Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component downregulation permits escape of malignant cells from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and correlates with poor prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Activated STAT1 (pSTAT1) is necessary for APM component expression in HNC cells. We investigated whether an overexpressed phosphatase was responsible for basal suppression of pSTAT1 and subsequent APM component-mediated immune escape in HNC cells.
Immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR of paired HNC tumors was performed for the phosphatases src homology domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP2. Depletion of phosphatase activity in HNC and STAT1−/− tumor cells was achieved by siRNA knockdown. HLA class I restricted, tumor antigen specific CTL were used in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays against HNC cells. Chemokine secretion was measured after SHP2 depletion in HNC cells.
SHP2 but not SHP1 was significantly upregulated in HNC tissues. In HNC cells, SHP2 depletion significantly upregulated expression of pSTAT1 and HLA class I APM components. Overexpression of SHP2 in nonmalignant keratinocytes inhibited IFN-γ-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation and SHP2 depletion in STAT1−/− tumor cells did not significantly induce IFN-γ-mediated APM component expression, verifying STAT1 dependence of SHP2 activity. SHP2 depletion induced recognition of HNC cells by HLA class I restricted CTL and secretion of inflammatory, T cell attracting chemokines, RANTES and IP10.
These findings suggest for the first time an important role for SHP2 in APM-mediated escape of HNC cells from CTL recognition. Targeting SHP2 could enhance T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
SHP2; STAT1; immune escape; APM component; HNC
Spatial evolution game has traditionally assumed that players interact with direct neighbors on a single network, which is isolated and not influenced by other systems. However, this is not fully consistent with recent research identification that interactions between networks play a crucial rule for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. In this work, we introduce the simple game model into the interdependent networks composed of two networks. By means of imitation dynamics, we display that when the interdependent factor α is smaller than a threshold value αC, the symmetry of cooperation can be guaranteed. Interestingly, as interdependent factor exceeds αC, spontaneous symmetry breaking of fraction of cooperators presents itself between different networks. With respect to the breakage of symmetry, it is induced by asynchronous expansion between heterogeneous strategy couples of both networks, which further enriches the content of spatial reciprocity. Moreover, our results can be well predicted by the strategy-couple pair approximation method.
Baicalin, the main active ingredient of the Scutellaria root, exerts anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects in cardiovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism of baicalin remains unknown. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with baicalin (0–50 µM) for 24 h, and subsequently treated with tunicamycin (100 ng/ml). Cell viability was detected by MTT assay, and cell damage was determined by LDH release and TUNEL assay. The expression of CHOP, JNK, caspase-3, eNOS was analyzed by western blot. NO was measured by DAF-FM staining. As a result, treatment with baicalin significantly reduced apoptosis induced by ER stress inducer tunicamycin in cardiomyocytes. Molecularly, baicalin ameliorated tunicamycin-induced ER stress by downregulation of CHOP. In addition, baicalin inverted tunicamycin-induced decreases of eNOS mRNA and protein levels, phospho eNOS and NO production through CHOP pathway. However, the protective effects of baicalin were significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes treated with L-NAME, which suppressed activation of nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, our results implicate that baicalin could protect cardiomyocytes from ER stress-induced apoptosis via CHOP/eNOS/NO pathway, and suggest the therapeutic values of baicalin against ER stress-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Longitudinal measurements of peripapillary RNFL thickness and retardance were compared in terms of time to reach onset of damage and time to reach a specific progression endpoint.
A total of 41 rhesus macaques with unilateral experimental glaucoma (EG) each had three or more weekly baseline measurements in both eyes of peripapillary RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and retardance. Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic elevation of intraocular pressure and weekly imaging continued. Pairwise differences between baseline observations were sampled by bootstrapping to determine the 95% confidence limits of each measurement's repeatability. The first two sequential measurements below the lower confidence limit defined the endpoint for each parameter. Segmented linear and exponential decay functions were fit to each RNFL-versus-time series to determine the time to damage onset.
