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1.  Associated bone mineral density and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Osteoporosis is an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Worse systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity have been reported in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implying that OSA may be an independent factor for osteoporosis in COPD patients.
A total of 66 patients with bone mineral density (BMD) and polysomnography results from a previous COPD cohort (January 2008 to January 2013) were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics such as medication, pulmonary function, BMD, and results of polysomnography were analyzed.
The BMD in those with OSA was significantly lower than in those without OSA (−1.99±1.63 versus −1.27±1.14, P=0.045). In univariate analysis, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage of predicted value, incremental shuttle walk test, apnea–hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly associated with BMD. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the ODI was still an independent factor for BMD. In addition, smaller total lung capacity is significantly associated with higher ODI and lower BMD, which implies that lower BMD might cause severer OSA via decreased total lung capacity.
OSA may be an independent factor for BMD in patients with COPD, which implies a possible vicious cycle takes place in these patients.
PMCID: PMC4321657
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; osteoporosis; total lung capacity
2.  Removal of Endobronchial Malignant Mass by Cryotherapy Improved Performance Status to Receive Chemotherapy 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:369739.
Although malignant endobronchial mass (MEM) has poor prognosis, cryotherapy is reportedly a palliative treatment. Clinical data on postcryotherapy MEM patients in a university-affiliated hospital between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Survival curve with or without postcryotherapy chemotherapy and performance status (PS) improvement of these subjects were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were 59 patients (42 males), with median age of 64 years (range, 51–76, and median performance status of 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-3). Postcryotherapy complications included minor bleeding (n = 12) and need for multiple procedures (n = 10), while outcomes were relief of symptoms (n = 51), improved PS (n = 45), and ability to receive chemotherapy (n = 40). The survival of patients with chemotherapy postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without such chemotherapy (median, 534 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.007; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.69). The survival of patients with PS improvement postcryotherapy was longer than that of patients without PS improvement (median, 406 versus 106 days; log-rank test, P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.81). Cryotherapy is a feasible treatment for MEM. With better PS after cryotherapy, further chemotherapy becomes possible for patients to improve survival when MEM caused dyspnea and poor PS.
PMCID: PMC4212536  PMID: 25383370
3.  Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Low- and High-Concentration Isoniazid-Monoresistant Tuberculosis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86316.
Isoniazid (INH) resistance is now the most common type of tuberculosis (TB) infection resistance worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.
One hundred and thirty-four patients with culture-confirmed INH-monoresistant TB during 2006 January to 2007 December were retrospectively enrolled. INH resistance was classified as either low-concentration or high-concentration resistance according to the critical concentrations of 0.2 µg/mL or 1 µg/mL of INH, respectively. The patients’ clinical outcomes, treatment regimens, and treatment duration were analyzed.
The treatment success rates between low- and high-concentration INH-resistant TB were similar (81.8% vs. 86.7%). The treatment regimens and treatment duration were similar between both groups. Only a minor percentage of the patients in both groups received 6-month treatment regimens (low vs. high concentration resistance, 9.1% vs. 13.3%; respectively, p = 0.447) The most common reason for treatment duration longer than 6 months was pyrazinamide given for less than 6 months, followed by a delay in clinical response to treatment. Multivariable analysis showed that prior tuberculosis treatment (Odds ratio, 2.82, 95% C.I., 1.02–7.77, p = 0.045) was the only independent risk factor for unsuccessful treatment outcome.
Different levels of INH resistance did not affect the treatment outcomes of patients with INH-monoresistant tuberculosis. Prolonged Rifampin-containing regimens may achieve those good outcomes in patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.
PMCID: PMC3899226  PMID: 24466020
4.  Chronic cough and obstructive sleep apnoea in a sleep laboratory-based pulmonary practice 
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has recently been identified as a possible aetiology for chronic cough. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of chronic cough between patients with and without OSA and the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in resolving chronic cough.
Patients referred to the sleep laboratory from January 2012 to June 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical data, treatment course and resolution of chronic cough were analysed. Specifically, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD), upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, apnoea-hypopnoea index and the impact of CPAP treatment on chronic cough were assessed.
A total of 131 patients were reviewed. The incidence of chronic cough in the OSA group was significantly higher than the non-OSA group (39/99 (39.4%) vs. 4/32 (12.5%), p = 0.005). Both GERD and apnoea-hypopnoea index were significantly associated with chronic cough in univariate analysis. After multivariate logistic regression, GERD was the only independent factor for chronic cough. Moreover, the resolution of chronic cough was more significant in the OSA patients with CPAP treatment compared with those not receiving CPAP treatment (12/18 (66.7%) vs. 2/21 (9.5%), p = 0.010).
