-annual variations of methane (CH4) emissions from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from 2005 to 2007. The weighted mean CH4 emission rate was 8.37±11.32 mg CH4 m−2 h−1 during the summers from 2005 to 2007, falling in the range of CH4 fluxes reported by other studies, with significant inter-annual and spatial variations. The CH4 emissions of the year of 2006 (2.11±3.48 mg CH4 m−2 h−1) were 82% lower than the mean value of the years 2005 and 2007 (13.91±17.80 mg CH4 m−2 h−1 and 9.44±14.32 mg CH4 m−2 h−1, respectively), responding to the inter-annual changes of standing water depths during the growing season of the three years. Significant drawdown of standing water depth is believed to cause such significant reduction in CH4 emissions from wetlands in the year 2006, probably through changing the methanogen composition and decreasing its community size as well as activating methanotrophs to enhance CH4 oxidation. Our results are helpful to understand the inter-annual variations of CH4 emission and provide a more reasonable regional budget of CH4 emission from wetlands on the QTP and even for world-wide natural wetlands under climate change.
The role of leptin and its receptors (OBRs) in the pathogenesis of various primary human malignancies has been demonstrated. However, their expression and clinicopathological significance in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the expression of leptin and OBRs in 76 PTC samples using immunohistochemistry, and their associations with clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. The expression of OBRs was observed in the tumor cell membrane and/or cytoplasm, with a positive rate of 73.7% (56/76), while leptin was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm in 55 of 76 cases (72.4%). The expression of either protein was associated with greater tumor size (P=0.016 for leptin and P=0.002 for OBRs). In addition, the expression levels of leptin and OBRs were associated with each other. Neither leptin nor OBR expression levels were associated with other parameters, including age, body weight, postmenopausal state, multifocality and lymph node metastasis. These data suggest that the expression of leptin and/or OBRs in PTC is associated with tumor size and may be a potential target in PTC.
leptin; leptin receptors; clinicopathological features; papillary thyroid cancer
The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an acceptable procedure that has proven benefits in the treatment of patients who have complications from portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. Delayed liver laceration is a rare complication of the TIPS procedure. We describe a patient with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, who suddenly presented with abdominal hemorrhage and liver laceration 8 d after TIPS. Few reports have described complications after TIPS placement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing delayed liver laceration. This potential and serious complication appears to be specific and fatal for TIPS in portal hypertension. We advocate careful attention to the technique to avoid this complication, and timely treatment is extremely important.
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; Portal hypertension; Liver cirrhosis; Postoperative complications; Hemorrhage
The clinical application of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP, cisplatin) for cancer therapy is limited by its non-specific biodistribution and severe side effects. Here, we have developed EGFR-targeted heparin-DDP (EHDDP) nanoparticles for tumor targeted delivery of DDP. This nanoparticle delivery system possesses the following unique properties: i) the succinic anhydride-modified heparin is biocompatible and biodegradable with no anticoagulant activity; ii) the single chain variable fragment anti-EGFR antibody (ScFvEGFR) was conjugated to the nanoparticles as an EGFR-targeting ligand. Our results showed that EHDDP nanoparticles can significantly increase the intracellular concentrations of DDP and Pt-DNA adducts in EGFR-expressing non-small cell lung cancer H292 cells via an EGFR-mediated pathway. Compared to the free DDP, significantly prolonged blood circulation time and improved pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Pt were observed after systemic delivery of the EHDDP nanoparticles. The new EHDDP nanoparticle delivery system significantly enhanced antitumor activity of DDP without weight loss or damage to the kidney and spleen in nude mice bearing H292 cell tumors.
cisplatin; heparin; tumor targeting; drug delivery; nanoparticles; lung cancer; EGFR
Many tumor cells rely on aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation for their continued proliferation and survival. Myc and HIF-1 are believed to promote such a metabolic switch by, in part, upregulating gene expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase 1 (PDHK1), which phosphorylates and inactivates mitochondrial PDH and consequently pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Here we report that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances PDHK1 kinase activity by promoting ATP and PDC binding. Functional PDC can form in mitochondria outside of matrix in some cancer cells and PDHK1 is commonly tyrosine phosphorylated in human cancers by diverse oncogenic tyrosine kinases localized to different mitochondrial compartments. Expression of phosphorylation-deficient, catalytic hypomorph PDHK1 mutants in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxia and increased oxidative phosphorylation with enhanced mitochondrial utilization of pyruvate, and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Together, tyrosine phosphorylation activates PDHK1 to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth.
