PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (467)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
1.  Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2012008350.
We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-008350
PMCID: PMC3604551  PMID: 23429024
2.  miR-663 attenuates tumor growth and invasiveness by targeting eEF1A2 in pancreatic cancer 
Molecular Cancer  2015;14:37.
Background
miR-663 is associated with many important biologic processes, such as the evolution, development, viral infection, inflammatory response, and carcinogenesis among vertebrates. However, the molecular function and mechanism of miR-663 in pancreatic cancer growth and invasion is still unclear.
Methods
Western blot and real-time PCR were used to study the expression level of eEF1A2 protein and miR-663 in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. The Pearson χ2 test was used to determine the correlation between miR-663 expression and clinicopathologic features of patients. Patients’ survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method, using the log-rank test for comparison. The biological function of miR-663 was examined by measuring cell growth, cell invasion and apoptosis analysis in vitro and in vivo. miR-663 target gene and signaling pathway was identified by luciferase activity assay and western blot.
Results
We found that, in pancreatic cancer, eEF1A2 was significantly upregulated but miR-663 was significantly downregulated. Further results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 and miR-663 was strongly associated with TNM stage and node metastasis status of the patients. miR-663 and eEF1A2 were inversely correlated with each other, and the changes in the expression levels of each can also predict the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. We identified miR-663 as a tumor attenuate molecular that attenuated the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we confirmed that the expression of eEF1A2 can partially restore the pro-apoptotic and anti-invasion functions of miR-663.
Conclusions
miR-663 attenuated the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cells both in vitro and in vivo by directly targeting eEF1A2. miR-663 and eEF1A2 might be potential targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future.
doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0315-3
PMCID: PMC4332743
miR-663; Growth; Invasion; eEF1A2; Pancreatic cancer
3.  Low magnitude of tensile stress represses the inflammatory response at intervertebral disc in rats 
Objective
This study aims to determine if the involvement of tensile stress affects the expressions of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-17(IL-17), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at intervertebral discs in vivo.
Material and method
Sixty-four female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, tail-suspended (TS), tail-suspended with needle puncture (TSNP), and single-needle puncture (SNP) groups. A tail-suspension device provides low magnitude of tensile stress (2.45 Newton (N)), and aseptic needle puncture on the tail disc induces inflammatory response. After 4 weeks, the treated discs were harvested for histologic analysis, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Result
Pathological examination demonstrated that compared to the sham group, the morphologies of nucleus pulposus (NP) and anulus fibrosus (AF) in TS, SNP, and TSNP groups displayed degenerative changes in varying degrees. Results from RT-qPCR showed that IL-17 and iNOS mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in both TSNP and SNP groups than those in the sham groups. Expression of IL-17 and iNOS are not significantly different between the sham and TS groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the SNP group, the mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS in the TSNP groups were markedly decreased (P < 0.05). The regulation of IL-1β and IL-17 detected by ELISA was coincident with the qRT-PCR results.
Conclusion
The results from this study suggested that relatively low magnitude tensile stress might play an essential role in the anti-inflammatory process and the relief of low-back pain (LBP).
doi:10.1186/s13018-015-0159-y
PMCID: PMC4333165
Mechanical stress; Tail suspension; Anti-inflammation; Interleukin-17; Interleukin-1β; Inducible nitric oxide synthase
4.  Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0115348.
Aims
Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied.
Methods
Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid.
Results
Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD.
