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1.  Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:500.
The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity.
The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form.
Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 %) which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account.
The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.
PMCID: PMC4902908  PMID: 27287474
Obesity; Smoking; Health; Ethnicity
2.  In vitro and in vivo studies of surface-structured implants for bone formation 
Background and methods
Micronanoscale topologies play an important role in implant osteointegration and determine the success of an implant. We investigated the effect of three different implant surface topologies on osteoblast response and bone regeneration. In this study, implants with nanotubes and micropores were used, and implants with flat surfaces were used as the control group.
Our in vitro studies showed that the nanostructured topologies improved the proliferation, differentiation, and development of the osteoblastic phenotype. Histological analysis further revealed that the nanotopology increased cell aggregation at the implant-tissue interfaces and enhanced bone-forming ability. Pushout testing indicated that the nanostructured topology greatly increased the bone-implant interfacial strength within 4 weeks of implantation.
Nanotopography may improve regeneration of bone tissue and shows promise for dental implant applications.
PMCID: PMC3446836  PMID: 23028216
osteoblast; osteointegration; titanium; nanostructure; microstructure

Results 1-2 (2)