In all, 29 (71%) of the EG eyes reached endpoint by RNFL retardance and 25 (61%) reached endpoint by RNFLT. In total, 33 (80%) reached endpoint by at least one of the RNFL parameters and 21 (51%) reached endpoint by both RNFL parameters. Of the 33 EG eyes reaching any endpoint, a larger proportion reached endpoint first by retardance (n = 26, 79%) than did by RNFLT (n = 7, 21%; P = 0.002). Survival analysis indicated a shorter time to reach endpoint by retardance than by RNFLT (P < 0.001). Of the 21 EG eyes that reached endpoint by both measures, the median duration to endpoint was 120 days for retardance and 223 days for RNFLT (P = 0.003, Wilcoxon test). The time to onset was faster for retardance than that for RNFLT based on either segmented fits (by 31 days; P = 0.008, average R2 = 0.89) or exponential fits (by 102 days; P = 0.01, average R2 = 0.89).
The onset of progressive loss of RNFL retardance occurs earlier than the onset of RNFL thinning. Endpoints of progressive loss from baseline also occurred more frequently and earlier for RNFL retardance as compared with RNFLT.
This study demonstrates that the onset of progressive loss of RNFL retardance measured by scanning laser polarimetry occurs earlier than the onset of RNFL thinning measured by SD-OCT. Endpoints of progressive loss from baseline also occurred more frequently and earlier for RNFL retardance as compared with RNFL thickness.
glaucoma; retinal ganglion cell; retinal nerve fiber layer; scanning laser polarimetry; birefringence; optical coherence tomography
Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the past, it was not possible to identify an association between cases of human and animal infection. We conducted a genomic survey of the species, developed a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, and identified 6 subtype families (XIIa–XIIf) of C. ubiquitum. Host adaptation was apparent at the gp60 locus; subtype XIIa was found in ruminants worldwide, subtype families XIIb–XIId were found in rodents in the United States, and XIIe and XIIf were found in rodents in the Slovak Republic. Humans in the United States were infected with isolates of subtypes XIIb–XIId, whereas those in other areas were infected primarily with subtype XIIa isolates. In addition, subtype families XIIb and XIId were detected in drinking source water in the United States. Contact with C. ubiquitum–infected sheep and drinking water contaminated by infected wildlife could be sources of human infections.
Cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium; zoonoses; epidemiology; molecular typing,whole genome sequencing; genomics; ruminants; rodents; horse; raccoon; sifaka; parasites; humans
We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) strain J-PPV, isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data for PPV isolates from other regions of China, will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of PPV field isolates in China.
Paired sense and antisense (S/AS) genes located in cis represent a structural feature common to the genomes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and produce partially complementary transcripts. We used published genome and transcriptome sequence data and found that over 20% of genes (645 pairs) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome are arranged in convergent pairs with overlapping 3′-UTRs. Using published microarray transcriptome data from the standard laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae, our analysis revealed that expression levels of convergent pairs are significantly negatively correlated across a broad range of environments. This implies an important role for convergent genes in the regulation of gene expression, which may compensate for the absence of RNA-dependent mechanisms such as micro RNAs in budding yeast. We selected four representative convergent gene pairs and used expression assays in wild type yeast and its genetically modified strains to explore the underlying patterns of gene expression. Results showed that convergent genes are reciprocally regulated in yeast populations and in single cells, whereby an increase in expression of one gene produces a decrease in the expression of the other, and vice-versa. Time course analysis of the cell cycle illustrated the functional significance of this relationship for the three pairs with relevant functional roles. Furthermore, a series of genetic modifications revealed that the 3′-UTR sequence plays an essential causal role in mediating transcriptional interference, which requires neither the sequence of the open reading frame nor the translation of fully functional proteins. More importantly, transcriptional interference persisted even when one of the convergent genes was expressed ectopically (in trans) and therefore does not depend on the cis arrangement of convergent genes; we conclude that the mechanism of transcriptional interference cannot be explained by the transcriptional collision model, which postulates a clash between simultaneous transcriptional processes occurring on opposite DNA strands.