The incidence of chronic cough was significantly higher in the OSA patients. In addition, CPAP treatment significantly improved chronic cough. Therefore, OSA may be a contributory factor to chronic cough.
PMCID: PMC4176501  PMID: 24188336
Chronic cough; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Continuous positive airway pressure
5.  Nocturnal CPAP improves walking capacity in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnoea 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):66.
Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea.
Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment.
After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P < 0.05), and decreased urinary catecholamine levels, pre-exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564).
Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC3689615  PMID: 23782492
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Walking capacity; Autonomic dysfunction; Continuous positive airway pressure
6.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Polymorphism (-1607G) and Disease Severity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66265.
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an irreversible dilatation of bronchi and is associated with lung fibrosis. MMP-1 polymorphism may alter its transcriptional activity, and differentially modulate bronchial destruction and lung fibrosis.
To investigate the association of MMP-1 polymorphisms with disease severity in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis patients, 51 normal subjects and 113 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. The associations between MMP-1 polymorphisms, lung function, and disease severity evaluated by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were analyzed.
The frequency of MMP-1(-1607G) allele was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than normal subjects (70.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.01). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G (1.2±0.1 L, n = 14) and 1G/2G (1.3±0.1 L, n = 66) genotypes compared to the 2G/2G genotype (1.7±0.1 L, n = 33, p<0.01). Six minute walking distance was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Disease severity evaluated by HRCT score significantly increased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotypes compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Bronchiectasis patients with at least one MMP-1 (-1607G) allele showed increased tendency for hospitalization. Serum levels of pro-MMP-1, active MMP-1 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with bronchiectasis with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype compared with 2G/2G genotype or normal subjects. Under IL-1β stimulation, peripheral blood monocytes from subjects with 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotype secreted higher levels of TGF-β1compared to subjects with 2G/2G genotype.
This is the first report to address the influence of MMP-1 polymorphisms on lung function and airway destruction in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Bronchiectasis patients with MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism may be more vulnerable to permanent lung fibrosis or airway destruction due to the enhanced MMP-1 and TGF-β1 activity. Upregulated MMP-1 activity results in proteolytic destruction of matrix, and leads to subsequent fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3679085  PMID: 23776649
7.  The Potential Regimen of Target-Controlled Infusion of Propofol in Flexible Bronchoscopy Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62744.
Target-controlled infusion (TCI) provides precise pharmacokinetic control of propofol concentration in the effect-site (Ce), eg. brain. This pilot study aims to evaluate the feasibility and optimal TCI regimen for flexible bronchoscopy (FB) sedation.
After alfentanil bolus, initial induction Ce of propofol was targeted at 2 μg/ml. Patients were randomized into three titration groups (i.e., by 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 μg/ml, respectively) to maintain stable sedation levels and vital signs. Adverse events, frequency of adjustments, drug doses, and induction and recovery times were recorded.
The study was closed early due to significantly severe hypoxemia events (oxyhemoglobin saturation <70%) in the group titrated at 0.5 μg/ml. Forty-nine, 49 and 46 patients were enrolled into the 3 respective groups before study closure. The proportion of patients with hypoxemia events differed significantly between groups (67.3 vs. 46.9 vs. 41.3%, p = 0.027). Hypotension events, induction and recovery time and propofol doses were not different. The Ce of induction differed significantly between groups (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.1±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.005) and the Ce of procedures was higher at 0.5 μg/ml titration (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.2±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.006). The adjustment frequency tended to be higher for titration at 0.1 μg/ml but was not statistically significant (2 (0∼6) vs. 3 (0∼6) vs. 3 (0∼11)). Subgroup analysis revealed 14% of all patients required no further adjustment during the whole sedation. Comparing patients requiring at least one adjustment with those who did not, they were observed to have a shorter induction time (87.6±34.9 vs. 226.9±147.9 sec, p<0.001), a smaller induction dose and Ce (32.5±4.1 vs. 56.8±22.7 mg, p<0.001; 1.76±0.17 vs. 2.28 ±0.41, p<0.001, respectively), and less hypoxemia and hypotension (15.8 vs.56.9%, p = 0.001; 0 vs. 24.1%, p = 0.008, respectively).
Titration at 0.5 μg/ml is risky for FB sedation. A subgroup of patients required no more TCI adjustment with fewer complications. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimal regimen of TCI for FB sedation.
Trial Registration NCT01101477
PMCID: PMC3634750  PMID: 23638141
8.  Feasibility of Bispectral Index-Guided Propofol Infusion for Flexible Bronchoscopy Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27769.
There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB). The bispectral index (BIS) correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.
After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group) or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.
The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively). The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001), less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively), and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively) compared to the control group.
BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815
PMCID: PMC3223212  PMID: 22132138

Results 1-8 (8)