Conclusions
Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115348
PMCID: PMC4319763  PMID: 25659143
5.  Tactics for Probing Aryne Reactivity: Mechanistic Studies of Silicon-oxygen Bond Cleavage During the Trapping of (HDDA-generated) Benzynes by Silyl Ethers 
We report mechanistic aspects of the trapping of thermally (HDDA) generated benzyne derivatives by pendant silyl ether groups, which results in net insertion of the pair of benzyne Csp-hydribized carbon atoms into the silicon–oxygen sigma bond. Cross-over experiments using symmetrical, doubly labeled bis-silyl ether substrates established that the reaction is unimolecular in nature. Competition experiments involving either intramolecular or intermolecular dihydrogen transfer clock reactions (from within a TIPS isopropyl group or cyclooctane, respectively) vs. the silyl ether cyclization were used to gain additional insights. We evaluated effects of the steric bulk of the silyl ether trapping group and of the ring-size of the cyclic ether being formed (furan vs. pyran). These types of competition experiments allow the relative rates of various product-determining steps to be determined. This previously has only rarely been possible because aryne formation is typically rate-limiting, making it challenging to probe the kinetics of subsequent trapping reactions. Solvent effects (polarity of the medium) and computational studies were used to probe the question of stepwise vs. concerted pathways for the Si–O insertion.
doi:10.1039/C3SC53014K
PMCID: PMC4238229  PMID: 25419449
6.  Common Variants Related to Serum Uric Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Secretion in a Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(1):e0116714.
Background
Elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor and predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on T2D remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of the uric acid-associated genes on the risk of T2D as well as glucose metabolism and insulin secretion.
Method
We recruited 2,199 normal glucose tolerance subjects from the Shanghai Diabetes Study I and II and 2,999 T2D patients from the inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in or near 11 loci (PDZK1, GCKR, LRP2, SLC2A9, ABCG2, LRRC16A, SLC17A1, SLC17A3, SLC22A11, SLC22A12 and SF1) were genotyped and serum biochemical parameters related to uric acid and T2D were determined.
Results
SF1 rs606458 showed strong association to T2D in both males and females (p = 0.034 and 0.0008). In the males, LRRC16A was associated with 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.009 and 0.009). SLC22A11 was correlated with HOMA-B and insulin secretion (p = 0.048 and 0.029). SLC2A9 rs3775948 was associated with 2-h glucose (p = 0.043). In the females, LRP2 rs2544390 and rs1333049 showed correlations with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and insulin secretion (p = 0.028, 0.033 and 0.052 and p = 0.034, 0.047 and 0.038, respectively). SLC2A9 rs11722228 was correlated with 2-h glucose, 2-h insulin and insulin secretion (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.049, respectively).
Conclusions
Our results indicated that the uric acid-associated genes have an impact on the risk of T2D, glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in a Chinese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116714
PMCID: PMC4305305  PMID: 25617895
7.  Diminished serum repetin levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7977.
Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined serum levels of RPTN in patients with schizophrenia (n = 88) or bipolar disorder (n = 34) and in chronic psychostimulant users (n = 91). We also studied its expression in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that serum RPTN levels were significantly diminished in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or in psychostimulant users, compared with healthy subjects (n = 115) or age-matched controls (n = 92) (p < 0.0001). In CUMS mice, RPTN expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was reduced with progression of the CUMS procedure; the serum RPTN level remained unchanged. Since CUMS is a model for depression and methamphetamine (METH) abuse induced psychosis recapitulates many of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the results from this study may imply that RPTN plays a potential role in emotional and cognitive processing; its decrease in serum may indicate its involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
doi:10.1038/srep07977
PMCID: PMC4303898  PMID: 25613293
8.  Cloning and characterization of a novel sigma-like glutathione S-transferase from the giant panda parasitic nematode, Baylisascaris schroederi 
Parasites & Vectors  2015;8:44.
Background
Baylisascaris schroederi, an intestinal nematode of the giant panda, is the cause of the often fatal disease, baylisascariasis. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are versatile enzymes that can affect parasite survival and parasite-host interactions and, are therefore, potential targets for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.
Methods
In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA that encoded a novel, secretory sigma-like GST (Bsc-GSTσ) from a B. schroederi-omic dataset. Following cloning and sequencing, sequence and structural analyses and comparative modeling were performed using online-bioinformatics and proteomics tools. The recombinant Bsc-GSTσ (rBsc-GSTσ) protein was prokaryotically expressed and then used to detect antigenicity and reactivity using immunoblotting assays. In addition, the native protein in female adult B. schroederi was located via immunofluorescence techniques, while the preliminary ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of rBsc-GSTσ was assessed in native and infected mouse sera.