Several operative approaches are available at present for the exposure and fixation of distal fibular fractures combined with posterior malleolus fractures. The present study was designed to study the anatomical characteristics of the distal fibula and to thereby evaluate the advantages and limitations of various operative approaches, as well as their indications for specific conditions. Ten leg specimens from below the knee joint were dissected using posterior, lateral and posterolateral approaches to the fibula. The adjacent vulnerable structures, including nerves, blood vessels, tendons and ligaments, were carefully examined and their distances from the posterior malleolus were recorded. The distance was 7.2±4.1 mm between the sural nerve and the posterior section of the fibula, 79.2±23.5 mm between the lateral malleolus tip and the point where the shape changes in the lower fibula and 66.4±17.4 mm between the lateral malleolus and the jointed tendon of the peroneal and flexor hallux longus muscles. The widest anteroposterior diameter of the distal fibula was 27.3±3.5 mm. Various approaches have certain advantages and limitations when these anatomical factors are taken into account. The choice should be based on the height of the fibular fracture line, the type of posterior malleolus fracture, the effect of the fracture on the stability of the ankle joint and the materials used for internal fixation.
ankle joint; fracture; internal fixation
Background: Acid α-glucosidase, an enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease, is poorly targeted to lysosomes when relying on phosphomannose residues.
Results: Fusing IGF-II to acid α-glucosidase resulted in more efficient uptake and glycogen clearance from muscle of Pompe mice.
Conclusion: Enhanced binding to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) enabled improved glycogen clearance in Pompe mice.
Significance: BMN 701 is now being tested for Pompe disease in human clinical studies.
We have used a peptide-based targeting system to improve lysosomal delivery of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), the enzyme deficient in patients with Pompe disease. Human GAA was fused to the glycosylation-independent lysosomal targeting (GILT) tag, which contains a portion of insulin-like growth factor II, to create an active, chimeric enzyme with high affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. GILT-tagged GAA was taken up by L6 myoblasts about 25-fold more efficiently than was recombinant human GAA (rhGAA). Once delivered to the lysosome, the mature form of GILT-tagged GAA was indistinguishable from rhGAA and persisted with a half-life indistinguishable from rhGAA. GILT-tagged GAA was significantly more effective than rhGAA in clearing glycogen from numerous skeletal muscle tissues in the Pompe mouse model. The GILT-tagged GAA enzyme may provide an improved enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease patients.
Glycogen; Lysosomal Storage Disease; Muscle; Muscular Dystrophy; Receptor Endocytosis; CI-MPR; Glycogen Storage Disease; IGF-II; Pompe; Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Recent end of life care policy prioritises patient choice over place of care and in particular promotes dying at home. This policy is predicated on the assumption that there are family carers able and willing to provide care for the dying person. Through the accounts of bereaved family members, the ‘Unpacking the home’ study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of ‘home’ and the issues faced by family members caring for a dying older person at home; it also aims to examine the way the home is transformed in the process of providing end of life care, and offer a critical analysis of policies that aim to increase home deaths. This paper presents the protocol for this study.
A cross-sectional qualitative study has been designed to achieve the study aims. In-depth interviews will be conducted in the north and south of England with 50 bereaved family carers to elicit their accounts of witnessing the dying in the home of an older person (50+ years). All interviews will be subjected to thematic analysis, and narrative analysis will be undertaken on a subset of 30 interview transcripts. A final phase of integration and policy analysis will be conducted towards the end of the study. User involvement is integral to this study, with service users actively engaged at every stage.
This study will seek to take a qualitative approach by explicitly recognising that family carers are central to the experience of dying at home for older people, and they have needs that may be amenable to support and anticipatory planning. The strengths of this study, which include its interdisciplinary and participatory approach, and in-depth data collection and analysis methods, will be explored. The limitations and challenges of this research will also be considered. This study seeks to make recommendations that will ensure that family carers receive appropriate and adequate support in caring for their loved ones at the end of life.
