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Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR (1)
Journal of Experimental Botany (1)
Wang, Shengyi (2)
Li, Hui'e (1)
Li, Shuxiu (1)
Sun, Baocun (1)
Wang, Yuejin (1)
Xu, Weirong (1)
Xu, Yan (1)
Yang, Jing (1)
Yu, Yihe (1)
Zhao, Guofan (1)
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VpRFP1, a novel C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata, functions as a transcriptional activator in defence response of grapevine
Journal of Experimental Botany
RING finger proteins comprise a large family and play important roles in regulation of growth and development, hormone signalling, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, the identification and functional characterization of a C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from the Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpRFP1) are reported. VpRFP1 was initially identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from leaves of V. pseudoreticulata inoculated with the grapevine powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Sequence analysis of the deduced VpRFP1 protein based on the full-length cDNA revealed an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a C-terminal C4C4-type RING finger motif with the consensus sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X13-Cys-X1-Cys-X4-Cys-X2-Cys-X10-Cys-X2-Cys. Upon inoculation with U. necator, expression of VpRFP1 was rapidly induced to higher levels in mildew-resistant V. pseudoreticulata plants. In contrast, expression of VpRFP1 was down-regulated in mildew-susceptible V. vinifera plants. Western blotting using an antibody raised against VpRFP1 showed that VpRFP1 was also induced to higher levels in V. pseudoreticulata plants at 12–48 hours post-inoculation (hpi). However, there was only slight increase in VpRFP in V. vinifera plants in the same time frame, even though a more significant increase was observed at 96–144 hpi in these plants. Results from transactivation assays in yeast showed that the RING finger motif of VpRFP1 exhibited some activity of transcriptional activation; however, no activity was seen with the full-length VpRFP1. Overexpression of VpRFP1 in Arabidopsis plants was found to enhance resistance to Arabidopsis powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which seemed to be correlated with increased transcript levels of AtPR1 and AtPR2 in the pathogen-infected tissues. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Taken together, the results suggested that VpRFP1 may be a transcriptional activator of defence-related genes in grapevines.
C4C4-type RING finger; Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata; disease resistance; powdery mildew; VpRFP1
Effect of Chemokine Receptors CCR7 on Disseminated Behavior of Human T cell Lymphoma: clinical and experimental study
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR
The expression of chemokine receptors CCR7 has been studied in relation to tumor dissemination and poor prognosis in a limited number of cancers. No such studies have been done on CCR7 expression in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL). Our aim in this paper is to investigate the association between CCR7 expression and progression and prognosis of T-NHL.
1) Analysis of clinical data: The specimens were obtained from 41 patients with T-NHL and 19 patients with lymphoid hyperplasia. Their corresponding clinicopathologic data were also collected. The expression levels of CCR7, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were examined by immunohistochemical staining. 2) Human T-NHL cell lines Hut 78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) and Jurkat (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) were cultured. The invasiveness of the two cell lines were measured with a Transwell invasion assay, and then used to study the effects of chemokine receptors on T-NHL invasion and the underlying molecular mechanism. The transcript and expression of CCR7 were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blotting.
1) The higher CCR7 and MMP-9 expression ratios were significantly associated with multiple lesions and higher stage III/IV. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between CCR7 and MMP-9 expression. 2) The Hut 78 cell line was more invasive than the Jurkat cells in the Transwell invasion assay. The transcript and expression levels of CCR7 were significantly higher in Hut78 than that of Jurkat cell line. The T-NHL cell lines were co-cultured with chemokine CCL21 which increased the invasiveness of T-NHL cell. The positive association between CCL21 concentration and invasiveness was found. 3) The stronger transcript and expression of PI3K, Akt and p- Akt were also observed in Hut78 than in Jurkat cell line.
High CCR7 expression in T-NHL cells is significantly associated with lymphatic and distant dissemination as well as with tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. Its underlying mechanism probably involves the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.
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