Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1’s defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made.
PAB1; Proteome; UPF1; Nonsense-mediated decay; Protein domain interactions
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are currently the first line therapy for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal women. De novo AI resistance is when a patient intrinsically does not respond to an AI therapy as well as other targeted endocrine therapy. To characterize this type of resistance and to examine potential therapies for treatment, we have generated two cell models for de novo resistance. These models derive from MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress aromatase and Akt (AKT-aro) or HER2 (HER2-aro). Evaluation of these cell lines revealed that the activities of aromatase and ER were inhibited by AI and ICI 187280 (ICI) treatment, respectively; however, cell growth was resistant to therapy. Proliferation in the presence of the pure anti-estrogen ICI, indicates that these cells do not require ER for cell growth and distinguishes these cells from the acquired AI resistant cells. We further determined that the HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG suppressed the growth of the AI-resistant cell lines studied. Our analysis revealed 17-DMAG-mediated decreased expression of growth promoting signaling proteins. It was found that de novo AI resistant AKT-aro and HER2-aro cells could not be resensitized to letrozole or ICI by treatment with 17-DMAG. In summary, we have generated two cell lines which display the characteristics of de novo AI resistance. Together, these data indicate the possibility that HSP90 inhibitors may be a viable therapy for endocrine therapy resistance although additional clinical evaluation is needed.
HSP90 inhibitors; Breast cancer; De novo aromatase inhibitor resistance
Low-mannose (LM) structures were coupled to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to amplify the affinity of LMs with Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) lectins and to study the structures of CV-N variants CVNQ50C and CVNMutDB.
Pseudocapacitance is commonly associated to the reversible redox reactions from electrode materials, but the enhancement in pseudocapacitance that only relies on electrode materials is limited. Here, we explore the possibility of enhancing pseudocapacitance through both Co(OH)2/graphene nanosheets (GNS) electrode and K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte. With a good conductivity and favoring electron transfer, GNS are hybridized with Co(OH)2 to improve the pseudocapacitance of Co(OH)2, including enhancing its rate capability and electrochemical stability. Adding K3Fe(CN)6 into KOH electrolyte further enhances the pseudocapacitance via both directly contributing pseudocapacitance to Co(OH)2/GNS and promoting the electron gain and loss of Co ions. This novel Co(OH)2/GNS-K3Fe(CN)6/KOH electrode system shows an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 7514 Fg−1 at 16 Ag−1 in mixed 1 M KOH and 0.08 M K3Fe(CN)6, more than 100% coulombic efficiency, and long-term cycling stability (the capacitance retention is 75% after 20000 continuous charge-discharge cycles in mixed 1 M KOH and 0.04 M K3Fe(CN)6).
This Phase I/II study tests the hypothesis that single-fraction SBRT for previously un-irradiated spinal metastases is a safe, feasible, and efficacious treatment approach.
All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Spinal MRI was performed before treatment and at regular intervals to both define target volume and response to treatment. SBRT was delivered to a peripheral dose of 16–24 Gy in 1 fraction while limiting dose to the spinal cord. Higher doses were used for renal cell histology. The NCI Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and McCormick neurological function score were used as toxicity assessment tools.
A total of 61 patients harboring 63 tumors of the non-cervical spine were enrolled and treated with SBRT between 2005 and 2010 on a prospective Phase I/II trial at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Mean follow-up was 20 months. Actuarial 18-month imaging local control for all patients was 88%. Actuarial 18-month overall survival for all patients was 64%. Median survival for all patients was 30 months. No significant differences in outcomes were noted with respect to tumor histology and SBRT dose. Two patients experienced radiation adverse events (Grade 3 or higher). Actuarial 18-month freedom from neurologic deterioration from any cause as was 82%.
This Phase I/II data support an expanded indication for SBRT as first-line treatment of selected spinal metastases patients. Additional studies that can prospectively identify predictive factors for spinal cord toxicity after SBRT are warranted to minimize the incidence of this serious yet rare complication.
radiation; stereotactic body radiotherapy; radiosurgery; spinal metastases
A cold-active phthalate esters hydrolase gene (designated dphB) was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library derived from biofilms of a wastewater treatment plant. The enzyme specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and dipentyl phthalate to the corresponding monoalkyl phthalate esters at low temperatures. The catalytic triad residues of DphB were proposed to be Ser159, Asp251, and His281.