Results
Bsc-GSTσ contained a 621-bp open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 206 amino acids with two typical sigma GST domain profiles, including a GST_N_Sigma_like at the N-terminus and a GST_C_Sigma_like at the C-terminus. The presence of an N-terminal signal sequence indicated that Bsc-GSTσ was a secretory protein. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that Bsc-GSTσ was a nematode-specific member of the Sigma class GSTs and shared the closest genetic distance with its homologue in Ascaris suum. Further comparative structure analyses indicated that Bsc-GSTσ possessed the essential structural motifs (e.g., βαβαββα) and the consensus secondary or tertiary structure that is typical for other characterized GSTσs. Immunolocalization revealed strong distributions of native Bsc-GSTσ in the body hypodermis, lateral chords, gut epithelium, gut microvilli, oviduct epithelium, and ovaries of adult female worms, similar to its homologue in A. suum. Building on good immunogenic properties, rBsc-GSTσ-based ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 82.0% to detect anti-B. schroederi IgG antibodies in the sera of experimentally infected mice.
Conclusion
This study presents a comprehensive demonstration of sequence and structural-based analysis of a new, secretory sigma-like GST from a nematode, and its good serodiagnostic performance suggests that rBsc-GSTσ has the potential to detect B. schroederi and, therefore, could be used to develop an ELISA-based serological test to diagnose baylisascariasis in giant pandas.
doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0629-9
PMCID: PMC4311449  PMID: 25613998
Baylisascaris schroederi; Giant panda; Glutathione S-transferase; Sigma class; Bsc-GSTσ; Immunolocalization; Immunodiagnosis
9.  Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS 
The Scientific World Journal  2015;2015:980890.
Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16α-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats.
doi:10.1155/2015/980890
PMCID: PMC4312610  PMID: 25667939
10.  Dichlorination of (HDDA-Generated) Benzynes and a Protocol for Interrogating the Kinetic Order of Bimolecular Aryne Trapping Reactions 
Organic letters  2013;16(1):254-257.
The efficient dichlorination of benzynes prepared by the hexadehydro-Diels–Alder (HDDA) reaction is reported. Cycloisomerization of a triyne substrate in the presence of dilithium tetrachlorocuprate is shown to provide dichlorinated products A by capture of the benzyne intermediate. A general strategy for discerning the kinetic order of an external aryne trapping agent is presented. It merely requires measurement of the competition between bimolecular vs. unimolecular trapping events (here, dichlorination vs. IMDA reaction to give A vs. B, respectively) as a function of the concentration of the trapping agent.
doi:10.1021/ol403258c
PMCID: PMC3955733  PMID: 24329102
11.  The Aurora B kinase in Trypanosoma brucei undergoes post-translational modifications and is targeted to various subcellular locations through binding to TbCPC1 
Molecular microbiology  2013;91(2):256-274.
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) in animals, consisting of Aurora B kinase and three evolutionarily conserved proteins, plays crucial roles in mitosis and cytokinesis. However, Trypanosoma brucei expresses an unusual CPC consisting of an Aurora-like kinase, TbAUK1, and two kinetoplastid-specific proteins, TbCPC1 and TbCPC2. Despite their essential functions, little is known about the regulation of TbAUK1 and the roles of TbCPC1 and TbCPC2. Here, we investigate the effect of post-translational modification on the activity and spatiotemporal control of TbAUK1, and demonstrate that phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in the activation loop of the kinase domain contributes to TbAUK1 activation and function. TbAUK1 is SUMOylated in vivo, and mutation of the SUMO-conjugation site compromises TbAUK1 function. Degradation of TbAUK1 requires two destruction boxes and is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whereas degradation of TbCPC1 and TbCPC2 is not dependent on the predicted destruction boxes and is APC/C-independent. Moreover, we determine the domains in CPC subunits that mediate the pairwise interactions, and show that disruption of the interaction impairs the localization of TbAUK1 and TbCPC2 but not TbCPC1. Our results demonstrate the requirement of post-translational modifications for TbAUK1 function and a crucial role of TbCPC1 in mediating TbAUK1 localization.