In the compact genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes are frequently organized into convergent pairs that are transcribed from opposing DNA strands in opposite directions and have overlapping 3′-UTRs. Here we explore the negative correlation in expression levels between convergent genes using a set of 645 convergent pairs in the yeast genome, identified from published genomic and transcriptomic sequence data and accounting for ∼20% of total yeast genes. Analysis of published microarray experiments confirmed that the negative correlation in expression between convergent genes occurs across a broad range of growth conditions. This implies that such transcriptional interference is an important means of regulating gene expression in yeast, especially in the absence of other eukaryotic RNA-dependent mechanisms such as micro RNAs. We focused on profiling the expression of four pairs of convergent genes in wild type yeast and its genetically modified strains, to explore the causes and mechanisms of transcriptional interference. We demonstrate that the 3′-UTR sequence alone plays the essential and causal role in interference between convergent genes. Intriguingly, transcriptional interference occurs even when one of the convergent genes is expressed from elsewhere in the genome (in trans), raising new questions about how transcriptional interference operates.
Amorphous carbon is one of the most lubricious materials known, but the mechanism is not well understood. It is counterintuitive that such a strong covalent solid could exhibit exceptional lubricity. A prevailing view is that lubricity of amorphous carbon results from chemical passivation of dangling bonds on surfaces. Here we show instead that lubricity arises from shear induced strain localization, which, instead of homogeneous deformation, dominates the shearing process. Shear localization is characterized by covalent bond reorientation, phase transformation and structural ordering preferentially in a localized region, namely tribolayer, resulting in shear weakening. We further demonstrate an anomalous pressure induced transition from stick-slip friction to continuous sliding with ultralow friction, due to gradual clustering and layering of graphitic sheets in the tribolayer. The proposed shear localization mechanism sheds light on the mechanism of superlubricity, and would enrich our understanding of lubrication mechanism of a wide variety of amorphous materials.
Classical Chinese poems have strict regulations on the acoustic pattern of each syllable and are semantically meaningless. Using such poems, this study characterized the temporal order of tone and vowel processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). The target syllable of the poem was either correct or deviated from the correct syllable at tone, vowel or both levels. Vowel violation elicited a negative effect between 300 and 500 ms regardless of the tone correctness, while tone violation elicited a positive effect between 600 and 1000 ms. The results suggest that the vowel information was available earlier than the tone information. Moreover, there was an interaction between the effect of vowel and tone violations between 600 and 1000 ms, showing that the vowel violation produced a positive effect only when the tone was correct. This indicates that vowel and tone processing interacts in the later processing stage, which involves both error detection and reanalysis of the spoken input. Implications of the present results for models of speech perception are discussed.
Two Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) methods were developed for optimizing the analysis of single-molecule trajectories that include phenomena such as experimental noise, photoblinking, photobleaching, and translation or rotation out of the collection plane. In particular, short, single-molecule trajectories with photoblinking were studied, and our method was compared with existing analytical techniques applied to simulated data. The optimal method for various experimental cases was established, and the optimized MLE method was applied to a real experimental system: single-molecule diffusion of fluorescent molecular machines known as nanocars.
It is well known that human beings do not always change opinions or attitudes, since the duration of interaction with others usually has a significant impact on one's decision-making. Based on this observation, we introduce a freezing period into the voter model, in which the frozen individuals have a weakened opinion switching ability. We unfold the presence of an optimal freezing period, which leads to the fastest consensus, using computation simulations as well as theoretical analysis. We demonstrate that the essence of an accelerated consensus is attributed to the biased random walk of the interface between adjacent opinion clusters. The emergence of an optimal freezing period is robust against the size of the system and the number of distinct opinions. This study is instructive for understanding human collective behavior in other relevant fields.
XB130 has been reported to be expressed by various types of cells such as thyroid cancer and esophageal cancer cells, and it promotes the proliferation and invasion of thyroid cancer cells. Our previous study demonstrated that XB130 is also expressed in gastric cancer (GC), and that its expression is associated with the prognosis, but the role of XB130 in GC has not been well characterized.
In this study, we investigated the influence of XB130 on gastric tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo and in vitro using the MTT assay, clonogenic assay, BrdU incorporation assay, 3D culture, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Western blot analysis was also performed to identify the potential mechanisms involved.