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in atrial structural and electrical remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/ deletion (I/D) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene −344T/C polymorphisms with the risk and recurrence of lone atrial fibrillation (AF). One hundred and ninety-three patients who underwent successful catheter ablation for lone AF were recruited. Two hundred and ninety-seven sinus rhythm subjects without a history of arrhythmia served as controls. The subjects were genotyped for ACE gene I/D and CYP11B2 gene −344T/C polymorphisms. Results showed that the ACE gene DD genotype and D allele were associated with a greater prevalence of lone AF (both P<0.01). In addition, the ACE gene DD genotype had a significantly larger left atrial dimension (LAD; 41.6±5.7 mm vs. 39.6±5.2 mm; P=0.043) and higher risk of AF recurrence [44.7% vs. 23.2%; odds ratio (OR), 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28–5.61; P=0.008] compared with the II+ID genotype in lone AF patients. After adjustment for a variety of risk factors, the ACE gene DD genotype had a 1.97-fold increased risk for lone AF (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.15–3.37; P= 0.013) and 2.35-fold increased risk for AF recurrence (RR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.10–5.04; P=0.028) compared with the ACE gene II+ID genotype. However, no correlation between the CYP11B2 gene −344T/C polymorphism and lone AF or its recurrence was observed in this cohort. In conclusion, the ACE gene DD genotype was associated with an increased incidence of lone AF and its recurrence following ablation, which was partly mediated by LAD.
angiotensin-converting enzyme gene; CYP11B2; lone atrial fibrillation; recurrence; polymorphisms
Replication of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genome relies on viral factors E1 and E2 and the cellular replication machinery. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with viral E2 protein to mediate papillomavirus (PV) genome maintenance and viral transcription. However, the functional role of Brd4 in the HPV life cycle remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we provide the first look into the E2-Brd4 interaction in the presence of other important viral factors, such as the HPV16 E1 protein and the viral genome. We show that Brd4 is recruited to actively replicating HPV16 origin foci together with HPV16 E1, E2, and a number of the cellular replication factors: replication protein A70 (RPA70), replication factor C1 (RFC1), and DNA polymerase δ. Mutagenesis disrupting the E2-Brd4 interaction abolishes the formation of the HPV16 replication complex and impairs HPV16 DNA replication in cells. Brd4 was further demonstrated to be necessary for HPV16 viral DNA replication using a cell-free replication system in which depletion of Brd4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing leads to impaired HPV16 viral DNA replication and recombinant Brd4 protein is able to rescue viral DNA replication. In addition, releasing endogenous Brd4 from cellular chromatin by using the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1(+) enhances HPV16 DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in HPV DNA replication could be uncoupled from its function in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control. Our study reveals a new role for Brd4 in HPV genome replication, providing novel insights into understanding the life cycle of this oncogenic DNA virus.
P21 activated kinase-1 (Pak1) has diverse functions in mammalian cells. Although a large number of phosphoproteins have been designated as Pak1 substrates from in vitro studies, emerging evidence has indicated that Pak1 may function as a signaling molecule through a unique molecular mechanism – scaffolding. By scaffolding, Pak1 delivers signals through an auto-phosphorylation-induced conformational change without transfer of a phosphate group to its immediate downstream effector(s). Here we review evidence for this regulatory mechanism based on structural and functional studies of Pak1 in different cell types and research models as well as in vitro biochemical assays. We also discuss the implications of Pak1 scaffolding in disease-related signaling processes and the potential in cardiovascular drug development.
scaffolding; auto-phosphorylation; cytoskeletal reorganization; cardiovascular diseases; FTY720
Despite the significant morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk stratification remains an important challenge in the chronic kidney disease(CKD) population. We examined the discriminative ability of non-invasive measures of atherosclerosis, including carotid intima-media thickness(cIMT), carotid plaque, coronary artery calcification(CAC) and ascending and descending thoracic aorta calcification(TCAC), and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) to predict self-reported prevalent CVD.