Informal caregivers; Palliative care; Home; Qualitative methods; Interviews; End of life
AIM: To determine whether the carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORM)-liberated CO suppress inflammatory responses in the small intestine of septic mice.
METHODS: The C57BL/6 mice (male, n = 36; weight 20 ± 2 g) were assigned to four groups in three respective experiments. Sepsis in mice was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (24 h). Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) (8 mg/kg, i.v.) was administrated immediately after induction of CLP. The levels of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] in tissue homogenates were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tissues were determined. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) in tissue homogenate were measured and the expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the small intestine were also assessed. NO and IL-8 levels in the supernatants were determined after the human adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 g/mL) for 4 h in vitro.
RESULTS: At 24 h after CLP, histological analysis showed that the ileum and jejunum from CLP mice induced severe edema and sloughing of the villous tips, as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the mucosa. Semi-quantitative analysis of histological samples of ileum and jejunum showed that granulocyte infiltration in the septic mice was significantly increased compared to that in the sham group. Administration of CORM-2 significantly decreased granulocyte infiltration. At 24 h after CLP, the tissue MDA levels in the mid-ileum and mid-jejunum significantly increased compared to the sham animals (103.68 ± 23.88 nmol/mL vs 39.66 ± 8.23 nmol/mL, 89.66 ± 9.98 nmol/mL vs 32.32 ± 7.43 nmol/mL, P < 0.01). In vitro administration of CORM-2, tissue MDA levels were significantly decreased (50.65 ± 11.46 nmol/mL, 59.32 ± 6.62 nmol/mL, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the tissue IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the mid-ileum significantly increased compared to the sham animals (6.66 ± 1.09 pg/mL vs 1.67 ± 0.45 pg/mL, 19.34 ± 3.99 pg/mL vs 3.98 ± 0.87 pg/mL, P < 0.01). In vitro administration of CORM-2, tissue IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased (3.87 ± 1.08 pg/mL, 10.45 ± 2.48 pg/mL, P < 0.05). The levels of NO in mid-ileum and mid-jejunum tissue homogenate were also decreased (14.69 ± 2.45 nmol/mL vs 24.36 ± 2.97 nmol/mL, 18.47 ± 2.47 nmol/mL vs 27.33 ± 3.87 nmol/mL, P < 0.05). The expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the mid-ileum of septic mice at 24 h after CLP induction significantly increased compared to the sham animals. In vitro administration of CORM-2, expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 were significantly decreased. In parallel, the levels of NO and IL-8 in the supernatants of Caco-2 stimulated by LPS was markedly decreased in CORM-2-treated Caco-2 cells (2.22 ± 0.12 nmol/mL vs 6.25 ± 1.69 nmol/mL, 24.97 ± 3.01 pg/mL vs 49.45 ± 5.11 pg/mL, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: CORM-released CO attenuates the inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β and TNF-α), and suppress the oxidative stress in the small intestine during sepsis by interfering with protein expression of ICAM-1 and iNOS.
Sepsis; Small intestine; Inflammation; Carbon monoxide
AIM: To perform a comprehensive investigation into the potential correlation between circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and Th17 cells in esophageal cancer (ECA).