doi:10.1111/mmi.12458
PMCID: PMC3894614  PMID: 24224936
12.  Nucleic Acid Aptamer-Guided Cancer Therapeutics and Diagnostics: the Next Generation of Cancer Medicine 
Theranostics  2015;5(1):23-42.
Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy are often unable to completely eradicate cancers due to abnormal tumor microenvironment, as well as increased drug/radiation resistance. More effective therapeutic strategies for overcoming these obstacles are urgently in demand. Aptamers, as chemical antibodies that bind to targets with high affinity and specificity, are a promising new and novel agent for both cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Aptamer-based cancer cell targeting facilitates the development of active targeting in which aptamer-mediated drug delivery could provide promising anticancer outcomes. This review is to update the current progress of aptamer-based cancer diagnosis and aptamer-mediated active targeting for cancer therapy in vivo, exploring the potential of this novel form of targeted cancer therapy.
doi:10.7150/thno.10202
PMCID: PMC4265746  PMID: 25553096
aptamer; cancer therapy; active targeting; cancer stem cell; chemoresistance; cancer theranostic
13.  Goserelin plus endocrine treatments maintained long-term clinical benefit in a male patient with advanced breast cancer 
Background
Goserelin plus aromatase inhibitors (AI) have already been used in male advanced breast cancer, but the cases that fulvestrantin male breast cancer are rare.
Case presentation
Here we report a case of long-term (3 years) response to Goserelin plus continuing endocrine treatments given for a male advanced breast cancer. The patient prolongs his life with high life quality, and has more time with his family.
Conclusion
Goserelin plus endocrine treatments may benefit male breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-393
PMCID: PMC4326472  PMID: 25539790
Male breast cancer; Goserelin; Endocrine treatment; Family time
14.  Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus 
Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator's preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.06.27
PMCID: PMC4270976  PMID: 25540765
esotropia; exotropia; recurrence surgery
15.  Comparison of Aldosterone Production among Human Adrenocortical Cell Lines 
Background
Several human adrenocortical cell lines have been used as model systems for aldosterone production. However, these cell lines have not been directly compared with each other.
Methods
Human adrenal cell lines SW13, CAR47, the NCI-H295 and its sub-strains and sub-clones were compared with regard to aldosterone production and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression. Culture media was collected 48 h after incubation, aldosterone secretion was measured and the data were normalized to the amount of cell protein. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). The cell lines with the highest aldosterone production were further tested with regard to angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation.
Results
Neither aldosterone nor CYP11B2 transcript were detected in SW13 or CAR47 cells. The aldosterone production by the NCI-H295, H295A, H295R-S1, H295R-S2, H295R-S3, HAC13, HAC15 and HAC50 were 119, 1, 6, 826, 18, 139, 412, and 1334 (pmol/mg protein/48h), respectively. H295A and H295R-S1 expressed less CYP11B2 than the commonly used H295R-S3 cells; while NCI-H295, H295R-S2, HAC13, HAC15 and HAC50 expressed 24, 14, 3, 10 and 35 fold higher CYP11B2 compared with the H295R-S3 cells. When treated with Ang II, NCI-H295, H295R-S2, HAC13, HAC15 and HAC50 showed significantly higher aldosterone production than the basal level (p<0.05).
Conclusion
A comparison of the available human adrenal cell lines indicates that the H295R-S2 and the clonal cell lines, HAC13, HAC15 and HAC50 produced the highest levels of aldosterone and responded well to Ang II.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1298019
PMCID: PMC4269336  PMID: 22266826
Aldosterone; adrenocortical carcinoma; steroidogenesis
16.  STAR: an integrated solution to management and visualization of sequencing data 
Bioinformatics  2013;29(24):3204-3210.