Methods and Results
Participants were enrolled in the cIMT ancillary study of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort(CRIC) Study and also had all of the above measures within an 18 month period. CVD was present in 21% of study participants. C-statistics were used to ascertain the discriminatory power of each measure of atherosclerosis. The study population (n=220) was 64% male; 51% black and 45% white. The proportion of individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60, 45–59, 30–44, and <30ml/min/1.73m2 was 21%, 41%, 28%, and 11%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographic factors, we failed to find a difference between CAC, carotid plaque, and cIMT as predictors of self-reported prevalent CVD (c-statistic 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.78; c-statistic 0.68, 95% CI: 0.60–0.75, and c-statistic 0.64, CI: 0.56–0.72, respectively). CAC was statistically better than FRS. FRS was the weakest discriminator of self-reported prevalent CVD (c-statistic 0.58).
There was a significant burden of atherosclerosis among individuals with CKD, ascertained by several different imaging modalities. We were unable to find a difference in the ability of CAC, carotid plaque, and cIMT to predict self-reported prevalent CVD.
carotid intima media thickness; coronary artery calcification; kidney; plaque
Devices and materials intended for clinical applications as medical and implant devices should be evaluated to determine their biocompatibility in physiological systems. This article presents results from cytotoxicity assay of L929 mouse fibroblasts culture, tests for skin irritation, intracutaneous reactivity and sensitization, and material implantation tests for the novel copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite intrauterine device (nano-Cu/LDPE IUD) with potential for future clinical utilization. Cytotoxicity test in vitro was conducted to evaluate the change in morphology, growth and proliferation of cultured L929 mouse fibroblasts, which in vivo examination for skin irritation (n = 6) and intracutaneous reactivity (n = 6) were carried out to explore the irritant behavior in New Zealand White rabbits. Skin sensitization was implemented to evaluate the potential skin sensitizing in Hartley guinea pigs (n = 35). The materials were implanted into the spinal muscle of rabbits (n = 9). The cytotoxicity grade of the nano-Cu/LDPE IUD was 0–1, suggested that the composite was nontoxic or mildly cytotoxic; no irritation reaction and skin sensitization were identified in any animals of specific extracts prepared from the material under test; similarly to the control sides, the inflammatory reaction was observed in the rabbits living tissue of the implanted material in intramuscular implantation assay. They indicated that the novel composite intrauterine device presented potential for this type of application because they meet the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity. The nano-Cu/LDPE IUD has good biocompatibility, which is biologically safe for the clinical research as a novel contraceptive device.
A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel.
Synapses made by local interneurons dominate the intrinsic circuitry of the mammalian visual thalamus and influence all signals traveling from the eye to cortex. Here we draw on physiological and computational analyses of receptive fields in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus to describe how inhibition helps to enhance selectivity for stimulus features in space and time and to improve the efficiency of the neural code. Further, we explore specialized synaptic attributes of relay cells and interneurons and discuss how these might be adapted to preserve the temporal precision of retinal spike trains and thereby maximize the rate of information transmitted downstream.
Synapses made by local interneurons dominate the thalamic circuits that process signals traveling from the eye downstream. The anatomical and physiological differences between interneurons and the (relay) cells that project to cortex are vast. To explore how these differences might influence visual processing, we made intracellular recordings from both classes of cells in vivo. Macroscopically, all receptive fields were similar, made of two concentrically arranged subregions in which dark and bright stimuli elicited responses of the reverse sign. Microscopically, however, the responses of the two types of cells had opposite profiles. Excitatory stimuli drove trains of single EPSPs in relay cells but graded depolarizations in interneurons. By contrast, suppressive stimuli evoked smooth hyperpolarizations in relay cells but unitary IPSPs in interneurons. Computational analyses suggested that these complementary patterns of response help preserve information encoded within the fine timing of retinal spikes and increase the amount of information transmitted to cortex.