METHODS: A total of 31 patients newly diagnosed with ECA and 26 healthy subjects were included in the current study. The frequencies of MDSCs and Th17 cells in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of cytokines, arginase 1 (Arg1) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma Arg1 were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
RESULTS: There was an increased prevalence of MDSCs in the peripheral blood from ECA patients (15.21% ± 2.25%) when compared with healthy control (HC) (1.10% ± 0.12%, P < 0.0001). The plasma levels of Arg1 in ECA patients were significantly higher than those in HC (28.28 ± 4.10 ng/mL vs 9.57 ± 1.51 ng/mL, P = 0.0003). iNOS mRNA levels in the peripheral blood of ECA patients also showed a threefold increase compared with HC (P = 0.0162). The frequencies of Th17 cells (CD4+IL-17A+) were significantly elevated in ECA patients versus HC (3.50% ± 0.33% vs 1.82% ± 0.19%, P = 0.0001). Increased mRNA expression of IL-17 and ROR-γt was also observed in ECA patients compared with HC (P = 0.0041 and P = 0.0004, respectively), while the mRNA expression of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed significant decreases (P = 0.0049 and P < 0.0001, respectively). No obvious correlations were found between the frequencies of MDSCs and Th17 cells in the peripheral blood from ECA patients(r = -0.1725, P = 0.3534). Arg1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with levels of IL-6 (r = 0.6404, P = 0.0031) and TNF-α (r = 0.7646, P = 0.0001). Similarly, iNOS mRNA levels were also positively correlated with levels of IL-6 (r = 0.6782, P = 0.0007) and TNF-α (r = 0.7633, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: This study reveals the relationship between circulating MDSCs and Th17 cells, which may lead to new immunotherapy approaches for ECA based on the associated metabolites and cytokines.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Th17 cells; Esophageal cancer; Arginase I; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Inducible NO synthase
Research into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and neuroprotection after optic nerve injury has received considerable attention and the establishment of simple and effective animal models is of critical importance for future progress.
In the present study, the optic nerves of Wistar rats were semi-transected selectively with a novel optic nerve quantitative amputator. The variation in RGC density was observed with retro-labeled fluorogold at different time points after nerve injury. The densities of surviving RGCs in the experimental eyes at different time points were 1113.69±188.83 RGC/mm2 (the survival rate was 63.81% compared with the contralateral eye of the same animal) 1 week post surgery; 748.22±134.75 /mm2 (46.16% survival rate) 2 weeks post surgery; 505.03±118.67 /mm2 (30.52% survival rate) 4 weeks post surgery; 436.86±76.36 /mm2 (24.01% survival rate) 8 weeks post surgery; and 378.20±66.74 /mm2 (20.30% survival rate) 12 weeks post surgery. Simultaneously, we also measured the axonal distribution of optic nerve fibers; the latency and amplitude of pattern visual evoke potentials (P-VEP); and the variation in pupil diameter response to pupillary light reflex. All of these observations and profiles were consistent with post injury variation characteristics of the optic nerve. These results indicate that we effectively simulated the pathological process of primary and secondary injury after optic nerve injury.
The present quantitative transection optic nerve injury model has increased reproducibility, effectiveness and uniformity. This model is an ideal animal model to provide a foundation for researching new treatments for nerve repair after optic nerve and/or central nerve injury.
Quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxides (QdNOs) has been used in animals as antimicrobial agents and growth promoters for decades. However, the resistance to QdNOs in pathogenic bacteria raises worldwide concern but it is barely known. To explore the molecular mechanism involved in development of QdNOs resistance in Escherichia coli, 6 strains selected by QdNOs in vitro and 21 strains isolated from QdNOs-used swine farm were subjected to MIC determination and PCR amplification of oqxA gene. A conjugative transfer was carried out to evaluate the transfer risk of QdNOs resistant determinant. Furthermore, the transcriptional profile of a QdNOs-resistant E. coli (79O4-2) selected in vitro with its parent strain 79–161 was assayed with a prokaryotic suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) PCR cDNA subtraction. The result showed that more than 95% (20/21) clinical isolates were oqxA positive, while all the 6 induced QdNOs-resistant strains carried no oqxA gene and exhibited low frequency of conjugation. 44 fragments were identified by SSH PCR subtraction in the QdNOs-resistant strain 79O4-2. 18 cDNAs were involved in biosynthesis of Fe-S cluster (narH), protein (rpoA, trmD, truA, glyS, ileS, rplFCX, rpsH, fusA), lipoate (lipA), lipid A (lpxC), trehalose (otsA), CTP(pyrG) and others molecular. The 11 cDNAs were related to metabolism or degradation of glycolysis (gpmA and pgi) and proteins (clpX, clpA, pepN and fkpB). The atpADG and ubiB genes were associated with ATP biosynthesis and electron transport chain. The pathway of the functional genes revealed that E. coli may adapt the stress generated by QdNOs or develop specific QdNOs-resistance by activation of antioxidative agents biosynthesis (lipoate and trehalose), protein biosynthesis, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. This study initially reveals the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of QdNOs-resistance in E. coli, providing with novel insights in prediction and assessment of the emergency and horizontal transfer of QdNOs-resistance in E. coli.