The proliferation, migration, and invasion of SGC7901 and MNK45 gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines were all significantly inhibited by knockdown of XB130 using small hairpin RNA. In a xenograft model, tumor growth was markedly inhibited after shXB130-transfected GC cells were implanted into nude mice. After XB130 knockdown, GC cells showed a more epithelial-like phenotype, suggesting an inhibition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In addition, silencing of XB130 reduced the expression of p-Akt/Akt, upregulated expression of epithelial markers including E-cadherin, α-catenin and β-catenin, and downregulated mesenchymal markers including fibronectin and vimentin. Expression of oncoproteins related to tumor metastasis, such as MMP2, MMP9, and CD44, was also significantly reduced.
These findings indicate that XB130 enhances cell motility and invasiveness by modulating the EMT-like process, while silencing XB130 in GC suppresses tumorigenesis and metastasis, suggesting that it may be a potential therapeutic target.
Gastric cancer; Adaptor protein; Oncogene; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like
This study aimed to elucidate clinical significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in selected advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), to compare the application of different ALK detection methods, and especially evaluate a possible association between ALK expression and clinical outcomes in crizotinib-treated patients.
ALK status was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in 173 selected advanced NSCLC patients. Clinicopathologic data, genotype status and survival outcomes were analyzed. Moreover, the association of ALK expression with clinical outcomes was evaluated in ALK FISH-positive crizotinib-treated patients including two patients with concurrent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.
The positivity detection rate of ALK rearrangement by FISH, IHC and qRT-PCR was 35.5% (59/166), 35.7% (61/171), and 27.9% (34/122), respectively. ALK rearrangement was observed predominantly in young patients, never or light smokers, and adenocarcinomas, especially with signet ring cell features and poor differentiation. Median progression-free survival (PFS) of crizotinib-treated patients was 7.6 months. The overall survival (OS) of these patients was longer compared with that of crizotinib-naive or wild-type cohorts, but there was no significant difference in OS compared with patients with EGFR mutation. ALK expression did not associate with PFS; but, when ALK expression was analyzed as a dichotomous variable, moderate and strong ALK expression had a decreased risk of death (P = 0.026). The two patients with concomitant EGFR and ALK alterations showed difference in ALK expression, response to EGFR and ALK inhibitors, and overall survival.
Selective enrichment according to clinicopathologic features in NSCLC patients could highly improve the positivity detection rate of ALK rearrangement for ALK-targeted therapy. IHC could provide more clues for clinical trial design and therapeutic strategies for ALK-positive NSCLC patients including patients with double genetic aberration of ALK and EGFR.
Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment.
This study aimed to identify major proteins in the pathogenesis of coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) in diabetic minipigs with sirolimus-eluting stenting, and to investigate the roles of key candidate molecules, particularly ADAM10, in human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).
Methods and Results
The stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 diabetic and 26 non-diabetic minipigs, and angiography was repeated at six months. The intima of one vascular segment with significant ISR and one with non-ISR in diabetic minipigs were isolated and cultured in conditioned medium (CM). The CM was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to uncover proteins whose levels were significantly increased (≥1.5-fold) in ISR than in non-ISR tissues. After literature searching, we focused on the identified proteins, whose biological functions were most potentially related to ISR pathophysiology. Among them, ADAM10 was significantly increased in diabetic and non-diabetic ISR tissues as compared with non-ISR controls. In cell experiments, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of ADAM10 promoted growth and migration of HASMCs. The effects of ADAM10 were more remarkable in high-glucose culture than in low-glucose culture. Using shRNA and an inhibitor of γ-secretase (GSI), we found that the influences of ADAM10 were in part mediated by Notch1 and notch 3 pathway, which up-regulated Notch downstream genes and enhanced nuclear translocation of the small intracellular component of Notch1 and Notch3.
This study has identified significantly increased expression of ADAM10 in the ISR versus non-ISR segment in diabetic minipigs and implicates ADAM10 in the enhanced neointimal formation observed in diabetes after vascular injury.