Motivation: Easily visualization of complex data features is a necessary step to conduct studies on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. We developed STAR, an integrated web application that enables online management, visualization and track-based analysis of NGS data.
Results: STAR is a multilayer web service system. On the client side, STAR leverages JavaScript, HTML5 Canvas and asynchronous communications to deliver a smoothly scrolling desktop-like graphical user interface with a suite of in-browser analysis tools that range from providing simple track configuration controls to sophisticated feature detection within datasets. On the server side, STAR supports private session state retention via an account management system and provides data management modules that enable collection, visualization and analysis of third-party sequencing data from the public domain with over thousands of tracks hosted to date. Overall, STAR represents a next-generation data exploration solution to match the requirements of NGS data, enabling both intuitive visualization and dynamic analysis of data.
Availability and implementation: STAR browser system is freely available on the web at http://wanglab.ucsd.edu/star/browser and https://github.com/angell1117/STAR-genome-browser.
Contact: wei-wang@ucsd.edu
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt558
PMCID: PMC3842760  PMID: 24078702
17.  Trientine Reduces BACE1 Activity and Mitigates Amyloidosis via the AGE/RAGE/NF-κB Pathway in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2013;19(17):2024-2039.
Abstract
Aims: There is mounting evidence that the transition metal copper may play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride (trientine), a CuII-selective chelator, is a commonly used treatment for Wilson's disease to decrease accumulated copper, and thereby decreases oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a 3-month treatment course of trientine (Trien) on amyloidosis in 7-month-old β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic (Tg) AD model mice. Results: We observed that Trien reduced the level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and decreased Aβ deposition and synapse loss in brain of APP/PS1 mice. Importantly, we found that Trien blocked the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), downregulated β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), inhibited amyloidogenic APP cleavage, and subsequently reduced Aβ levels. In vitro, in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutant APP, Trien-mediated downregulation of BACE1 occurred via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Innovation: In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that Trien inhibited amyloidogenic pathway including targeting the downregulation of RAGE and NF-κB. Conclusion: Trien might mitigate amyloidosis in AD by inhibiting the RAGE/NF-κB/BACE1 pathway. Our study demonstrates that Trien may be a viable therapeutic strategy for the intervention and treatment of AD and other AD-like pathologies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 2024–2039.
doi:10.1089/ars.2012.5158
PMCID: PMC3869419  PMID: 23541064
18.  Hyperplasia of Pericytes Is One of the Main Characteristics of Microvascular Architecture in Malignant Glioma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114246.
Objectives
To investigate the role of pericytes in constructing the malformed microvessels (MVs) and participating microvascular architecture heterogeneity of glioma.
Methods
Forty human glioma tissue samples (WHO grade II-IV) were included in present study. Observation of blood vessel patterns, quantitative analysis of endothelial cells (ECs)- and pericyte-labeled MVs and comparison between malignant grades based on single- or double-immunohistochemical staining. The MV number density (MVND), microvascular pericyte number density (MPND), and microvascular pericyte area density (MPAD) were calculated. The expression of PDGFβ was also scored after immunostaining.
Results
In grade II glioma, most of tumor MVs were the thin-wall CD34+ vessels with near normal morphology. In addition to thin-wall CD34+ MVs, more thick-wall MVs were found in grade III glioma, which often showed α-SMA positive. Most of MVs in grade IV glioma were in the form of plexus, curled cell cords and glomeruloid microvascular proliferation while the α-SMA+ cells were the main components. The MVs usually showed disordered arrangement, loose connection and active cell proliferation as shown by Ki67 and α-SMA coexpression. With the increase of glioma grades, the α-SMA+ MVND, CD34+ MVND and MPND were significantly augmented although the increase of CD34+ MVND but not MPAD was statistically insignificant between grade III and IV. It was interesting that some vessel-like structures only consist of α-SMA+ cells, assuming the guiding role of pericytes in angiogenesis. The expression level of PDGFβ was upregulated and directly correlated with the MPND in different glioma grades.