RanBPM is a ubiquitous protein that has been reported to regulate several cellular processes through interactions with various proteins. However, it is not known whether RanBPM may regulate gene expression patterns. As it has been shown that RanBPM interacts with a number of transcription factors, we hypothesized that it may have wide ranging effects on gene expression that may explain its function. To test this hypothesis, we generated stable RanBPM shRNA cell lines to analyze the effect of RanBPM on global gene expression. Microarray analyses were conducted comparing the gene expression profile of Hela and HCT116 RanBPM shRNA cells versus control shRNA cells. We identified 167 annotated genes significantly up- or down-regulated in the two cell lines. Analysis of the gene set revealed that down-regulation of RanBPM led to gene expression changes that affect regulation of cell, tissue, and organ development and morphology, as well as biological processes implicated in tumorigenesis. Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBS) present in the gene set identified several significantly over-represented transcription factors of the Forkhead, HMG, and Homeodomain families of transcription factors, which have previously been demonstrated as having important roles in development and tumorigenesis. In addition, the combined results of these analyses suggested that several signaling pathways were affected by RanBPM down-regulation, including ERK1/2, Wnt, Notch, and PI3K/Akt pathways. Lastly, analysis of selected target genes by quantitative RT-qPCR confirmed the changes revealed by microarray. Several of the genes up-regulated in RanBPM shRNA cells encode proteins with known oncogenic functions, such as the RON tyrosine kinase, the adhesion molecule L1CAM, and transcription factor ELF3/ESE-1, suggesting that RanBPM functions as a tumor suppressor to prevent deregulated expression of these genes. Altogether, these results suggest that RanBPM does indeed function to regulate many genomic events that regulate embryonic, tissue, and cellular development as well as those involved in cancer development and progression.
RanBPM; ERK; Wnt; Notch; microarray; cancer; development
CCL5 (RANTES) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine known to activate leukocytes through its receptor, CCR5. Although the monomeric form of CCL5 is sufficient to cause cell migration in vitro, CCL5’s propensity for aggregation is essential for migration in vivo, T cell activation and apoptosis, and HIV entry into cells. However, there is currently no structural information on CCL5 oligomers larger than the canonical CC chemokine dimer. In this study, the solution structure of a CCL5 oligomer was investigated using an integrated approach including NMR residual dipolar couplings to determine allowed relative orientations of the component monomers, SAXS to restrict overall shape, and hydroxyl radical footprinting and NMR cross saturation experiments to identify interface residues. The resulting model of the CCL5 oligomer provides a basis for explaining the disaggregating effect of E66 and E26 mutations and suggests mechanisms by which glycosaminoglycan binding may promote oligomer formation and facilitate cell migration in vivo.
Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in adults is a rare entity, known as Müller-Weiss syndrome. We report here on our experience with six patients with Müller-Weiss syndrome accompanied by flatfoot deformity, but on a literature search found no reports on this phenomenon. Because the natural history and treatment are controversial, an understanding of how to manage this deformity may be helpful for surgeons when choosing the most appropriate operative procedure.
Six patients (five women, one man; average age, 54 years) with flatfoot caused by osteonecrosis of the navicular bone were followed up between January 2005 and December 2008 (mean follow-up period, 23.2 months). Conservative treatment, such as physical therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used, but failed. Physical examinations revealed flattening of the medial arch of the involved foot and mild tenderness at the mid-tarsal joint. Weight-bearing X-rays (anterior-posterior and lateral views), computed tomography, and MRI scans were performed for each case. Talonavicular joint arthrodesis was performed in cases of single talonavicular joint arthritis. Triple arthrodesis was performed in cases of triple joint arthritis to reconstruct the medial arch. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale; the scores were 63.0 pre-operatively and 89.8 post-operatively. All patients developed bony fusion.