At present, no study has compared the correlation between SULF2, WRN promoter methylation and clinicopathological parameters of patients with gastric cancer and the sensitivity to irinotecan (CPT-11).
We collected 102 fresh tumor tissues from pathologically diagnosed gastric carcinoma patients. Methylation specific PCR was used to detect the promoter methylation of SULF2 and WRN. The chemosensitivity of irinotecan to gastric tomor was tested by MTT. Then we compared the chemosensitivity difference of the methylated group with unmethylated group.
The rates of SULF2, WRN methylation were 28.3% (29/102) and 23.6% (24/102), separately. Patients with SULF2 methylation were more sensitive to CPT-11 than those without SULF2 methylation (P < 0.01). Patients with both SULF2 and WRN methylation were also more sensitive to CPT-11 than others ( P < 0.05).
SULF2 and WRN promoter methylation detection indicates potential predictive biomarkers to identify and target the most sensitive gastric cancer subpopulation for personalized CPT-11 therapy.
Gastric cancer; SULF2; WRN; Methylation; Irinotecan
Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America, and may lead to a life-threatening inflammatory dilated, chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). One third of T. cruzi-infected individuals progress to CCC while the others remain asymptomatic (ASY). A possible genetic component to disease progression was suggested by familial aggregation of cases and the association of markers of innate and adaptive immunity genes with CCC development. Since mutations in multiple sarcomeric genes, including alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC1) have been involved in hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of the ACTC1 gene in CCC pathogenesis.
Methods and Results
We conducted a proteomic and genetic study on a Brazilian study population. The genetic study was done on a main cohort including 118 seropositive asymptomatic subjects and 315 cases and the replication was done on 36 asymptomatic and 102 CCC cases. ACTC1 protein and mRNA levels were lower in myocardial tissue from patients with end-stage CCC than those found in hearts from organ donors. Genotyping a case-control cohort of CCC and ASY subjects for all informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ACTC1 gene identified rs640249 SNP, located at the 5’ region, as associated to CCC. Associations are borderline after correction for multiple testing. Correlation and haplotype analysis led to the identification of a susceptibility haplotype. Functional assays have shown that the rs640249A/C polymorphism affects the binding of transcriptional factors in the promoter regions of the ACTC1 gene. Confirmation of the detected association on a larger independent replication cohort will be useful.
Genetic variations at the ACTC1 gene may contribute to progression to chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy among T. cruzi-infected patients, possibly by modulating transcription factor binding to ACTC1 promoter regions.
Objective. To explore the efficacy of Herb-partitioned moxibustion in treating IBS-D patients. Method. 210 IBS-D patients were randomly assigned on a 3 : 3 : 2 basis to group HM, group FM, or group PB for 4-week treatment. The change of GSRS total score at weeks 4 and 8, the changes of GSRS specific scores, and adverse events were evaluated. Results. Patients in group HM and group FM had lower GSRS total score at week 4 (1.98 ± 0.303, 2.93 ± 0.302 versus 3.73 ± 0.449) and at week 8 (2.75 ± 0.306, 3.56 ± 0.329 versus 4.39 ± 2.48) as compared with patients' score in group PB. However, there was no significant difference of GSRS total score between group HM and group FM. The effect of HM was significantly greater than that of orally taking PB in ameliorating the symptoms of rugitus (0.38 versus 0.59, P < 0.05), abdominal pain (0.28 versus 0.57, P < 0.01), abdominal distension (0.4 versus 0.7, P < 0.01), and increased passage of stools (0.06 versus 0.25, P < 0.01) at the end of treatment period. In the follow-up period, patients' therapeutic effect in group HM remained greater than that in group FM (in abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and increased passage of stools) and that in group PB (in loose stools). Conclusions. HM appears to be a promising, efficacious, and well-tolerated treatment for patients with IBS-D.