Conclusion
Hyperplasia of pericytes was one of the significant characteristics of malignant glioma and locally proliferated pericytes were the main constituent of MVs in high grade glioma. The pathological characteristics of pericytes could be used as indexes of malignant grades of glioma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114246
PMCID: PMC4257691  PMID: 25478951
19.  Prevalence of SFTSV among Asian House Shrews and Rodents, China, January–August 2013 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(12):2126-2128.
To evaluate the role of small mammals as hosts of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), we tested serum samples from rodents and shrews in China, collected in 2013. SFTSV antibodies and RNA were detected, suggesting that rodents and shrews might be hosts for SFTSV.
doi:10.3201/eid2012.141013
PMCID: PMC4257798  PMID: 25418111
severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; SFTS virus; bunyavirus; seroprevalence; shrews; rodents; viruses; animal hosts; China
20.  Zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms in Raccoons, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(12):2170-2172.
doi:10.3201/eid2012.140970
PMCID: PMC4257832  PMID: 25417741
Raccoon; roundworm; Baylisascaris procyonis; helminth; zoonosis; Procyon lotor; health education; pica; geophagia; China; parasites
21.  Risk of Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxicity in Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Prospective Observational Study 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2014;17(4):363-369.
Purpose
In the present study, we investigated the incidence of cardiotoxicity within 5 years of trastuzumab treatment and evaluated potential risk factors in clinical practice.
Methods
The study cohort included 415 patients diagnosed with early breast cancer (EBC). Cardiotoxicity incidence was evaluated in patients receiving trastuzumab and those who did not. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of potential risk factors for trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity after appropriate adjustments.
Results
Incidence of cardiotoxicity in patients treated with trastuzumab was significantly higher than that in controls (23.7% vs. 10.8%, p<0.001). This result was adjusted for factors that might increase the risk of cardiotoxicity, such as history of coronary artery diseases or the use of anthracyclines for more than four cycles.
Conclusion
Our findings indicated that treatment with trastuzumab was strongly associated with cardiotoxicity in EBC patients.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.4.363
PMCID: PMC4278056  PMID: 25548585
Breast neoplasms; Cardiotoxicity; Trastuzumab
22.  Current Evidence on Auricular Therapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials 
Auricular therapy (AT) has been historically viewed as a convenient approach adjunct to pharmacological therapy for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The aim of this study was to assess the evidence of the therapeutic effect of AT for CINV management in cancer patients. Relevant randomized controlled trials were retrieved from 12 electronic databases without language restrictions. Meanwhile, manual search was conducted for Chinese journals on complementary medicine published within the last five years, and the reference lists of included studies were also checked to identify any possible eligible studies. Twenty-one studies with 1713 participants were included. The effect rate of AT for managing acute CINV ranged from 44.44% to 93.33% in the intervention groups and 15% to 91.67% in the control groups. For delayed CINV, it was 62.96% to 100% and 25% to 100%, respectively. AT seems to be a promising approach in managing CINV. However, the level of evidence was low and the definite effect cannot be concluded as there were significant methodological flaws identified in the analyzed studies. The implications drawn from the 21 studies put some clues for future practice in this area including the need to conduct more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials.
doi:10.1155/2014/430796
PMCID: PMC4261635  PMID: 25525445
23.  LC–MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration of pure columbianadin 
Background
Columbianadin, one of the active coumarins, is isolated from Radix Angelicae pubescentis which has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatic diseases for thousands of years. A fast and sensitive method is required for the determination of columbianadin for pharmacokinetic studies. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis.