The reason for the development of flatfoot in patients with Müller-Weiss syndrome is unknown. Surgical treatment may achieve favorable outcomes in terms of deformity correction, pain relief, and functional restoration. The choice of operative procedure may differ in patients with both flatfoot and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
Flatfoot; Müller-Weiss syndrome; Navicular
(−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea that has antioxidant activities. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory cytokine production and impairs blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. We examined the effect of EGCG on LPS-induced expression of the inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs) and BBB permeability.
The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) was determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in hCMECs were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Monocytes that adhered to LPS-stimulated endothelial cells were measured by monocyte adhesion assay. Tight junctional factors were detected by qRT-PCR (Claudin 5 and Occludin) and immunofluorescence staining (Claudin 5 and ZO-1). The permeability of the hCMEC monolayer was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry of transmembrane fluorescin and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). NF-kB activation was measured by luciferase assay.
EGCG significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in hCMECs. EGCG also inhibited the expression of MCP-1/CCL2, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Functional analysis showed that EGCG induced the expression of tight junction proteins (Occludin and Claudin-5) in hCMECs. Investigation of the mechanism showed that EGCG had the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. In addition, 67-kD laminin receptor was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EGCG.
Our results demonstrated that LPS induced inflammatory cytokine production in hCMECs, which could be attenuated by EGCG. These data indicate that EGCG has a therapeutic potential for endotoxin-mediated endothelial inflammation.
67LR; endothelial; (−)-epigallocatechin gallate; LPS; NF-κB
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die in sight-threatening eye diseases. Imaging RGCs in humans is not currently possible and proof of principle in experimental models is fundamental for future development. Our objective was to quantify RGC density and retinal thickness following optic nerve transection in transgenic mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) under control of the Thy1 promoter, expressed by RGCs and other neurons.
A modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO)/spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) camera was used to image and quantify CFP+ cells in mice from the B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J line. SD-OCT circle (1 B-scan), raster (37 B-scans) and radial (24 B-scans) scans of the retina were also obtained. CSLO was performed at baseline (n = 11) and 3 (n = 11), 5 (n = 4), 7 (n = 10), 10 (n = 6), 14 (n = 7) and 21 (n = 5) days post-transection, while SD-OCT was performed at baseline and 7, 14 and 35 days (n = 9) post-transection. Longitudinal change in CFP+ cell density and retinal thickness were computed. Compared to baseline, the mean (SD) percentage CFP+ cells remaining at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days post-transection was 86 (9)%, 63 (11)%, 45 (11)%, 31 (9)%, 20 (9)% and 8 (4)%, respectively. Compared to baseline, the mean (SD) retinal thickness at 7 days post-transection was 97 (3)%, 98 (2)% and 97 (4)% for the circle, raster and radial scans, respectively. The corresponding figures at 14 and 35 days post-transection were 96 (3)%, 97 (2)% and 95 (3)%; and 93 (3)%, 94 (3)% and 92 (3)%.
Longitudinal imaging showed an exponential decline in CFP+ cell density and a small (≤8%) reduction in SD-OCT measured retinal thickness post-transection. SD-OCT is a promising tool for detecting structural changes in experimental optic neuropathy. These results represent an important step towards translation for clinical use.
More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA) regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial mechanism for the acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities by epithelial cancer cells. By conducting quantitative proteomics in experimental models of human prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis, we observed strikingly decreased expression of EPLIN (epithelial protein lost in neoplasm; or LIM domain and actin binding 1, LIMA-1) upon EMT. Biochemical and functional analyses demonstrated that EPLIN is a negative regulator of EMT and invasiveness in PCa cells. EPLIN depletion resulted in the disassembly of adherens junctions, structurally distinct actin remodeling, and activation of β-catenin signaling. Microarray expression analysis identified a subset of putative EPLIN target genes associated with EMT, invasion and metastasis. By immunohistochemistry EPLIN downregulation was also demonstrated in lymph node metastases of human solid tumors including PCa, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism for converting cancer cells into a highly invasive and malignant form, and has important implications in prognosing and treating metastasis at early stages.
EPLIN; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; lymph node metastasis; cytoskeleton