Alertness to dengue and making a timely diagnosis is extremely important in the treatment of dengue and containment of dengue epidemics. We evaluated the complementary role of clinical-practice-based laboratory data in facilitating suspicion/diagnosis of dengue. One hundred overall dengue (57 dengue fever [DF] and 43 dengue hemorrhagic fever [DHF]) cases and another 100 nondengue cases (78 viral infections other than dengue, 6 bacterial sepsis, and 16 miscellaneous diseases) were analyzed. We separately compared individual laboratory variables (platelet count [PC] , prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and varied combined variables of DF and/or DHF cases with the corresponding ones of nondengue cases. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) in the diagnosis of DF and/or DHF were measured based on these laboratory variables. While trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, and/or suboptimal PPV/NPV was found at measurements using these variables, prolonged APTT + normal PT + PC < 100 × 109 cells/L had a favorable sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in diagnosis of DF and/or DHF. In conclusion, these data suggested that prolonged APTT + normal PT + PC < 100 × 109 cells/L is useful in evaluating the likelihood of DF and/or DHF.
The integration with different decisions in the supply chain is a trend, since it can avoid the suboptimal decisions. In this paper, we provide an effective intelligent algorithm for a modified joint replenishment and location-inventory problem (JR-LIP). The problem of the JR-LIP is to determine the reasonable number and location of distribution centers (DCs), the assignment policy of customers, and the replenishment policy of DCs such that the overall cost is minimized. However, due to the JR-LIP's difficult mathematical properties, simple and effective solutions for this NP-hard problem have eluded researchers. To find an effective approach for the JR-LIP, a hybrid self-adapting differential evolution algorithm (HSDE) is designed. To verify the effectiveness of the HSDE, two intelligent algorithms that have been proven to be effective algorithms for the similar problems named genetic algorithm (GA) and hybrid DE (HDE) are chosen to compare with it. Comparative results of benchmark functions and randomly generated JR-LIPs show that HSDE outperforms GA and HDE. Moreover, a sensitive analysis of cost parameters reveals the useful managerial insight. All comparative results show that HSDE is more stable and robust in handling this complex problem especially for the large-scale problem.
Marsupialisation or decompression is frequently performed as a conservative therapy for keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Positive podoplanin (PDPN) expression in the epithelium of KCOT has been previously reported and may be associated with neoplastic invasion. In the present study, changes in PDPN expression were observed in the epithelium of KCOTs following decompression. In total, 16 pairs of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens obtained at the time of decompression and at two-stage curettage or enucleation were collected and immunohistochemically examined using an antibody against PDPN. The intensity of PDPN staining was evaluated with a semi-quantitative detection method and statistically analysed. The immunohistochemical reactivity of PDPN was consistently markedly positive in 93.8% of KCOT samples prior to decompression. The positive staining was immunolocalised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of cells in the basal layer and extended into the suprabasal layer for two to three cell layers. At the time of curettage, 2 of the 16 (12.5%) cases were completely negative, 11 of the 16 (68.8%) cases were locally positive and 3 of the 16 (18.7%) cases showed a ‘linear staining’ pattern, as the PDPN-positive cells were restricted to within the single basal layer. The expression level of PDPN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and a significant loss or reduction of PDPN expression was observed in KCOTs following decompression. Larger sample groups are required to further verify this result.
keratocystic odontogenic tumour; decompression; podoplanin; immunohistochemistry
This study aimed to investigate the role of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway in myocardial fibrosis of desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats and explore the influence of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway on fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the heart. 60 male SD rats underwent right nephrectomy and bred with 1% sodium chloride and 0.1% potassium chloride for 4 weeks, and then randomly divided into 3 groups (CON group, DOCA group and DOCA+IMA group). Results showed that: 1) 14 and 28 days after intervention, the SBP in DOCA and DOCA+IMA group was significantly higher than that in CON group. At days 28, the severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA+IMA group were markedly lower than those in DOCA group although they were higher than those in CON group. 2) At days 14, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than CON and DOCA+IMA group. At days 28, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. In addition, in a specific group, the PDGFRβ mRNA expression was higher than the PDGFRα mRNA expression. In DOCA+IMA group, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III were markedly reduced when compared with DOCA group. 3) At 14 days, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. The PDGFRα protein expression in DOCA+IMA group was markedly lower than that in DOCA group. At days 28, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA+IMA group were significantly lower than those in DOCA group. At day 28, the cardiac interstitium mainly contained vimentin positive fibroblasts, and α-SMA positive cells were less identified in CON group. In DOCA group, α-SMA positive fibroblasts (spindle-shaped) increased significantly, but the myofibroblasts reduced significantly in DOCA+IMA group when compared with DOCA group. 4) PDGFRα protein expression was observed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, but not in VSMCs. PDGFRβ protein expression was noted in not only fibroblasts and myofibroblasts but also VSMCs. Thus, During myocardial fibrosis of DOCA induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, PDGFRα acts at early stage, but PDGFRβ functions in the whole process. PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expressions increase in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, suggesting that PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway is involved in the myocardial fibrosis via stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate and transform into myofibroblasts.