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been proven to be superior to T2*-weighted imaging and also other existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for the detection of iron content and hemorrhage in the brain. The purpose of this study was to compare SWI with T1WI, T2WI and T2*WI in detecting splenic siderotic lesions.
Twenty-two patients with splenic siderotic nodule were imaged with non-contrast MRI T1WI, T2WI, T2*WI and SWI at 3.0 Tesla. Imaging data were independently analyzed by two experienced radiologists. The number of splenic siderotic nodules was counted, and the size (largest diameter) was measured. The conspicuity was calculated as the nodule to background parenchyma intensity ratio. We found that SWI detected a larger average number of splenic siderotic nodules than T1WI, T2WI, or T2*WI (all P<0.05). The average size of the nodules detected by SWI was larger than that of those detected by T1WI, T2WI or T2*WI (all P<0.05). SWI provided superior contrast and visibility for splenic siderotic nodules compared to any other sequence (all P<0.001).
SWI may be a better detection scheme for splenic siderotic nodules than T1WI, T2WI and T2*WI.
In most hormonal systems (as well as many physiological systems more generally), the chemical signals from the brain, which drive much of the dynamics, can not be observed in humans. By the time the molecules reach peripheral blood, they have been so diluted so as to not be assayable. It is not possible to invasively (surgically) measure these agents in the brain. This creates a difficult situation in terms of assessing whether or not the dynamics may have changed due to disease or aging. Moreover, most biological feedforward and feedback interactions occur after time delays, and the time delays need to be properly estimated. We address the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to devise a combination of clinical experiments by which, via exogenous inputs, the hormonal system can be perturbed to new steady-states in such a way that information about the unobserved components can be ascertained; and, (2) Can one devise methods to estimate (possibly, time-varying) time delays between components of a multidimensional nonlinear time series, which are more robust than traditional methods? We present methods for both questions, using the Stress (ACTH-cortisol) hormonal system as a prototype, but the approach is more broadly applicable.
time series; biomathematical; endocrinology; feedback; nonlinear dynamics; reconstruction
In the present study, we reviewed 44 postgastrectomy adenocarcinoma patients who had hepatitis B and received treatment in the Abdominal Cancer Department of the West China Hospital between October 2006 and October 2010. Of these patients, 17 developed hepatic dysfunction. Radiotherapy is an independent risk factor to hepatic function on univariate and multivariate analysis. Grade III or IV hepatic dysfunction was developed by five patients, all of whom had received radiotherapy and had reactivated hepatic B virus (HBV). Radiotherapy is a significant risk factor to hepatic function in patients with postgastrectomy adenocarcinoma carrying HBV, thus we suggest excluding the liver from the radiation field. HBV reactivation plays a role in the development of grade III or IV hepatic dysfunction. Patients with reactivated HBV should immediately receive regular antiviral treatment.
hepatic dysfunction; radiotherapy; hepatitis B virus; gastric cancer; hepatitis B virus reactivation
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) against acute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. Adult male mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R + NAS. The hepatic I/R injury model was generated by clamping the hepatic artery, portal vein, and common bile duct with a microvascular bulldog clamp for 30 min, and then removing the clamp and allowing reperfusion for 6 h. Morphologic changes and hepatocyte apoptosis were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Activated caspase-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data show that NAS rescued hepatocyte morphological damage and dysfunction, decreased the number of apoptotic hepatocytes, and reduced caspase-3 activation. Our work demonstrates that NAS ameliorates hepatic IR injury.
N-acetylserotonin; newborn mouse; hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury; apoptosis
Health communication inequalities were observed in Western population but less is known about them among the Chinese. We investigated health information seeking behaviours and its social determinants among Chinese adults in Hong Kong.
Probability-based sample surveys over telephone were conducted in 2009, 2010/11 and 2012 to monitor family health and information use. Frequency of health information seeking from television, radio, newspapers/magazines and Internet were recorded and dichotomised as ≥1 time/month and <1 time/month (reference). Logistic regression was used to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of health information seeking for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (education, employment and income), chronic disease and behaviours (smoking, drinking and physical activity).