Results
A sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been validated to determine the concentration of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration of columbianadin (1, 2.5 and 5 mg kg−1). Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract columbianadin from the rat plasma. Bergapten was selected as an internal standard (IS). The separations were performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with ammonium acetate aqueous solution (1 mmol L−1) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 0.300 mL min−1. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor transitions of m/z 329.3 → 229.3 for columbianadin and m/z 217.2 → 202.2 for IS at positive ionization mode. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 4–20000 ng mL−1 with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996 or better. The precision of intra- and inter-batch assays ranged from 4.02 to 7.33% and accuracies determined at three concentrations ranged between 91.9% and 106%. The lower limit of quantification was about 4 ng mL−1.
Conclusion
The proposed LC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive so that it could be used to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration.
doi:10.1186/s13065-014-0064-1
PMCID: PMC4280029  PMID: 25550710
Radix angelicae pubescentis; Columbianadin; LC-MS/MS; Intravenous administration
24.  LC–MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration of pure columbianadin 
Background
Columbianadin, one of the active coumarins, is isolated from Radix Angelicae pubescentis which has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatic diseases for thousands of years. A fast and sensitive method is required for the determination of columbianadin for pharmacokinetic studies. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis.
Results
A sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been validated to determine the concentration of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration of columbianadin (1, 2.5 and 5 mg kg−1). Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract columbianadin from the rat plasma. Bergapten was selected as an internal standard (IS). The separations were performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with ammonium acetate aqueous solution (1 mmol L−1) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 0.300 mL min−1. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor transitions of m/z 329.3 → 229.3 for columbianadin and m/z 217.2 → 202.2 for IS at positive ionization mode. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 4–20000 ng mL−1 with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996 or better. The precision of intra- and inter-batch assays ranged from 4.02 to 7.33% and accuracies determined at three concentrations ranged between 91.9% and 106%. The lower limit of quantification was about 4 ng mL−1.
Conclusion
The proposed LC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive so that it could be used to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of columbianadin in rat plasma after intravenous administration.
doi:10.1186/s13065-014-0064-1
PMCID: PMC4280029  PMID: 25550710
Radix angelicae pubescentis; Columbianadin; LC-MS/MS; Intravenous administration
25.  Smoking-Related Gene Expression in Laser Capture Microdissected Human Lung 
Purpose
Inter-individual differences in quantitative expression could underlie a propensity for lung cancer. To determine precise individual gene expression signatures on a lung compartment-specific basis, we investigated the expression of carcinogen metabolism genes encoding cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1B1, 2A13, glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1, and a tumor suppressor gene p16 in laser capture microdissected samples of human alveolar compartment (AC) and bronchial epithelial compartment (BEC) lung tissue from 62 smokers and non-smokers.
Experimental Design
Tobacco exposure was determined by plasma nicotine, cotinine, and smoking history. Precise mRNA expression was determined using our RNA-specific qRT-PCR strategy, and correlated with detailed demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results
Several correlations of mRNA expression included: (a) CYP1B1 in AC (positively with plasma nicotine level, P = 0.008; plasma cotinine level, P = 0.001); (b) GSTP1 in AC (positively with plasma cotinine level, P = 0.003); (c) GSTP1 in BEC (negatively with smoke dose, P = 0.043; occupational risk, P = 0.019). CYP2A13 was rarely expressed in AC, and not expressed in BEC. p16 expression was not correlated with any measured factor. For each gene, subjects showed expression that was individually concordant between these compartments. No clear association of mRNA expression with lung cancer risk was observed in this pilot analysis.
Conclusions
The association between lung mRNA expression and tobacco exposure implies that gene-tobacco interaction is a measurable quantitative trait, albeit with wide inter-individual variation. Gene expression tends to be concordant for alveolar and bronchial compartments for these genes in an individual, controlling for proximate tobacco exposure.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1694
PMCID: PMC4238890  PMID: 19996203
Lung carcinoma; gene expression; laser capture microdissection; lung epithelial cells; tobacco smoking

Results 1-25 (467)