Platelet-derived growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; desoxycorticosterone; imatinib; myocardial fibrosis
Dizziness is one of the most challenging symptoms in medicine. No medication for dizziness in current use has well-established curative or prophylactic value or is suitable for long-term palliative use. Unconventional remedies, such as acupuncture, should be considered and scientifically evaluated. However, there has been relatively little evidence in randomized controlled clinical trials on acupuncture to treat chronic dizziness. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with dizziness.
This trial is a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to two treatment groups receiving acupuncture and sham acupuncture treatment, respectively, for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measures are the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS). Treatment will be conducted over a period of 4 weeks, at a frequency of two sessions per week. The assessment is at baseline (before treatment initiation), 4 weeks after the first acupuncture session, and 8 weeks after the first acupuncture session.
The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in patients with chronic dizziness.
International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register: ISRCTN52695239
Acupuncture; chronic dizziness; randomized controlled trial
The expending and invasive features of tumor nests could reflect the malignant biological behaviors of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Useful information on cancer invasiveness hidden within tumor nests could be extracted and analyzed by computer image processing and big data analysis.
Tissue microarrays from invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 202) were first stained with cytokeratin by immunohistochemical method to clearly demarcate the tumor nests. Then an expert-aided computer analysis system was developed to study the mathematical and geometrical features of the tumor nests. Computer recognition system and imaging analysis software extracted tumor nests information, and mathematical features of tumor nests were calculated. The relationship between tumor nests mathematical parameters and patients' 5-year disease free survival was studied.
There were 8 mathematical parameters extracted by expert-aided computer analysis system. Three mathematical parameters (number, circularity and total perimeter) with area under curve >0.5 and 4 mathematical parameters (average area, average perimeter, total area/total perimeter, average (area/perimeter)) with area under curve <0.5 in ROC analysis were combined into integrated parameter 1 and integrated parameter 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that integrated parameter 1 (P = 0.040) was independent prognostic factor of patients' 5-year disease free survival. The hazard risk ratio of integrated parameter 1 was 1.454 (HR 95% CI [1.017–2.078]), higher than that of N stage (HR 1.396, 95% CI [1.125–1.733]) and hormone receptor status (HR 0.575, 95% CI [0.353–0.936]), but lower than that of histological grading (HR 3.370, 95% CI [1.125–5.364]) and T stage (HR 1.610, 95% CI [1.026 –2.527]).
This study indicated integrated parameter 1 of mathematical features (number, circularity and total perimeter) of tumor nests could be a useful parameter to predict the prognosis of early stage breast invasive ductal carcinoma.
The meaning of person names is determined by their associated information. This study used event related potentials to investigate the time course of integrating the newly constructed meaning of person names into discourse context. The meaning of person names was built by two-sentence descriptions of the names. Then we manipulated the congruence of person names relative to discourse context in a way that the meaning of person names either matched or did not match the previous context. ERPs elicited by the names were compared between the congruent and the incongruent conditions. We found that the incongruent names elicited a larger N400 as well as a larger P600 compared to the congruent names. The results suggest that the meaning of unknown names can be effectively constructed from short linguistic descriptions and that the established meaning can be rapidly retrieved and integrated into contexts.