Among 4553 subjects in all surveys, most (85.1%) had sought health information monthly from newspapers/magazines (66.2%), television (61.4%), radio (35.6%) or Internet (33.2%). Overall, being male, lower education attainment, lower household income, ever-smoking and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent health information seeking (all P <0.05). Compared with younger people, older people were less likely to search health information from Internet but more like to obtain it from radio (both P for trend <0.001). Having chronic diseases was associated with frequent health information seeking from television (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.47) and Internet (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24–1.73).
This study has provided the first evidence on health information inequalities from a non-Western population with advanced mass media and Internet penetration. Socioeconomic inequalities and behavioural clustering of health information seeking suggested more resources are needed for improving health communication in disadvantage groups.
Alginate overproduction, or mucoidy, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucoid strains with mucA mutations predominantly populate in chronically-infected patients. However, the mucoid strains can revert to nonmucoidy in vitro through suppressor mutations. We screened a mariner transposon library using CF149, a non-mucoid clinical isolate with a misssense mutation in algU (AlgUA61V). The wild type AlgU is a stress-related sigma factor that activates transcription of alginate biosynthesis. Three mucoid mutants were identified with transposon insertions that caused 1) an overexpression of AlgUA61V, 2) an overexpression of the stringent starvation protein A (SspA), and 3) a reduced expression of the major sigma factor RpoD (σ70). Induction of AlgUA61V
in trans caused conversion to mucoidy in CF149 and PAO1DalgU, suggesting that AlgUA61V is functional in activating alginate production. Furthermore, the level of AlgUA61V was increased in all three mutants relative to CF149. However, compared to the wild type AlgU, AlgUA61V had a reduced activity in promoting alginate production in PAO1ΔalgU. SspA and three other anti-σ70 orthologues, P. aeruginosa AlgQ, E. coli Rsd, and T4 phage AsiA, all induced mucoidy, suggesting that reducing activity of RpoD is linked to mucoid conversion in CF149. Conversely, RpoD overexpression resulted in suppression of mucoidy in all mucoid strains tested, indicating that sigma factor competition can regulate mucoidy. Additionally, an RpoD-dependent promoter (PssrA) was more active in non-mucoid strains than in isogenic mucoid variants. Altogether, our results indicate that the anti-σ70 factors can induce conversion to mucoidy in P. aeruginosa CF149 with algU-suppressor mutation via modulation of RpoD.
The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that various miRNAs expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled manner in the nervous system have an important function in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to determine the expression and cellular distribution of miRNA-9 in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mutant mice at different time points (post-natal 95, 108 and 122 d). miRNA expression was evaluated by microarray analysis; differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. The cellular distribution of miRNA-9 was analyzed by in-situ hybridization. Microarray results indicated for the first time that various miRNAs were differentially expressed between the G93A-SOD1 mutant mice and the littermate control mice. miRNA-9 expression was upregulated at 95, 108, and 122 d as validated by microarray analysis, RT-qPCR, and ISH. ISH results also showed that the miRNA-9-positive cells mainly expressed in the cytoplasm were located in the dorsal horn and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The majority of miRNA-9-positive cells were located in the ventral horn of the gray matter, the locus of neurodegeneration. These results indicated that the differential expression of miRNA-9 may have an important function in the pathogenesis of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice.
ALS; miRNA-9; differential expression
Drug resistance is a common cause of treatment failure in cancer patients and encompasses a multitude of different mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to identify drugs effective on multidrug resistant cells.
The RPMI 8226 myeloma cell line and its multidrug resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was screened for cytotoxicity in response to 3,000 chemically diverse compounds using a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Follow-up profiling was subsequently performed using various cellular and biochemical assays.
One compound, designated VLX40, demonstrated a higher activity against 8226/Dox40 cells compared to its parental counterpart. VLX40 induced delayed cell death with apoptotic features. Mechanistic exploration was performed using gene expression analysis of drug exposed tumor cells to generate a drug-specific signature. Strong connections to tubulin inhibitors and microtubule cytoskeleton were retrieved. The mechanistic hypothesis of VLX40 acting as a tubulin inhibitor was confirmed by direct measurements of interaction with tubulin polymerization using a biochemical assay and supported by demonstration of G2/M cell cycle arrest. When tested against a broad panel of primary cultures of patient tumor cells (PCPTC) representing different forms of leukemia and solid tumors, VLX40 displayed high activity against both myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in contrast to the reference compound vincristine to which myeloid blast cells are often insensitive. Significant in vivo activity was confirmed in myeloid U-937 cells implanted subcutaneously in mice using the hollow fiber model.
The results indicate that VLX40 may be a useful prototype for development of novel tubulin active agents that are insensitive to common mechanisms of cancer drug resistance.
Screening; Myeloma cell lines; Primary cultures; Drug resistance; Tubulin inhibition
An extensive study of the secondary metabolites produced by a new Sticta sp. of lichen has led to the isolation of three new compounds containing the 4-amino-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentanoic acid residue (Ahppa). The structures of stictamides A-C (1–3) were assigned by 2D NMR spectroscopic and chemical methods. Due to extensive epimerization of the Ahppa residue observed after acid hydrolysis, the configuration of this unit was deduced through conversion of 1 to an appropriate derivative and application of our recently developed statine NMR database. Evaluation of stictamide A against a panel of disease-relevant proteases showed it inhibited MMP12 at 2.3 µM and significantly reduced invasion in the human glioma cell line U87MG. Docking studies suggest stictamide A inhibits MMP12 by a non-zinc binding mechanism.
Various statistical methods have been used for data analysis in alcohol treatment studies. Trajectory analyses can better capture differences in treatment effects and may provide insight on the optimal duration of future clinical trials and grace periods. This improves on the limitation of commonly used parametric (e.g., linear) methods that cannot capture non-linear temporal trends in the data.
We propose an exploratory approach, using more flexible smoothing mixed effects models, more accurately to characterize the temporal patterns of the drinking data. We estimated the trajectories of the treatment arms for data sets from two sources: a multi-site topiramate study, and the Combined Pharmacotherapies (acamprosate and naltrexone) and Behavioral Interventions study.
Our methods illustrate that drinking outcomes of both the topiramate and placebo arms declined over the entire course of the trial but with a greater rate of decline for the topiramate arm. By the point-wise confidence intervals, the heavy drinking probabilities for the topiramate arm might differ from those of the placebo arm as early as week 2. Furthermore, the heavy drinking probabilities of both arms seemed to stabilize at the end of the study. Overall, naltrexone was better than placebo in reducing drinking over time, yet was not different from placebo for subjects receiving the combination of a brief medical management and an intensive combined behavioral intervention.
The estimated trajectory plots clearly showed non-linear temporal trends of the treatment with different medications on drinking outcomes and offered more detailed interpretation of the results. This trajectory analysis approach is proposed as a valid exploratory method for evaluating efficacy in pharmacotherapy trials in alcoholism.
Alcohol research; clinical trial; grace periods; splines; mixed model
Solid tumors are thought to contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) as a distinct population responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis due to their abilities to self renew, differentiate and give rise to a new tumor in local or distant organs. CSCs have been identified in many tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common and third most deadly malignancy with observable heterogeneity. Numerous studies have shown that hepatic CSCs could be enriched via different cell surface markers, e.g., CD13, CD24, CD44, CD90, CD133, EpCAM (CD326), and OV6. They could also be identified through functional assays such as isolating the side population cells by Hoechst dye staining or screening cells with a high activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Functional characterization of hepatic CSCs has revealed several deregulated signaling pathways, such as Wnt/β-catenin, AKT, TGF-beta, IL-6/STAT3 pathways to be critical in inducing “stemness” of HCC and in promoting self-renewal, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance. An increased understanding of the hepatic CSC biology shed light on the development of new diagnostic, prognostic therapeutic strategies in improving HCC clinical management. In this review, we summarized recent evidence including the identification of hepatic CSCs and its underlying biological mechanisms, and discussed potential clinical implications in HCC.